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Flashcards in fce10 Deck (60):

ad‧dress‧ee / ædresi, ədres'i / noun [ countable ]

the person a letter, package etc is addressed to


coast‧er / kəʊstə $ koʊstər / noun [ countable ]

1 a small thin object on which you put a glass, or cup, to protect a table from heat or liquids
2 a ship that sails from port to port along a coast, but does not go further out to sea
→ roller coaster


di‧spens‧er / dɪspensə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

a machine which provides a particular amount of a product or substance when you press a button or put money into it :
a paper towel dispenser
→ cash dispenser ,water dispenser


pa‧per‧clip / peɪpəklɪp $ -ər- / noun [ countable ]

a small piece of curved wire used for holding sheets of paper together


sprin‧kler / sprɪŋklə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

1 a piece of equipment used for scattering water on grass or soil
2 a piece of equipment on a ceiling that scatters water if there is a fire


hang‧er / hæŋə $ -ər / ( also coat hanger , clothes hanger ) noun [ countable ]

a curved piece of wood or metal with a hook on top, used for hanging clothes on :
She took off her jacket and hung it on a hanger.


bar‧rel 1 / bærəl / noun [ countable ]

1 a large curved container with a flat top and bottom, made of wood or metal, and used for storing beer, wine etc :
The wine is aged in oak barrels.
barrel of
barrels of beer
2 a unit of measurement for oil, equal to 159 litres
barrel of
two million barrels of oil
3 the part of a gun that the bullets are fired through


be a barrel of laughs [ often in negatives ]

to be very enjoyable :
Life is not exactly a barrel of laughs at the moment.


Grammar made from/made of

Use made from especially when the materials used to make something have been completely changed and cannot be recognized :
a wine made from Chilean grapes
Use made of when the materials have not been completely changed and can still be recognized :
The wheels were made of wood.
► Do not use 'made by' when talking about the materials used to make something.


cock‧pit / kɒkpɪt $ kɑk- / noun [ countable ]

1 the area in a plane, small boat, or racing car where the pilot or driver sits → aircraft , yacht
2 a small enclosed area where cock fight s took place in the past


continue with something

to keep doing whatever was being done before. Oh, please continue with your discussion. Do you mind if I continue with my knitting as we talk?


pi‧o‧neer‧ing / paɪənɪərɪŋ◂ $ -nɪr- / adjective [ only before noun ]

introducing new and better methods or ideas for the first time
pioneering work/research/efforts etc
the pioneering work of NASA scientists
She played a pioneering role in opening higher education to women.


ex‧cel / ɪksel / verb ( past tense and past participle excelled , present participle excelling )

1 [ intransitive, not in progressive ] to do something very well, or much better than most people
excel at/in
Rick has always excelled at foreign languages.


ap‧pa‧ra‧tus / æpə'reɪtəs $ -ræ- / noun

1 [ uncountable ] the set of tools and machines that you use for a particular scientific, medical, or technical purpose SYN equipment :
Astronauts have special breathing apparatus.


em‧u‧late / emjəleɪt, emjʊleɪt / verb [ transitive ]

to do something or behave in the same way as someone else, especially because you admire them SYN imitate :
He hoped to emulate the success of Wilder.
— emulation / emjəleɪʃ ə n, emjʊleɪʃ ə n / noun [ uncountable ]


rat‧tan / rə'tæn / noun [ uncountable ]

the plant used to make wicker furniture :
rattan chairs


wick‧er / wɪkə $ -ər / noun [ uncountable ]

thin dry branches or reed s that are woven together :
a wicker basket


reed / rid / noun

1 [ uncountable and countable ] a type of tall plant like grass that grows in wet places : Reeds grew in clumps all along the river bank.


span 3 verb ( past tense and past participle spanned , present participle spanning ) [ transitive ]

1 to include all of a period of time :
a career which spanned nearly 60 years
2 to include all of a particular space or area : The Mongol Empire spanned much of Central Asia.
3 if a bridge spans an area of water, especially a river, it goes from one side to the other


tri‧al 1 / traɪəl / noun

1 a legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examine information to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime → try :
The trial is due to start next week.
on trial (for something)
Brady was on trial for assault. → show trial
2 test: a process of testing to find out whether something works effectively and is safe : a new drug that is undergoing clinical trials


de‧scend / dɪsend / verb

1 [ intransitive and transitive ] formal to move from a higher level to a lower one OPP ascend → descent :
Our plane started to descend.
I heard his footsteps descending the stairs.
descend to/from/into etc
The path continues for some way before descending to Garsdale Head.


