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Flashcards in fce 9 Deck (98):
1

mis‧for‧tune / mɪsfɔtʃ ə n $ -ɔr- / noun [ uncountable and countable ]

very bad luck, or something that happens to you as a result of bad luck :
It seems the banks always profit from farmers’ misfortunes.
have the misfortune to do/of doing something
The French soldiers had the misfortune to be caught in the crossfire

2

in‧hab‧i‧tant / ɪnhæbətənt, ɪnhæbɪtənt / noun [ countable ]

one of the people who live in a particular place :
a city of six million inhabitants

3

mol‧ten / məʊlt ə n $ moʊl- / adjective [ usually before noun ]

molten metal or rock has been made into a liquid by being heated to a very high temperature :
molten iron
molten lava (= liquid rock from a volcano )

4

im‧pre‧cise AC / ɪmprɪ'saɪs◂ / adjective

not clear or exact OPP precise , exact :
vague imprecise estimates
Alcohol affects the brain, making speech slurred and imprecise.
— imprecisely adverb
— imprecision / -sɪʒ ə n / noun [ uncountable ] :
an imprecision in the terminology

5

meet a challenge/rise to a challenge

(= successfully deal with one )
a new and vibrant initiative to meet the challenge of the 21st century

6

ex‧ceed AC / ɪksid / verb [ transitive ] formal

1 to be more than a particular number or amount :
Working hours must not exceed 42 hours a week.
His performance exceeded our expectations .
2 to go beyond what rules or laws say you are allowed to do :
He was fined for exceeding the speed limit.
The riot police had exceeded their authority .

7

flank 1 / flæŋk / noun [ countable ]

1 the side of an animal’s or person’s body, between the rib s and the hip
2 the side of an army in a battle, or a sports team when playing :
We were attacked on our left flank.
3 the side of a hill, mountain, or very large building

8

plume 1 / plum / noun [ countable ]

1 a cloud of smoke, dust etc which rises up into the air
plume of smoke/dust/gas/spray etc
A black plume of smoke rose above the city.
2 a large feather or bunch of feathers, especially one that is used as a decoration on a hat
→ nom de plume

9

plain 2 noun

plain 2 noun
1 ( also plains ) [ countable ] a large area of flat dry land → prairie :
The grassy plain gave way to an extensive swamp.
the vast plains of central China
2 [ uncountable ] the ordinary stitch in knitting

10

roam / rəʊm $ roʊm / verb

1 [ intransitive and transitive ] to walk or travel, usually for a long time, with no clear purpose or direction → wander
roam over/around/about etc
The dogs are allowed to roam around.
Chickens and geese roam freely in the back yard.
You shouldn’t let your children roam the streets .
roam the countryside/desert/forests etc
Wild sheep roam the hills.

11

sus‧tain W3 AC / səsteɪn / verb [ transitive ]

make something continue to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time SYN maintain :
She found it difficult to sustain the children’s interest.
He was incapable of sustaining close relationships with women.
the policies necessary to sustain economic growth → sustained

12

drive somebody/something ↔ out phrasal verb

1 to force someone or something to leave :
Downtown stores are being driven out by crime.
2 written to make something stop existing :
As we went forward, our fear was driven out by horror.

13

graze 1 / ɡreɪz / verb

1 [ intransitive and transitive ] if an animal grazes, or if you graze it, it eats grass that is growing
graze on
Groups of cattle were grazing on the rich grass.
fields where they used to graze their sheep
2 [ transitive ] to accidentally break the surface of your skin by rubbing it against something :
I fell on the gravel, severely grazing my knee.

14

cat‧tle / kætl / noun [ plural ]

cows and bull s kept on a farm for their meat or milk :
herds of cattle
dairy/beef cattle
20/100 etc head of cattle (= 20, 100 etc cattle )
a cattle rancher

15

dig something ↔ up phrasal verb

1 to remove something from the earth using a spade :
I’ll dig up that plant and move it.
2 to remove the surface of an area of ground, road etc, or to make holes in it :
They’re digging up the road just outside my flat.
3 to find hidden or forgotten information by careful searching :
They tried to dig up something from his past to spoil his chances of being elected.

16

suc‧ces‧sion AC / səkseʃ ə n / noun

1 in succession happening one after the other without anything different happening in between :
She won the championship four times in succession.
in quick/rapid/close succession (= quickly one after the other )
He fired two shots in quick succession.

