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Flashcards in G. Operations of Systems Deck (49)
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1
Q

What are the main control surfaces and what are their functions?

A

Elevators - pitch
Ailerons - Roll
Rudder - Yaw

2
Q

What are flaps useful for?

A

Their purpose is to permit a slower airspeed and a steeper angle of descent during a landing approach

3
Q

Describe the landing gear system on the airplane.

A

Tubular spring steel main landing gear struts.

And the air/oil nose gear shock strut.

4
Q

Describe the braking system on the aircraft.

A

Hydraulically actuated disc-type brakes on main gears.

5
Q

What type of engine does your aircraft have? LHAND1234

A
Lycoming
Horizontally opposed
Air cooled
Naturally aspirated
Directly driven
180 horsepower
2700 max rpm
360 cubic inches
4 cylinders
6
Q

What four strokes must occur in each cylinder to produce full power?

A

Intake - downward travel of piston causing the intake valve to open

Compression - intake valve closes and piston moves back up

Power - Fuel-air mixture is ignited forces the piston back down

Exhaust - purge the cylinder of burned gases and begins when the exhaust value opens

7
Q

Describe the fuel system. SRASSED

A

53 Gallon useable + 56 total
The fuel flows from the wing tanks with the help of an electrical or engine driven fuel pump.

SRASSED

Selector (sump)
Reservoir (sump)
Auxiliary pump
Shut-off
Strainer (sump)
Engine driven fuel pump
Distribution (Fuel/Air distribution and Spider distribution to cylinders)
8
Q

What does the throttle do?

A

The throttle allows the pilot to manually control the amount of fuel/air charge entering the cylinders. This in turn regulate the engine speed and power.

9
Q

What does the mixture control do?

A

It regulates the fuel-to-air ratio. The purpose of a mixture control is to prevent the mixture from becoming too rich at high altitudes, due to decreasing air density. it is also used to lean the mixture during cross-country flights to conserve fuel and provided optimum power.

10
Q

What does the “I” in IO-360-L2A?

A

Fuel Injected

11
Q

What type of ignition system does the 172 S have?

A

Engine ignition is provided by two engine-driven magnetos, and two spark plugs per cylinder.

Completely independent of the aircrafts electrical system. (magnetos generate electricity)

12
Q

What are the two main advantages of a dual ignition system?

A

increased safety in case one spark plug fails

More complete and even combustion of the mixture

13
Q

What is the purpose of fuel tank vents?

A

To prevent a vacuum from forming in the fuel tanks.

14
Q

Does your aircraft use a fuel pump?

A

Yes, engine driven + an electrical one for backup.

15
Q

What does the ammeter indicate

A

The ammeter indicates the flow of current, in amperes, from the alternator to the battery or from the battery to the electrical system. With the engine running and master switch on, the ammeter will indicate the charging rate to the battery.

16
Q

Why is the generator/alternator voltage output slightly higher than the battery voltage?

A

The difference in voltage keeps the battery charged.

17
Q

How does the aircraft cabin heat work?

A

Air enters from the outside through wing and nose inlets and is heated by passing through a shroud over the exhaust pipes. The heated air then enters the cabin of the airplane.

18
Q

What are the 4 basic functions of aircraft engine oil?

A

Lubricate - the engines moving parts
Cool - the engine by reducing friction
Seals - provides a seal between the cylinder wall and pistons
Cleans - by carrying off metal and carbon particles and other oil contaminates

19
Q

What type of fuel does your aircraft require?

A

100 LL (blue), 100 (green)

20
Q

Describe the electrical system on your aircraft. Cessna 172 S

A

28-volt DC electrical system
24-volt lead-acid battery
60-amp alternator

21
Q

How are the circuits for the various electrical accessories within the aircraft protected?

A

Most of the electrical circuits are protected from an overload condition by either circuit breakers or fuses or both.

22
Q

What conditions are favorable for carburetor icing?

A

When temp. are below 70 degrees F and humidity is above 80%.

23
Q

What is detonation?

A

Detonation is an uncontrolled, explosive ignition of the fuel/air mixture within the cylinders combustion chamber.

24
Q

What are some of the most common operational causes of detonation?

A

Using a lower fuel grade than that specified by the A/C
Operating the engine at high power settings with an excessively lean mixture
Extended ground operations
Steep climbs where cylinder cooling is reduced

25
Q

What action should be taken if detonation is suspected?

A

Ensure that the proper grade of fuel is used
Shallow climb angle to increase cylinder cooling during takeoff and initial
Avoid extended, high power, steep climbs

26
Q

What is preignition?

