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o‧ver‧rated / əʊvəreɪtəd◂, əʊvə'reɪtɪd◂ $ oʊ- / adjective

not as good or important as some people think or say OPP underrated :
a vastly overrated film .Critics claim that many soccer players are overpaid, overrated and out of touch.‧ I think her books are very overrated.‧ the most overrated film of the year


re‧fresh‧ment / rɪfreʃmənt / noun formal

1 refreshments [ plural ] small amounts of food and drink that are provided at a meeting, sports event etc :
Refreshments will be served after the meeting.
2 [ uncountable ] food and drink in general :
We worked all day without refreshment.
liquid refreshment (= alcoholic drink – used humorously )
I was in need of some liquid refreshment.
3 [ uncountable ] the experience of being made to feel less tired or hot


ac‧com‧mo‧da‧tion / ə'kɒmə'deɪʃ ə n $ əkɑ- / noun

[ uncountable ] especially British English ( also accommodations American English ) a place for someone to stay, live, or work :
The price for the holiday includes flights and accommodation.
living accommodations for the crews
travel and hotel accommodations
rented accommodation
secure accommodation for young offenders
Universities have to provide student accommodation for first-year students.


co‧hab‧it / kəʊ'hæbət, kəʊ'hæbɪt $ koʊ- / verb

to live with another person and have a sexual relationship with them without being married SYN live together


rear 1 / rɪə $ rɪr / noun

1 formal the rear the back part of an object, vehicle, or building, or a position at the back of an object or area OPP front
at/to the rear (of something)
a garden at the rear of the house
The hotel overlooks the river to the rear.
in the rear (of something)
a passenger travelling in the rear of a car'


rear verb

[ transitive ] to look after a person or animal until they are fully grown SYN raise :
It’s a good place to rear young children.
The birds have been successfully reared in captivity.


in‧tro‧duc‧to‧ry / ɪntrə'dʌkt ə ri◂ / adjective [ only before noun ]

1 said or written at the beginning of a book, speech etc in order to explain what it is about
introductory chapter/paragraph
the objectives described in the introductory chapter
as the chairman said in his introductory remarks
2 intended for people who have never done a particular activity before :
an introductory course in data processing


barn / bɑn $ bɑrn / noun [ countable ]

1 a large farm building for storing crops, or for keeping animals in
2 informal a large plain building :
a huge barn of a house


goose 1 / ɡus / noun ( plural geese / ɡis / )

a bird that is like a duck but is larger and makes loud noises -a female goose → gander


goat / ɡəʊt $ ɡoʊt / noun [ countable ]

an animal that has horns on top of its head and long hair under its chin, and can climb steep hills and rocks. Goats live wild in the mountains or are kept as farm animals.
2 get sb’s goat spoken informal to make someone extremely annoyed


res‧i‧den‧tial W3 AC / rezə'denʃ ə l◂, rezɪdenʃ ə l◂ / adjective

1 a residential part of a town consists of private houses, with no offices or factories → suburban :
a quiet residential neighbourhood
2 relating to homes rather than offices or businesses → domestic :
telephone services for residential customers


through‧out S2 W1 / θruaʊt / preposition , adverb

1 in every part of a particular area, place etc :
a large organization with offices throughout the world
The disease spread rapidly throughout Europe.
2 during all of a particular period, from the beginning to the end :
We are open every weekend throughout the year.
He was involved in politics throughout his life.


quar‧ter 1 S1 W2 / kwɔtə $ kwɔrtər / noun

1 amount one of four equal parts into which something can be divided → half , third a/one quarter (of something) a quarter of a mile roughly one quarter of the city’s population It’s about a page and a quarter. three quarters (of something) (= 75% ) three quarters of a million pounds the first/second etc quarter in the last quarter of the 19th century Cut the cake into quarters . ► Say a quarter of something, not ‘quarter of’ something.
2 part of an hour: I’ll meet you in a quarter of an hour . She arrived three quarters of an hour late.It’s a quarter of two. I’ll meet you at a quarter past ten.
6 part of a city [ usually singular ] an area of a town : I found a small flat in the student quarter.


ca‧ter / keɪtə $ -ər / verb

to provide and serve food and drinks at a party, meeting etc, usually as a business
cater for
This is the biggest event we’ve ever catered for.
Joan has catered functions for up to 200 people.


finish off phrasal verb

finish something ↔ off to complete the last part of something that you are doing :
It’ll take me a couple of hours to finish this job off.