de‧scend / dɪsend / verb

In everyday English, people usually say go down or come down rather than descend :
They went down into the lobby.
I heard his footsteps coming down the stairs.


nick 1 / nɪk / noun

1 in the nick of time just before it is too late, or just before something bad happens : Luckily, help arrived in the nick of time.


al‧ti‧tude / æltətjud, æltɪtjud $ -tud / noun

[ countable ] the height of an object or place above the sea
altitude of
We’re flying at an altitude of 40,000 feet.
high/low altitudes
At high altitudes it is difficult to get enough oxygen.


com‧pan‧ion / kəmpænjən / noun [ countable ]

1 someone you spend a lot of time with, especially a friend :
For ten years he had been her constant companion .
His dog became his closest companion .
a travelling companion
dinner/drinking companion


deaf W3 / def / adjective

1 physically unable to hear anything or unable to hear well → hearing impaired :
communication between deaf and hearing people
I think Mum’s going a bit deaf .
She’s deaf and dumb (= unable to hear or speak ) and communicates using sign language.
Tom was born profoundly deaf (= having great difficulty hearing ) .


put somebody/something off phrasal verb

1 put something ↔ off to delay doing something or to arrange to do something at a later time or date, especially because there is a problem or you do not want to do it now SYN delay , procrastinate :
The match has been put off until tomorrow because of bad weather.
put off doing something
I put off going to the doctor but I wish I hadn’t.


put somebody/something off phrasal verb

2 put somebody ↔ off British English to make you dislike something or not want to do something : Don’t let the restaurant’s decor put you off – the food is really good.
put somebody off (doing) something
Don’t let your failures put you off trying harder.


pan‧ni‧er / pæniə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

1 one of a pair of baskets or bags that you carry one on each side of an animal or a bicycle → saddlebag
2 a basket in which someone carries a load on their back


at will

whenever you want and in whatever way you want :
He can’t just fire people at will, can he?


lin‧en / lɪnən, lɪnɪn / noun [ uncountable ]

1 sheets, tablecloth s etc :
bed linen
table linen
2 cloth made from the flax plant, used to make high quality clothes, home decorations etc :
a linen jacket


con‧cave / kɒnkeɪv◂, kən- $ kɑnkeɪv◂, kən- / adjective

a concave surface is curved inwards in the middle OPP convex :
a concave lens


tail‧piece / teɪlpis / noun [ countable ] British English

a part that forms or is added to the end of something, especially a piece of writing


rud‧der / rʌdə $ -ər / noun [ countable ]

a flat part at the back of a ship or aircraft that can be turned in order to control the direction in which it moves


leap 1 / lip / verb ( past tense and past participle leapt / lept / especially British English , leaped especially American English )

1 jump
a) [ intransitive always + adverb/preposition ] to jump high into the air or to jump in order to land in a different place :
She leapt over the fence.
The smaller animals can easily leap from tree to tree.
b) [ transitive ] literary to jump over something :
Brenda leaped the gate and ran across the field.


crew/ kru / noun

1 [ countable ] all the people who work on a ship or plane :
The plane crashed, killing two of the crew and four passengers.
crew of
He joined the crew of a large fishing boat.
a crew member


short-lived / ʃɔt lɪvd◂ $ ʃɔrt laɪvd◂ / adjective

existing or happening for only a short time :
Our happiness was short-lived.



try and attempt followed by an infinitive are about the same. (try to explain something ~ attempt to explain something) The difference is not so much in meaning, but in register. attempt is a higher register word for try. endeavor is higher still.
We ordinary people try. Our teachers and important leaders in government and industry attempt. Kings and queens and heads of state endeavor.
try to take action in order to do something that you may not be able to do : I tried to explain what was wrong. | He tries hard in class, but he’s finding the work difficult.
attempt to try to do something, especially something difficult. Attempt is more formal than try and is used especially in written


ir‧ri‧ta‧tion / ɪrəteɪʃ ə n, ɪrɪ'teɪʃ ə n / noun

[ uncountable ] the feeling of being annoyed about something, especially something that happens repeatedly or for a long time :
The heavy traffic is a constant source of irritation .
irritation at/with
The doctor’s irritation at being interrupted showed.