17

anchor 2 verb

1 [ intransitive and transitive ] to lower the anchor on a ship or boat to hold it in one place SYN moor :
Three tankers were anchored in the harbor.
2 [ transitive usually passive ] to fasten something firmly so that it cannot move :
The shelves should be securely anchored to the wall.

18

mi‧grant AC / maɪɡrənt / noun [ countable ]

1 someone who goes to live in another area or country, especially in order to find work → emigrant , immigrant
migrant worker/labourer
A lot of factory work is done by migrant workers.
economic migrant (= someone who goes to live in another country because they are likely to find a better job there )
2 a bird or animal that travels regularly from one part of the world to another

19

sub‧si‧dy AC / sʌbsədi, sʌbsɪdi / noun ( plural subsidies ) [ countable ]

money that is paid by a government or organization to make prices lower, reduce the cost of producing goods etc
trade/agricultural subsidies etc
international disagreement over trade subsidies

20

measure 2 W2 noun [ countable ]

action an action, especially an official one, that is intended to deal with a particular problem SYN step :
Measures are being taken to reduce crime in the city.
drastic/tough/extreme etc measures
drastic measures to reduce traffic problems
New safety measures were being demanded after last night’s horrific train crash.
The new bridge was erected as a temporary measure to replace the one which was destroyed by floods.
precautionary/preventative measure (= something done to stop something bad from happening )
He was kept in hospital overnight as a precautionary measure.

21

a‧cre / eɪkə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

1 a unit for measuring area, equal to 4,840 square yards or 4,047 square metres :
They own 200 acres of farmland.
a 200-acre wood
2 acres of space/room British English informal a large amount of space

22

neg‧li‧gent / neɡlɪdʒ ə nt / adjective

not taking enough care over something that you are responsible for, with the result that serious mistakes are made SYN irresponsible OPP responsible
negligent in (doing) something
The report stated that Dr Brady had been negligent in not giving the patient a full examination.
Mr Brown was found guilty of negligent driving.

23

vi‧cin‧i‧ty / və'sɪnəti, vɪ'sɪnəti / noun formal

1 in the vicinity (of something) in the area around a particular place :
The stolen car was found in the vicinity of the station.
There used to be a mill in the vicinity.
2 in the vicinity of £3 million/$1,500/2 billion years etc close to a particular amount or measurement :
All meteorites are of the same age, somewhere in the vicinity of 4.5 billion years old.

24

mon‧soon / mɒnsun $ mɑn- / noun [ countable ]

1 [ usually singular ] the season, from about April to October, when it rains a lot in India and other southern Asian countries
2 the heavy rain that falls during the monsoon, or the wind that brings the rain

25

be‧fore‧hand S3 / bɪfɔhænd $ -fɔr- / adverb

before something else happens or is done :
The police need to be briefed beforehand on how to deal with this sort of situation.
When you give a speech, it’s natural to feel nervous beforehand.

26

practise what you preach

to do the things that you advise other people to do :
She didn’t always practise what she preached.

THESAURU

27

wake up and smell the coffee

American English spoken used to tell someone to recognize the truth or reality of a situation

28

wake up to something phrasal verb

to start to realize and understand a danger, an idea etc :
It’s time you woke up to the fact that it’s a tough world.

29

mis‧place / mɪspleɪs / verb [ transitive ]

to lose something for a short time by putting it in the wrong place SYN mislay :
Oh dear, I seem to have misplaced the letter.

30

dis‧place AC / dɪspleɪs / verb [ transitive ]

2 to make a group of people or animals have to leave the place where they normally live :
Fifty thousand people have been displaced by the fighting.
3 to force something out of its usual place or position :
The water displaced by the landslides created a tidal wave.

31

push somebody around ( also push somebody about British English ) phrasal verb

to tell someone what to do in an impolite or threatening way :
Europeans sometimes feel the Americans are trying to push them around.

32

have a screw loose informal

slightly crazy, often in an amusing way‧ "Fernando can be really weird sometimes." "Yeah, he's got a screw loose, no question."

33

dig‧ni‧ty / dɪɡnəti, dɪɡnɪti / noun [ uncountable ]

the ability to behave in a calm controlled way even in a difficult situation
with dignity
The family faced their ordeal with dignity.
an appearance of quiet dignity

34

in‧teg‧ri‧ty AC / ɪnteɡrəti, ɪnteɡrɪti / noun [ uncountable ]

1 the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right
personal/professional/political etc integrity
a man of great moral integrity
2 formal the state of being united as one complete thing :
the territorial integrity of the country

35

per‧ish / perɪʃ / verb

1 [ intransitive ] formal or literary to die, especially in a terrible or sudden way :
Hundreds perished when the ship went down.

