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Flashcards in Female Phys review Deck (44):
1

what ages does FSH and LH spike?

2nd trimester of fetal development
around 4-5 months of age
small rise at puberty
cyclically until menopause
rises with menopause dt loss of neg feedback by E

2

Pituitary-ovary x-talk

-corpus luteum dies and E and P fall
-pit responds to loss of neg feedback -> increased FSH
-FSH recruits cohort of large antral follicles which secrete E and inhibin
-E and inhibin inhibit FSH secretion
-loss of FSH causes all but dominant follicle to die which then produces lots of E
- E switches to pos feedback get LH (and some FSH) surge
- LH surge induces metabolic maturation, ovulation, and luteinization and produces high P, E and inhibin
-high P, E, and inhibin inhibit LH and FSH
-corpus luteum become less sensitive to LH and dies unless there is an hCG rescue

3

stages of follicular development

primordial follicle -> primary follicle -> secondary preantral follicle -> small antral follicle -> large recruitable antral follicle -> dominant follicle

4

mural granulose cells

highly steriodogenic and differentiate into corpus luteum

5

cumulus cells

released with oocyte upon ovulation and faciliatate oocyte capture by oviduct

6

stages of gamete

oogonium -> primary oocyte arrested at prophase 1 -> shortly before ovulation oocyte completes meiosis I -> secondary oocyte arrested at metaphase II -> completes meiosis at fertilization

7

thecal cells

produce angrogen androstenedione
have low levels of 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase so produce very little T

8

follicular phase

FSH induces expression of LHR on mural granulosa cells

9

luteal phase

mural granulosa cells experience
-transient inhibition of CYP19 expression and E prodution turning off pos feedback
-vascularization of granulosa cells making cholesterol available for steroidogenesis
-expression of StAR proteins, CYPIIA1 and 3beta HSD -> Progesterone secretion

10

E effects on oviduct

increases endosalpinx epi size
increases blood flow
increases oviduct specific glycoproteins
increases ciliogenesis
increases mucus and muscular tone

11

P effects on oviduct

decrease epi size
deciliation
decrease mucus
relaxes mm tone

12

aa supply

uterine a -> arcuate a -> radial br -> splits into straight and spiral aa in basal zone -> spiral anatamous with venous lakes in functional zone

13

late menstrual phase is what days?

3-5

14

late proliferative phase is what days

10-13

15

early secretory is what days

15-18

16

late secretory is what days

22-25

17

which endometrial phases coincide with the ovarian follicular phase?

proliferative
days 0-14 when ovulation occurs

18

which endometrial phases coincide with ovarian luteal phase?

secretory (begins at ovulation) and menstrual
days 14-28

19

structure and fnx of cervix

-highly elastic lamina propria
-gateway to upper female tract
-during luteal phase passage of sperm is impeded d/t changes in endocervical canal

20

hormonal regulation of cervical mucus

E-> stimulates production of thin watery slightly alkaline mucus
P-> stimulates production of scant, viscous, slightly acidic mucus

21

P transport

bound to cortisol binding protein and albumin

22

fertilization is how may days after ovulation

1

23

blastocyst enters uterine cavity is how may days after ovulation

4

24

implantation is how may days after ovulation

5

25

trophoblast forms and attaches to endometrium is how may days after ovulation

6

26

trophoblast begins to secrete hCG is how may days after ovulation

8

27

HCG resuces corpus luteum is how may days after ovulation

10

28

limitations of placenta

cannot make adequate cholesterol
lacks enzymes for estrone and estradiol
lacks enzyme for etriol

29

what does the mother contribute for hormone synthesis

LDL cholesterol

30

what does the placenta contribute for hormone synthesis

3beta HSD
aromatase (P-450)

31

what does the fetus contribute for hormone synthesis

17alpha hydroxylase (for E1 and E2)
17,20 desmolase (E1 and E2)
16 alpha hydroxylase (E3)

32

P synthesis

mom give cholesterol to placenta which creates P for both mom and baby

33

E3 synthesis

mom gives chol to placenta which makes pregnolone -> converted to DHEA by fetus -> placenta converts to E3 for mom

34

hPL

human placental lactogen
aka hCS
structurally similar to GH and PRL
dectectable in moms blood at 3 weeks and continues to increase

35

fnx of hPL

antagonistic to insulin -> diabetogenic effect
increases glucose for fetus
stimuluates mammary growth and development

36

pituitary changes in pregnancy

2x increased size
ADH set point lowered

37

adrenal changes in pregnancy

cortisol and aldosterone levels rise
E stimulates activity RAAS

38

thyroid changes in pregnanacy

total T4 and T3 increase, but free T4 normal
TSH levels decrease in first trimester

39

CV changes in pregnancy

increased vascular volume
decreased peripheral resistance
increased SV
increased HR
increased contractility
increased CO

40

respiratory changes in pregnancy

increased minute volume
increased tidal volume
decreased PCO2
decreased FRC
decreased IRV
respiratory alkalosis

41

renal changes in pregnancy

increased ADH and RAAS
increased GFR

42

stages of labor

strong uterine contractions
delivery of fetus
delivery of placenta

43

initiation of parturition

placental CRH
E
Oxy
prostaglandins
uterine size

44

endocrine changes after parturition

E and P falls close to 0, bc inhibited by prolactin
prolactin remains cyclical if mom breast feeds