A

Pre-ignition occurs when the fuel/air mixture ignites prior to the engine’s normal ignition event resulting in reduced engine power and high operating temp. Premature burning is usually caused by a residual hot spot in the combustion chamber, often created by a small carbon deposit on a spark plug, a cracked spark plug insulator, or other damage in the cylinder that causes a part to head sufficiently to ignite the fuel/air charge.

27
Q

What cation should be taken if preignition is suspected?

A

reduce power
reduce the climb rate for better cooling
enrich the fuel/air mixture

28
Q

During the before-takeoff runup, you switch the magnetos from the both position to the right position and notice there is no rpm drop. What condition does this indicate?

A

The left p-lead is not grounding, or the engine has been running only on the right magneto because the left magneto has totally failed.

29
Q

What action should be taken if the ammeter indicates a continuous discharge while in flight?

A

The alternator has quit producing a charge.
Try to reset alternator circuit breaker

if not corrected, turn off all electrical equipment not needed for flight and land as soon as possible

30
Q

During a cross-country flight you noticed that the oil pressure is low, but the oil temp. is normal. What is the problem and what action should be taken?

A

A low oil pressure in flight usually means insufficient oil. If the oil temp. continues to remain normal, a clogged oil pressure relief valve or an oil pressure gauge malfunction could be the culprit.

You should probably land and have it checked out.

31
Q

What instruments operate off of the pitot/static system?

A

altimeter, vertical speed, and airspeed

32
Q

How does an altimeter work?

A

Aneroid wafer expand and contract as atmospheric pressure changes.

33
Q

How does the airspeed indicator operate?

A

Differential pressure gauge measures the difference between impact pressure form the pitot head and atmospheric pressure from the static port. The difference is the airspeed.

34
Q

What is the limitation of the airspeed indicator?

A

Subjected to the proper flow of air in the pitot static system.

35
Q

What does the white arc indicate on ASI?

A

flap operating range

36
Q

Green arc on ASI?

A

normal operating range

37
Q

Red Line on ASI?

A

Vne - never exceed speed

38
Q

What instruments contain gyroscopes?

A

turn coordinator

heading indicator

attitude indicator

39
Q

What are the two fundamental properties of a gyroscope?

A

rigidity in space - a gyroscope remains in a fixed position in the plane in which it is spinning

precession - the tilting or turning of a gyro in response to a deflective force. The reaction to this force does not occur at the point where it was applied; rather, it occurs at a point that is 90 degrees later in the direction of rotation. The rate at which the gyro precesses is inversely proportional to the speed of the rotor and proportional to the deflective force

40
Q

What is skidding or a slipping turn?

A

slip - The ball in the tube will be on the inside of the turn - not enough rate of turn for the amount of bank

skid - the ball in the tube will be to the outside of the turn; too much rate of turn for the amount of bank

41
Q

What are the various compass errors

A

oscillation error - erratic movement of the compass card caused by turbulence or rough control technique

deviation error - due to electrical and magnetic disturbances in the aircraft

variation error - angular difference between true and magnetic north; reference isogonic lines of variation

dip errors

Acceleration error - on E and W headings while accelerating the magnetic compass shows a turn to the north and when decelerating, it shows a turn to the south

A-ccelerate
N-orth
D-ecelerate
S-outh

Northerly turning error - the compass leads in the south half of a turn and lags in the north half of a turn

U-ndershoot
N-orth
O-vershoot
S-outh

42
Q

AHRS - g1000

A

Attitude and heading reference systems. 3 axis sensors that provide heading, attitude, and yaw information. Designed to replace gyros

43
Q

ADC - G1000

A

Air Data Computer - processes pitot pressure, static pressure, and temp to calculate altitude, indicated airspeed, true airspeed, vertical speed, and air temp

44
Q

If one display fails (PFD or MFD) what information will be presented on the remaining display?

A

The primary flight and engine instruments will be displayed on the operative display

45
Q

What display information will be affected when an ADC failure occur?

A

Airspeed, Alt. and VSI will have a red X on the PFD

46
Q

What display information will be lost when an AHRS failure occurs?

A

Attitude indicator will have a red X on the PFD

47
Q

What instruments will work if you lose battery and run off standby battery? CNAPSS

A

The essential bus will run:

CNAPSS

COM 1
NAV 1
ADC/AHRS
PFD
Stby Battery
Stby Indicator Lights
48
Q

What is the rule for resetting breakers?

A
  1. Check for indication of short circuit (smoke or odor).
    If none, proceed to reset:
  2. Turn off power if possible to component receiving power.
    Reset breaker.
    Try turning power back on.
  3. If breaker opens again, DO NOT reset it.
49
Q

What would cause your attitude indicator and heading indicator to fail?

A

Loss of vacuum