36

van‧ish / vænɪʃ / verb [ intransitive ]

1 to disappear suddenly, especially in a way that cannot be easily explained :
My keys were here a minute ago but now they’ve vanished.
vanish without (a) trace/vanish off the face of the earth (= disappear so that no sign remains )
The youngster vanished without a trace one day and has never been found.
The bird vanished from sight .
She seemed to have just vanished into thin air (= suddenly disappeared in a very mysterious way ) .

37

im‧mi‧grate AC / ɪməɡreɪt, ɪmɪɡreɪt / verb [ intransitive ]

to come into a country in order to live there permanently → emigrate , migrate :
His father and mother immigrated when he was two.

38

em‧i‧grate / eməɡreɪt, emɪɡreɪt / verb [ intransitive ]

to leave your own country in order to live in another country → immigrate
emigrate to/from
He emigrated to Australia as a young man.

39

mi‧grate AC / maɪɡreɪt $ maɪɡreɪt / verb

1 [ intransitive + from/to ] if birds or animals migrate, they travel regularly from one part of the world to another → migratory
2 [ intransitive + from/to ] if people migrate, they go to live in another area or country, especially in order to find work → emigrate

40

put out phrasal verb

1 fire/cigarette etc put something ↔ out to make a fire etc stop burning SYN extinguish :
The rescue services are still trying to put out the fires.

41

com‧bus‧tion / kəmbʌstʃ ə n / noun [ uncountable ]

1 the process of burning
2 technical chemical activity which uses oxygen to produce light and heat
→ internal combustion engine

42

horde / hɔd $ hɔrd / noun [ countable ]

a large crowd moving in a noisy uncontrolled way
horde of
There were hordes of people inside the station.

43

sway 2 noun [ uncountable ]

1 literary power to rule or influence people :
These old attitudes still hold sway in the church.
under sb’s sway
She was now completely under his sway.
2 a swinging movement from side to side :
the sway of the ship

44

rag‧tag / ræɡtæɡ / adjective [ only before noun ]

informal a ragtag group is not tidy or properly organized :
a ragtag fighting force

45

hand‧ful / hændfʊl / noun

1 [ countable ] an amount that you can hold in your hand
handful of
The boy picked up a handful of stones and started throwing them at us.
2 a handful of something a very small number of people or things :
There were only a handful of people there.

46

Miss Nancy's

an effeminate boy or man : sissy t he brave?” he says in a Miss Nancy voice, and the rest of them laughed

47

ven‧geance / vendʒəns / noun

[ uncountable ] a violent or harmful action that someone does to punish someone for harming them or their family SYN revenge :
a desire for vengeance
a vow of vengeance
an act of vengeance

48

ty‧rant / taɪərənt $ taɪr- / noun [ countable ]

1 a ruler who has complete power and uses it in a cruel and unfair way :
The country had long been ruled by tyrants.
2 someone who has power over other people, and uses it cruelly or unfairly :
My headmaster was a real tyrant.

49

ban 1 W3 / bæn / noun [ countable ]

an official order that prevents something from being used or done
ban on
a total ban on cigarette advertising
a call to lift the ban on homosexuals in the military
→ test ban

50

con‧tri‧bu‧tion S2 W2 AC / kɒntrəbjuʃ ə n, kɒntrɪbjuʃ ə n $ kɑn- / noun

[ countable ] something that you give or do in order to help something be successful
contribution to/towards
Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his contribution to Quantum Theory.
The school sees its job as preparing students to make a contribution to society.
significant/substantial/valuable etc contribution
Wolko made outstanding contributions to children’s medicine.

51

sym‧pa‧thize ( also sympathise British English ) / sɪmpəθaɪz / verb [ intransitive ]

1 to feel sorry for someone because you understand their problems :
I sympathize, but I don’t know how to help.
sympathize with
I can sympathize with those who have lost loved ones.
2 to support someone’s ideas or actions
sympathize with
The public sympathized with the miners’ strike.