elbow grease

informal hard work and effort, especially when cleaning or polishing something


a spot of something

British English informal a small amount of something :
Do you fancy a spot of lunch?
I’ve been having a spot of bother (= some problems ) with my car


one-on-one adjective

between only two people :
Virtually all instruction is in small groups or one-on-one.
— one-on-one adverb :
Often, the employer just called in the drivers and bargained with them directly, one-on-one.


sea‧weed / siwid / noun [ uncountable ]

a plant that grows in the sea


lim‧pet / lɪmpət, lɪmpɪt / noun [ countable ]

a small sea animal with a shell, which holds tightly onto the rock where it lives


raft / rɑft $ ræft / noun [ countable ]

a flat floating structure, usually made of pieces of wood tied together, used as a boat


ru‧ral / rʊərəl $ rʊr- / adjective

happening in or relating to the countryside, not the city OPP urban :
a rural setting
rural bus routes


fetch / fetʃ / verb [ transitive ]

especially British English to go and get something or someone and bring them back :
Quick! Go and fetch a doctor.
Shannon went upstairs to fetch some blankets.
fetch somebody/something from something
Would you mind going to fetch the kids from school?
fetch somebody something/fetch something for somebody
Fetch me some coffee while you’re up.


take a fancy to somebody/something

decide that you like someone or want to have something
Mr Hill took a real fancy to Clara.


de‧tox‧i‧fi‧ca‧tion / ditɒksəfə'keɪʃ ə n, ditɒksɪfəkeɪʃ ə n $ -tɑk- / noun [ uncountable ]

the process of removing harmful chemicals or poison from something
— detoxify / ditɒksəfaɪ, ditɒksɪfaɪ $ -tɑk- / verb [ transitive ]


tone 2 ( also tone up ) verb [ transitive ]

to improve the strength and firmness of your muscles, skin etc :
Exercise can strengthen and tone muscles.
He began to use weights in order to tone up his body.
a well-toned body


re‧vi‧tal‧ize ( also revitalise British English ) / ri'vaɪt ə laɪz / verb [ transitive ]

to put new strength or power into something → revive :
They hope to revitalize the neighborhood by providing better housing.
a revitalizing massage
— revitalization / rivaɪt ə laɪzeɪʃ ə n $ -tl-ə- / noun [ uncountable ]


re‧sort / rɪzɔt $ -ɔrt / noun

[ countable ] a place where a lot of people go for holidays
seaside/beach/ski etc resort
Aspen, a ski resort in Colorado
Lagoon Reef is one of the best resort hotels.


soothe / suð / verb [ transitive ]

to make someone feel calmer and less anxious, upset, or angry :
Lucy soothed the baby by rocking it in her arms.
She made a cup of tea to soothe her nerves.


un‧der‧age / ʌndəreɪdʒ◂ / adjective

too young to legally buy alcohol, drive a car, vote etc :
underage drinking


mid‧week / mɪdwik◂ $ mɪdwik / adjective , adverb

on one of the middle days of the week :
There are often discounts available for midweek travel.


an‧ti‧clock‧wise / æntɪklɒkwaɪz◂ $ -klɑk- / adverb , adjective British English

moving in the opposite direction to the hands of a clock SYN counterclockwise American English OPP clockwise :
Turn the lid anticlockwise.


semi-detached adjective British English

a semi-detached house is joined to another house on one side → detached , terraced


am‧bush / 'æmbʊʃ / noun [ uncountable and countable ]

a sudden attack on someone by people who have been hiding and waiting for them, or the place where this happens :
The soldiers were killed in an ambush.
In winter the danger of ambush is much reduced.
lie/wait in ambush
Armed police lay in ambush behind the hedge.


shov‧el 1 / ʃʌv ə l / noun [ countable ]

1 a tool with a rounded blade and a long handle used for moving earth, stones etc SYN spade
2 a part of a large vehicle or machine used for moving or digging earth


gal‧lop 1 / ɡæləp / verb

1 [ intransitive ] if a horse gallops, it moves very fast with all its feet leaving the ground together → canter , trot :
A neighbour’s horse came galloping down the road, riderless.
a galloping horse


bare‧back / beəbæk $ ber- / adjective , adverb

on a horse without a saddle :
He’d been riding bareback all his life.


sad‧dle 1 / sædl / noun [ countable ]

1 a leather seat that you sit on when you ride a horse
2 a seat on a bicycle or a motorcycle
3 in the saddle informal a) riding a horse : We did six or eight hours in the saddle every day. b) in a position in which you have power or authority :
He always has to be in the saddle, controlling everything.


