Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (27):

Reproductive Cycle is .... days, which starts with .... at day 1, ...... at day 14, if fertilzation occurs?

28 days, menstruation, ovulation, implantation at day 21


during the first half of the cycle this steroid predominates and during the second half it is...
these phases are called?

estrogen, progesterone
follicular, luteal


what's the primary location of ovarian tumors?



what's the gross histology of the ovary? 4 elements

1) cortex (where you find follicles)
2) medulla (where you find vasculature and lymphatics)
3) epithelium is called mesothelium (germinal epithelium is anachronistic)
4) tunica albuginea (thinner than male)


a few facts about primordial germ development in females, timing, location, arrest point, quantity

primordial germ cells migrate into the primitive ovary and begin to divide and develop but arrest in prophase 1; over by the fifth fetal month; millions made, ~1 mil at birth, ~400 released (loss by apoptosis)


how many follicles will be induced to mature at a time?



primary follicle characteristics

1) zona pellucida forms
2) follicular cells become cuboidal and send processes through the ZP for cross-talk
3) BM of follicular cells becomes more prominent
4) stomal cells become theca which becomes vascularized (but no cross-BM vascularization)


secondary follicles characteristics

1) dependent on FSH from the pituitary
2) largest stage of development
3) follicular cells become granulosa
4) antrum forms in the center of the follicle
5) theca divides into two layers (interna and externa)


what are the two types of granulosa cells?

membrana granulosa - cells are called mural granulosa cells; make estradiol from androstenedione
cumulus oophorus - remains attached to oocyte even after ovulation


what does the theca interna do? what characteristic does it have that helps it to accomplish this task?

secretes androstenedione a C19 steroid, and is highly vascularized


what triggers the development into the third stage of follicular development? what is this stage called? what's different from the secondary follicular stage?

luteinizing hormone; Graffian follicle; the cumulus oophorus detaches from the membrana granulosa and the cell resumes meiosis (due to LH)


how long does it take for a follicle to mature from primary to Graffian?

3-4 months


what is atresia?

when follicular cells die because of non-selection


what are the characteristics of small atretic cells?

death of oocyte, collapse of ZP, death and disappearance of follicular cells


characteristics of large atretic cells?

death of oocyte
collapse of ZP
invasion by macrophages
sloughing of granular cells into antrum
formation of glassy membrane
enlargement of theca interna cells


what are the steps of ovulation?

1) graffian cells migrate to border (may be assisted by theca externa cells); cause bulge in border
2) ischemia and proteolysis cause breakdown of follicle, tunica albuginea and the mesothelium in that area
3) secondary oocyte is released into the extra-ovular space (along with ZP and cumulus oophorus)


what is the corpus luteum? what is it's gross function?

it is the remnant of the membrana granulosa; it's gross function is to release massive amounts of hormone (PGe and Estradiol)


what happens during formation of the corpus luteum?

1) the inner space (formerly the antrum) gets heavily granulosed
2) basement membrane breaks down and the vascularization of the theca interna invades the membrana granulosa
3) mural cells become granulosa lutein cells (PGe and E manufacturing cells - sER, mito w/ TV cristae)
4) theca interna cells become theca lutein cells that still secrete C19 androstenedione


what happens if there is no pregnancy? how long does this take?

the corpus luteum becomes the corpus albicans
this normally takes 12-14 days


what do you find in a post-menopausal ovary?

lots of corpus albicana, glassy membranes and stroma


what are the three layers of the fallopian/uterine tubes? what are the characteristics of the first two?

serosa, muscularis, mucosa

serosa - very vascularized and covered with mesothelium
muscularis - goes from not so muscular at the follicles to quite muscular at the isthmus and intramural parts


what makes up the mucosa of the uterine tube?

lamina propria (common)
epithelium that has two types of cells:
non-ciliated secreting cells
ciliated cells used for movement (toward uterus)

intraepithelial lymphocytes (clear cells) are common


what are the four parts of the uterine tube?

intramural part


what are the three general changes that happen along the uterine tube vis-a-vis muscularity and ciliation?

ciliation maxes at infundibulum and gets lesser toward the uterus
mucosal folds work the same as ciliation
muscularity goes in the opposite direction


what is the muscularis layer orientation at the ampulla?

circular interior and longitudinal outer (CL)


secretory cells in the uterine tube have what function?

they secrete the environment necessary for happy eggs and spermies


what happens immediately after fertilization?

the zygote stays in the uterine tube for some time (held in place by the muscularis) and then is released for implantation into the uterus; this takes 2-4 days