52

result in something phrasal verb

to make something happen SYN cause :
an accident that resulted in the death of two passengers

53

run‧way / rʌnweɪ / noun [ countable ]

1 a long specially prepared hard surface like a road on which aircraft land and take off
2 American English a long narrow part of a stage that stretches out into the area where the audience sits SYN catwalk British English

54

anger at /in anger

She struggled to control her anger at her son’s disobedience.

‘That’s a lie!’ he shouted in anger.

55

o‧a‧sis / əʊeɪsəs, əʊeɪsɪs $ oʊ- / noun ( plural oases / siz / ) [ countable ]

1 a place with water and trees in a desert
2 a peaceful or pleasant place that is very different from everything around it SYN haven
an oasis of calm/serenity/tranquillity etc
The park was an oasis of peace.

56

il‧lu‧sion / ɪluʒ ə n / noun [ countable ]

1 an idea or opinion that is wrong, especially about yourself → delusion
illusion that
They suffer from the illusion that they cannot solve their problems.
She was under no illusion that he loved her.
It is an illusion that the Arctic is dark in winter.
She had no illusions about her physical attractiveness.
‘I hate to shatter your illusions,’ he said.

57

de‧lu‧sion / dɪluʒ ə n / noun

1 [ uncountable and countable ] a false belief about yourself or the situation you are in
under a delusion (that)
He is under the delusion that I am going to cheat him.

58

illusion&delusion

Though these two are not real, illusion pertains to the mind and delusion pertains to belief.

59

pay off phrasal verb

1 pay something ↔ off to give someone all the money you owe them :
I’ll pay off all my debts first.
He finally paid his overdraft off.
2 if something you do pays off, it is successful or has a good result :
Teamwork paid off.

60

pay out phrasal verb

1 pay out (something) to pay a lot of money for something :
Why is it always me who has to pay out?
pay out (something) for
Altogether he had paid out almost £5000 for the improvements.
2 pay out (something) if a company or organization pays out, it gives someone money as a result of an insurance claim, investment , competition etc :
Insurance companies were slow paying out on claims for flood damage. → payout

61

se‧vere / səvɪə, sɪvɪə $ -vɪr / adjective

COLLOCATIONS
nouns
severe damage The blast caused severe damage to the surrounding buildings.
severe problems/difficulties The clothing industry has experienced severe problems in recent years.
a severe injury/illness She had suffered severe head injuries.
severe pain He was in severe pain and unable to call for help.
severe depression He suffered from severe depression when he was younger.
a severe case (= of a medical condition ) Hospitalization is necessary in severe cases.

62

the rain pours down

(= a lot of rain comes down ) The rain was pouring down and I was quickly soaked.

63

it is pouring with rain British English , it is pouring rain American English

(= a lot of rain is falling ) When we went outside it was pouring with rain.

64

downpour noun [ countable usually singular ]

a short period of very heavy rain that starts suddenly : A sudden downpour sent us running for shelter. | a torrential downpour

65

hail noun [ uncountable ]

frozen rain that falls in the form of HAILSTONE s (= small balls of ice ) : The hail and high winds have destroyed many of the county’s crops.

66

tor‧ren‧tial / tərenʃ ə l, tɒ- $ tɔ- / adjective

torrential rain very heavy rain

67

it never rains but it pours Bre when it rains,it pours Ame spoken

used to say that as soon as one thing goes wrong, a lot of other things go wrong as well

68

it’s pouring (down) British English , it’s pouring (rain) American English

it is raining very heavily : We stayed at home because it was pouring down all day.

69

it’s chucking it down British English informal

it is raining very heavily : Outside it was chucking it down and the streets were deserted.

70

frost‧y / frɒsti $ frɒsti / adjective

1 a) extremely cold :
a beautiful frosty morning
frosty air b) covered with frost :
the frosty ground
2 unfriendly SYN icy
frosty stare/look/tone
He gave me a frosty stare.
the frosty silence that followed her announcement
My words got a frosty reception.

71

blus‧ter‧y / blʌst ə ri / adjective

blustery weather is very windy :
a cold and blustery day

72

adverse conditions

conditions that make it difficult for something to happen or exist :
The expedition was abandoned because of adverse weather conditions.

73

pose COLLOCATIONS

pose a threat/danger/risk The chemical leak poses a threat to human health

74

responsibility for

No one wants to take responsibility for the problem.
The surgeon accepted full responsibility for the error that led to her death..
So far no one has claimed responsibility (= said that they are responsible ) for the bombings.