saddle of lamb/hare/venison

a large joint of meat taken from the middle of the animal’s back


back in the saddle

doing something you stopped doing for a period of time Friedman's career seemed to be finished a month ago, but he's back in the saddle and playing for Houston


time off noun [ uncountable ]

time when you are officially allowed not to be at work or studying
take/have/get etc time off
Have you ever had to take time off for health reasons?


take pride in something

(= feel proud of something ) She takes pride in her beautiful gardens.


pride / praɪd / noun

feeling of pleasure [ uncountable ] a feeling that you are proud of something that you or someone connected with you has achieved → proud : He wore his medals with pride. pride in He takes great pride in his children’s achievements. The people have a sense of pride in their community. His heart swelled with pride when his daughter came in. She felt a glow of pride when her name was announced for the prize. Success in sport is a source of national pride .


like/love/enjoy nothing better (than)

She likes nothing better than a nice long walk along the beach.


Commonwealth noun

Commonwealth of Nations formal an organization of about 50 independent countries, most of which were formerly part of the British Empire, established in order to encourage trade and friendly relations among its members. The British Queen is the head of the Commonwealth, and there is a meeting each year for all its heads of government.


pros‧e‧cute / 'prɒsɪkjut $ prɑ- / verb

[ intransitive and transitive ] to charge someone with a crime and try to show that they are guilty of it in a court of law :
Shoplifters will be prosecuted.
prosecute somebody for (doing) something
Buxton is being prosecuted for assault.
prosecute somebody under a law/Act etc
The company is to be prosecuted under the Health and Safety Act.


pseu‧do‧nym / sjud ə nɪm $ su- / noun [ countable ]

an invented name that a writer, artist etc uses instead of their real name SYN nom de plume
under a pseudonym
He wrote under the pseudonym ‘Silchester’.


jet lag noun [ uncountable ]

the tired and confused feeling that you can get after flying a very long distance, especially because of the difference in time between the place you left and the place you arrived at :
I’m suffering from jet lag but I’ll feel better after a good night’s sleep.


Aus‧sie / ɒzi $ ɒzi, ɑzi / noun [ countable ]

informal someone from Australia


ven‧ue / venju / noun [ countable ]

a place where an organized meeting, concert etc takes place
sporting/conference/concert etc venue
The first thing to do is book a venue .
The band will play (= perform at ) as many venues as possible.
venue for
the venue for the latest round of talks


straight‧for‧ward / streɪtfɔwəd◂ $ -fɔrwərd◂ / adjective

simple and easy to understand OPP complicated
relatively/quite/fairly straightforward
Installing the program is relatively straightforward.
This area of law is far from straightforward (= complicated ) .
straightforward matter/task/process etc
For someone who can’t read, shopping is by no means a straightforward matter.


sprint‧er / sprɪntə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

someone who runs in fast races over short distances


riot / raɪət / verb [ intransitive ]

if a crowd of people riot, they behave in a violent and uncontrolled way, for example by fighting the police and damaging cars or buildings :
University students rioted in protest at tuition fees.


han‧dle‧bars / hændlbɑz $ -bɑrz / noun [ plural ] ( also handlebar [ countable ] )

the bar above the front wheel of a bicycle or motorcycle that you turn to control its direction


mix-up noun [ countable ]

informal a mistake that causes confusion about details or arrangements
mix-up in
Geoffrey rushed in late pleading a mix-up in his diary.
mix-up between
A council official blamed a mix-up between departments.
mix-up over
There was a mix-up over the hotel booking.


kick‧off / kɪk-ɒf $ -ɒf / noun [ countable usually singular ]

1 the time when a football game starts, or the first kick of the game :
Kickoff is at 3.00.
2 informal the beginning of a new activity


pit / pɪt / noun [ countable ]

the pits the place beside the track in a car race where cars can come in for petrol, new tyres etc → pit stop


stam‧i‧na / stæmənə, stæmɪnə / noun [ uncountable ]

physical or mental strength that lets you continue doing something for a long time without getting tired :
You need stamina to be a long-distance runner.
Elaine has the stamina and the determination to succeed.


dye / daɪ /verb

to give something a different colour using a dye
dye something black/blue/blonde etc
Priscilla’s hair was dyed jet black.


