# F. Performance and Limitations Flashcards

1
Q

Relative Wind

A

The direction of the airflow with respect to the wing.

2
Q

Bernoulli’s Principle

A

The pressure of a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases.
Ex: Lower pressure on top of the wing where the speed is increased helps create lift.

3
Q

Left Turning Tendencies

A

Torque: The propeller is moving in one direction so an equal force is trying to rotate the airplane in the opposite direction.

Spiraling slipstream: The propeller creates a spiral of air that spins about the airplane, eventually contacting the left side of the rudder. As power is increased and the propeller spins faster, the force on the rudder is stronger, causing more of a yawing motion to the left.

P-factor: In a climb, the descending blade (right on American-made airplanes) has a higher angle of attack, which means it creates more lift. And that yaws the aircraft to the left. P-factor is especially noticeable at high power settings with a high nose attitude.

Gyroscopic precession: Precession means that a force applied to a gyroscope is manifested 90 degrees ahead in the direction of rotation. The force results 90 degrees ahead, or on the right side, pushing the nose left.

4
Q

Why is the Load Factor important?

A

It is dangerous to overload the aircraft structure.

An increased load factor increases stalling speed. Steep turns increase load factor. 60% bank is 2gs.

5
Q

Maneuvering Speed

A

The safe maximum speed at which controls can be inputted or flown through turbulence.

6
Q

What are the effects on maneuvering speed with an increase or decrease in weight?

A

Va speed increases with an increase in weight and decreases with a decrease in weight.

7
Q

What causes a stall?

A

Excessive Angle of Attack

8
Q

What causes a spin?

A

Exceeding the Critical AOA while uncoordinated.

9
Q

Empty Weight

A

All fixed items in and on the aircraft
Also includes:
-unusable fuel/oil
-hydraulic fluid

10
Q

What effects does a forward CG have?

A

Higher stalling speed
Slower cruise speed
More stable
Greater elevator pressure required

11
Q

What effects does an aft CG have?

A

Lower stall speed
Higher cruise speed
Less stable

12
Q

What factors affect the performance of an aircraft during takeoff and landing?

A
```Air density
Surface wind
Surface
Slope of the runway
Weight of the aircraft```
13
Q

What factors affect density altitude?

A

Altitude
Temperature
Humidity

14
Q

How to recover from a spin?

A

P - power idle
A - ailerons neutral
R - rudder opposite direction
E - elevator pitch down (release back pressure)

15
Q

Procedure for engine failure?

A

ABCDE

Airspeed - 68
Best Place to Land
Checklists (restart engine, emergency landing)
Declare emergency (FF, ATC, etc. Squawk 7700)
ELT (activate)

16
Q

What is adverse yaw?

A

Adverse yaw is the natural and undesirable tendency for an aircraft to yaw in the opposite direction of a roll. It is caused by the difference in lift and drag of each wing. Counter by coordinated rudder control.

17
Q

Ground Effect

A

Reduction of induced drag near the surface. Earth’s surface alters the airflow pattern around the aircraft. Improved aircraft performance.

18
Q

What performance characteristics will be adversely affected when an aircraft has been overloaded?

A
```Higher takeoff speed
Longer takeoff run
Reduced rate and angle of climb
Lower maximum altitude
Shorter range
Reduced cruising speed
Higher stalling speed
Higher landing speed
Longer landing roll```
19
Q

What effect does an increase in density altitude have on takeoff and landing performance?

A

An increase in density altitude results in:

• increased takeoff distance
• reduced rate of climb
• increased true airspeed on approach/landing
• increased landing roll distance
20
Q

Density Altitude

A

Pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperatures

21
Q

Density altitude will increase with:

A

High air temperature
High altitude
High humidity
(opposite for decrease in density altitude)

22
Q

Pressure Altitude

A

The altitude indicated when the altimeter is set to 29.92

23
Q

What is Pressure Altitude used to compute?

A

Density altitude
True altitude
True airspeed

24
Q

What are the nosewheel turning limitations for your aircraft?

A

10 degrees, 30 degrees with differential braking

25
Q

What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind component for your aircraft?

A

15 knots

26
Q

What is land and hold short clearance?

A

LAHSO is an air traffic control procedure which permits the issuance of landing clearances to aircraft to land and hold short of an intersecting runway, taxiway, or other designated point on the runway.

Students pilots cannot accept LAHSO. If not comfortable with LAHSO, you don’t have to accept.