75

re‧spec‧tive / rɪspektɪv / adjective [ only before noun ]

used before a plural noun to refer to the different things that belong to each separate person or thing mentioned :
We all went back to our respective homes to wait for news.
the respective roles of teachers and students

76

re‧spec‧tive‧ly W3 / rɪspektɪvli / adverb

in the same order as the things you have just mentioned :
The cups and saucers cost £5 and £3 respectively.

77

dif‧fe‧rent / dɪf ə rənt / adjective

different from
Our sons are very different from each other.
different to
Her jacket’s different to mine.
different than
American English :
He seemed different than he did in New York.

78

deep/deepest sympathy

(= used when someone is upset after a death ) We'd like to offer our deepest sympathy to Hilda and her family.

79

believe in somebody/something

1 to be sure that someone or something exists :
Do you believe in God?
2 to think that something is effective or right : I don’t believe in these diets.

80

be opposed to something

to disagree with something such as a plan or system :
Most of us are opposed to the death penalty.

81

harmful to

chemicals that are harmful to the environment

82

beneficial to/for / benə'fɪʃ ə l◂, benɪ'fɪʃ ə l◂ / adjective

Cycling is highly beneficial to health and the environment.

83

contribute to/towards

City employees cannot contribute to political campaigns.

84

insist on

She kept insisting on her innocence.

85

persist in (doing) something

He persisted in his refusal to admit responsibility.

86

result in something phrasal verb

to make something happen SYN cause :
an accident that resulted in the death of two passengers

87

log‧ging / lɒɡɪŋ $ lɒ-, lɑ- / noun [ uncountable ]

the work of cutting down trees in a forest

88

invest (something) in something

Oliver made a fortune by investing in antique furniture.
Williams invested a large sum of money in Swiss stocks.

89

sympathize with

I can sympathize with those who have lost loved ones.
2 to support someone’s ideas or actions
sympathize with
The public sympathized with the miners’ strike.

90

col‧lar 1 / kɒlə $ kɑlər / noun [ countable ]

1 clothing the part of a shirt, coat etc that fits around your neck, and is usually folded over :
He grabbed me by the collar.
He loosened his collar and tie .
2 cat/dog a narrow band of leather or plastic that is fastened around an animal’s neck

91

bear 1 S2 W2 / beə $ ber / verb ( past tense bore / bɔ $ bɔr / , past participle borne / bɔn $ bɔrn / ) [ transitive ]

6 sign/mark formal to have or show a sign, mark, or particular appearance, especially when this shows that something has happened or is true SYN have :
The letter bore no signature.
a car bearing diplomatic license plates
The labels bear a yellow and black symbol.
The town still bears the scars of the bombings during the war.
The store bears the hallmarks (= it has the qualities ) of a family-owned business.

92

fas‧ci‧na‧tion / fæsəneɪʃ ə n, fæsɪneɪʃ ə n / noun

fascination for/with
Police knew of his fascination with guns.
in fascination
The children watched in fascination.

93

invest (something) in something

Oliver made a fortune by investing in antique furniture.
Williams invested a large sum of money in Swiss stocks.

94

sympathize with

I can sympathize with those who have lost loved ones.
2 to support someone’s ideas or actions
sympathize with
The public sympathized with the miners’ strike.

95

sympathize with

I can sympathize with those who have lost loved ones.
2 to support someone’s ideas or actions
sympathize with
The public sympathized with the miners’ strike.

96

col‧lar 1 S3 / kɒlə $ kɑlər / noun [ countable ]

1 clothing the part of a shirt, coat etc that fits around your neck, and is usually folded over :
He grabbed me by the collar.
He loosened his collar and tie .
2 cat/dog a narrow band of leather or plastic that is fastened around an animal’s neck

97

bear 1 S2 W2 / beə $ ber / verb ( past tense bore / bɔ $ bɔr / , past participle borne / bɔn $ bɔrn / ) [ transitive ]

6 sign/mark formal to have or show a sign, mark, or particular appearance, especially when this shows that something has happened or is true SYN have :
The letter bore no signature.
a car bearing diplomatic license plates
The labels bear a yellow and black symbol.
The town still bears the scars of the bombings during the war.
The store bears the hallmarks (= it has the qualities ) of a family-owned business.

98

fas‧ci‧na‧tion / fæsəneɪʃ ə n, fæsɪneɪʃ ə n / noun

fascination for/with
Police knew of his fascination with guns.
in fascination
The children watched in fascination.