low blow

American English informal something unkind you say to deliberately embarrass or upset someone


track and field noun [ uncountable ]

sports such as running and jumping SYN athletics British English


dunk / dʌŋk / verb

[ transitive ] to quickly put something into a liquid and take it out again, especially something you are eating :
Jill dunked her ginger biscuit in her tea.
I dunked my head under the water and scrubbed at my hair.


wring / rɪŋ / verb ( past tense and past participle wrung / rʌŋ / ) [ transitive ]

2 ( also wring out ) to tightly twist a wet cloth or wet clothes in order to remove water
3 wring your hands to rub and twist your hands together because you are worried and upset


not ring true

if something does not ring true, you do not believe it, even though you are not sure why : It was a possible explanation, but it didn’t quite ring true.


ring hollow

if something that someone says rings hollow, you do not feel that it is true or sincere :
Assurances that things have changed ring hollow in many ears.


pitch / pɪtʃ / noun

sports field [ countable ] British English a marked out area of ground on which a sport is played SYN field
football/cricket/rugby etc pitch
the world-famous Wembley football pitch
He ran the length of the pitch and scored.
on the pitch (= playing a sport )
Jack was on the pitch for his school in the Senior Cup Final.


course / kɔs $ kɔrs / noun

sport [ countable ] an area of land or water where races are held, or an area of land designed for playing golf :
a particularly difficult course
an 18-hole course → assault course , obstacle course ( 1 )


court/ kɔt $ kɔrt / noun

for playing a sport [ countable ] an area made for playing games such as tennis → field , pitch
squash/tennis/basketball etc court
Can you book a squash court for tomorrow?
on court
The players are due on court in an hour.


track / træk / noun

for racing [ countable ] a circular course around which runners, cars etc race, which often has a specially prepared surface :
To run a mile, you have to run four circuits of the track. → dirt track ( 2 )


rink / rɪŋk / noun [ countable ]

a specially prepared area of ice that you can skate on SYN ice rink
2 a special area with a smooth surface where you can go around on roller skate s SYN skating rink


grid / ɡrɪd / noun [ countable ]

1 a metal frame with bars across it → cattle grid
2 a pattern of straight lines that cross each other and form squares :
Its streets were laid out in a grid pattern.


what/why/how etc on earth ...?

spoken used to ask a question when you are very surprised or angry :
What on earth did you do that for?


craze / kreɪz / noun [ countable ]

a fashion, game, type of music etc that becomes very popular for a short time SYN fad
craze for
She started a craze for this type of jewellery.
At that time, scooters were the latest craze .
fitness/dance/fashion etc craze
The jogging craze began in the 1970s.


as far as it goes

used to say that an idea, suggestion, plan etc is satisfactory, but only to a limited degree
His theories are fine, as far as they go.


keep somebody sane ( also enable somebody to stay/remain sane )

to stop someone from thinking about their problems and becoming upset :
The only thing that kept me sane was music.


ob‧sess / əbses / verb

1 [ transitive usually passive ] if something or someone obsesses you, you think or worry about them all the time and you cannot think about anything else – used to show disapproval
be obsessed by/with something/somebody
A lot of young girls are obsessed by their weight.
Jody’s been obsessed with some lifeguard for months.
2 be obsessing about/over something/somebody informal to think about something or someone much more than is necessary or sensible :
Stop obsessing about your hair. It’s fine.


cyn‧ic / sɪnɪk / noun [ countable ]

someone who is not willing to believe that people have good, honest, or sincere reasons for doing something :
Even hardened cynics believe the meeting is a step towards peace.
— cynicism / -sɪz ə m / noun


sol‧i‧ta‧ry 1 / sɒlət ə ri, sɒlɪt ə ri $ sɑləteri / adjective

1 [ only before noun ] used to emphasize that there is only one of something SYN single :
the solitary goal of the match
The benches were empty except for a single solitary figure.
2 doing something without anyone else with you :
a long, solitary walk
3 spending a lot of time alone, usually because you like being alone OPP sociable :
a solitary man
Pandas are solitary creatures.
He led a rather solitary existence.


cel‧lar / selə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

1 a room under a house or other building, often used for storing things SYN basement :
a coal cellar
2 a store of wine belonging to a person, restaurant etc
→ salt cellar


post‧date / pəʊstdeɪt $ poʊst- / verb [ transitive ]

if you postdate a cheque, you write it with a date that is later than the actual date, so that it will not become effective until that time → backdate
2 to happen, live, or be made later in history than something else → predate :
Some of the mosaics postdate this period.