dep‧u‧ty / depjəti, depjʊti / noun ( plural deputies ) [ countable ]

1 ( also Deputy ) someone who is directly below another person in rank, and who is officially in charge when that person is not there
deputy director/chairman/governor etc
the Deputy Secretary of State
2 someone whose job is to help a sheriff in the US
3 a member of parliament in some countries, for example France


dec‧o‧rate / dekəreɪt / verb

3 [ transitive ] to give someone a medal as an official sign of honour
decorate somebody for something
soldiers decorated for bravery


con‧script 2 / kɒnskrɪpt $ kɑn- / noun [ countable ]

someone who has been made to join the army, navy etc SYN draftee American English :
a young army conscript


private 2 noun

2 [ countable ] a soldier of the lowest rank


first class noun

b) the class of post used in the US for ordinary business and personal letters


cor‧po‧ral / kɔp ə rəl $ kɔr- / noun [ countable ]

a low rank in the army, air force etc


ser‧geant / sɑdʒ ə nt $ sɑr- / noun [ countable ]

a low rank in the army, air force, police etc, or someone who has this rank


lieu‧ten‧ant / leftenənt $ luten- / noun [ countable ]

1 a) a fairly low rank in the armed forces, or an officer of this rank
b) a fairly high rank in the US police force, or an officer of this rank
2 lieutenant colonel/general/Governor etc an officer or official with the rank just below colonel , general 2 , governor etc
3 someone who does work for, or in place of, someone in a higher position SYN deputy


cap‧tain 1 W3 / kæptən, kæptɪn / noun [ countable ]

2 a military officer with a fairly high rank → group captain


major 2 noun [ countable ]

1 an officer of middle rank in the British or US army or marines , or in the US air force → drum major


colo‧nel / kɜnl $ kɜr- / noun [ countable ]

a high rank in the army, Marines, or the US air force, or someone who has this rank


ad‧mi‧ral / ædm ə rəl / noun [ countable ]

a high rank in the British or US navy, or someone with this rank


bar‧racks / bærəks / noun [ plural ]

a building or group of buildings in which soldiers live


squad / skwɒd $ skwɑd / noun [ countable ]

2 the police department responsible for dealing with a particular kind of crime
drugs/fraud/vice etc squad
A controlled explosion was carried out by bomb squad officers.
3 a small group of soldiers working together as a unit :
a drill squad


de‧tail 1 / diteɪl $ dɪteɪl / noun

4 [ singular, uncountable ] technical a specific duty in the army, or the person or group with that duty :
the security detail


choir / kwaɪə $ kwaɪr / noun [ countable ]

1 a group of people who sing together for other people to listen to → choral :
He joined a church choir at the age of eight.
2 [ usually singular ] the part of a church in which a choir sits during religious ceremonies


hymn / hɪm / noun [ countable ]

1 a song of praise to God :
He liked to sing hymns as he worked.
2 a hymn to something a book, film, song etc that strongly praises a person or idea :
Their first single was a hymn to selfishness called ‘Looking After Number One’.


break‧through / breɪkθru / noun [ countable ]

an important new discovery in something you are studying, especially one made after trying for a long time
breakthrough in
Scientists have made a major breakthrough in the treatment of cancer. → break through at break 1


gain ground

to make steady progress and become more popular, more successful etc :
The anti-smoking lobby has steadily gained ground in the last decade.


head‧way / hedweɪ / noun

make headway
a) to make progress towards achieving something – used especially when this is difficult
make headway towards/in/with etc
Foreign firms have made little headway in the US market.
b) to move forwards – used especially when this is slow or difficult :
Stormy weather stopped the ship from making headway.


leap 2 noun [ countable ]

1 a big jump SYN bound :
He threw a stick into the river and the dog went after it in a flying leap .
2 a large increase or change
quantum/great/huge etc leap
a quantum leap (= very great increase or change ) in population levels
leap in
a 16% leap in pre-tax profits
leap forward
the huge leap forward that took place in the 1980s