come across phrasal verb

1 come across somebody/something to meet, find, or discover someone or something by chance :
I came across an old diary in her desk.
I’ve never come across anyone quite like her before.
We’ve come across a few problems that need resolving.
In written English, people often use encounter when writing about problems or difficulties because this sounds more formal than come across :
The team of researchers had encountered similar problems before.


come along phrasal verb

1 be coming along informal to be developing or making progress SYN progress : He opened the oven door to see how the food was coming along.
Your English is coming along really well.
2 to appear or arrive :
A bus should come along any minute now. Take any job opportunity that comes along.
3 a) to go to a place with someone : We’re going into town – do you want to come along? b) to go somewhere after someone : You go on ahead – I’ll come along later.
4 come along! a) used to tell someone to hurry up SYN come on : Come along! We’re all waiting for you! b) used to encourage someone to try harder SYN come on : Come along! Don’t give up yet!


come apart phrasal verb

1 to split or fall into pieces :
I picked the magazine up and it came apart in my hands.
2 to begin to fail :
The whole basis of the agreement was coming apart.
She felt as if her life was coming apart at the seams (= failing completely ) .


come around phrasal verb

1 ( also come round British English ) to come to someone’s home or the place where they work in order to visit them SYN come over : I’ll come around later and see how you are.
Why don’t you come round for lunch?
4 American English to become conscious again after you have been unconscious SYN come round British English : When she came around her mother was sitting by her bed.
come around from You might feel a little sick when you come around from the anesthetic.


come forward phrasal verb

to offer help to someone, or offer to do something :
So far, only one candidate has come forward.
The police appealed for witnesses to come forward with information.


come up phrasal verb

4 if a problem or difficulty comes up, it appears or starts to affect you SYN arise :
I’m afraid I’ll have to cancel our date – something’s come up .
The same problems come up every time.


come up with something phrasal verb

1 to think of an idea, answer etc :
Is that the best excuse you can come up with?
We’ve been asked to come up with some new ideas.
2 informal to produce an amount of money :
We wanted to buy the house but we couldn’t come up with the cash.
How am I supposed to come up with $10,000?


nui‧sance / njus ə ns $ nu- / noun [ countable usually singular ]

A person, thing, or situation that annoys you or causes problems
a real/awful/terrible etc nuisance
The dogs next door are a real nuisance.
What a nuisance! British English :
What a nuisance! I’ve forgotten my ticket.
I hate to be a nuisance .../Sorry to be a nuisance ...
I hate to be a nuisance, but could you move your car to the other side of the street?
Stop making a nuisance of yourself (= annoying other people with your behaviour )
It’s a nuisance having to get up that early on a Sunday morning.


bla‧tant / bleɪt ə nt / adjective

something bad that is blatant is very clear and easy to see, but the person responsible for it does not seem embarrassed or ashamed :
blatant discrimination


re‧pet‧i‧tive / rɪpetətɪv, rɪpetɪtɪv / adjective

done many times in the same way, and boring
repetitive work/tasks/jobs
repetitive tasks like washing and ironing
The song was dreary and repetitive.


boot 1 S2 W3 / but / noun [ countable
British English

an enclosed space at the back of a car, used for carrying bags etc SYN trunk American English :
The new model has a bigger boot.


whiff / wɪf / noun [ countable ]

a very slight smell of something
whiff of
a whiff of tobacco
get/catch a whiff of something
As she walked past, I caught a whiff of her perfume.


flood 1 W3 / flʌd / verb

8 feeling [ I always + adv/prep,T ] if a feeling or memory floods over you or floods back, you feel or remember it very strongly
flood over/back
I felt happiness and relief flooding over me.
Memories of my time in Paris flooded back.


filling 2 noun

[ countable ] a small amount of metal that is put into your tooth to cover a hole :
gold fillings


whiff / wɪf / noun [ countable ]

a very slight smell of something
whiff of
a whiff of tobacco
get/catch a whiff of something
As she walked past, I caught a whiff of her perfume.


whiff / wɪf / noun [ countable ]

a very slight smell of something
whiff of
a whiff of tobacco
get/catch a whiff of something
As she walked past, I caught a whiff of her perfume.


filling 2 noun

[ countable ] a small amount of metal that is put into your tooth to cover a hole :
gold fillings


shat‧tered / ʃætəd $ -ərd / adjective [ not before noun ]

1 very shocked and upset :
I wasn’t just disappointed, I was absolutely shattered.
2 British English informal very tired SYN exhausted :
By the time we got home we were both shattered.