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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (199):
1

fertilization and implantation occur

preimplantation period

2

period involving embryo growing to fetus

fetal period

3

2nd week to 8th week of prenatal development

embryonic period

4

action of one group of cells on another that leads to the establishment of the developmental pathway in the responding tissue

induction

5

controlled cellular growth and accumulation of byproducts

proliferation

6

change in identical embryonic cells to become distinct, both structurally and functionally

differentiation

7

development of specific tissue structure or differing form due to embryonic cell migration and inductive interactions

morphogenesis

8

attainment of adult function and size due to proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis

maturation

9

originates directly from epiblast layer

ectoderm

10

future dermis, muscle, and bone

mesoderm

11

layer of cuboidal cells in the embryo

endoderm

12

considered by many to be the fourth embryonic layer

neural crest cells

13

prenatal organ that joins pregnant women and developing embryo

placenta

14

furrowed, rod-shaped thickening in middle of embryonic disc

primitive streak

15

have the potential to proliferate and differentiate into diverse types of connective tissue-forming cells

mesenchyme

16

location of future primitive mouth of embryo

oropharyngeal membrane

17

location of future terminal end of embryo's digestive tract

cloacal membrane

18

specialized group of cells differentiates from the ectoderm

neuroectoderm

19

elimination of groove between 2 adjacent swellings of tissues or processes on embryo surface

fusion

20

mesoderm additionally differentiates and begins to divide into paired cuboidal aggregates of cells

somites

21

study of microscopic structure and function of cells and tissues

histology

22

smallest living unit of organization

cell

23

collection of similarly specialized cells

tissue

24

independent body part formed from tissues

organ

25

organs functioning together

system

26

semifluid portion contained within cell membrane boundary

cytoplasm

27

chromatin condenses into chromosomes

prophase

28

mitotic spindle forms

metaphase

29

migration of chromatids to opposite poles by mitotic spindle

anaphase

30

reappearance of the nuclear membrane

telophase

31

cells between divisions

interphase

32

specialized metabolically active structures within the cell

organelles

33

fluid portion within nucleus

nucleoplasm

34

tissue type that covers and lines external and internal body surface

epithelium

35

extensions of epithelium into connective tissue as appear on histological section

rete ridges

36

thin, acellular, chemical-based structure located between any form of epithelium and its underlying connective tissue

basement membrane

37

by weight, most abundant type of basic tissue in body

connective tissue

38

immature connective tissue with few fibers and increased amount of blood vessels

granulation tissue

39

lamina propria acts as a periosteum to underlying jaws

mucoperiostium

40

gland present in the submucosa deep to the lamina propria of the circumvallate lingal papillae

Ebner's

41

oral landmark may be noted on the soft palate

uvula

42

line of demarcation between attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa is the

mucogingival junction

43

root of mature and fully erupted tooth is composed of

dentin, pulp, and cementum

44

facial feature located laterally to each naris

nasal ala

45

lips outlined from surrounding skin by transition zone called

vermilion border

46

which structure can be palpated in the anterior midline of neck

thyroid cartilage

47

statement concerning zygomatic arch correct

the external ear is posterior

48

which lingual papillae are located on lateral surface of tongue

foliate papillae

49

structure not visible in any portion on intraoral exam

laryngopharynx

50

labial commisures of face located at the

corners of mouth

51

orofacial structure located in midline of face or neck

philtrum

52

the sternocleidomastoid muscle separates which of the two sets of orofacial structures

anterior cervical triangle, posterior cervical triangle

53

the oral tissues closest to inner cheek are described as

buccal

54

on which orofacial tissue is linea alba located

buccal mucosa

55

which tissue will develop from ectoderm layer of embryo

epidermis

56

medial nasal processes involved directly in formation of embryo's _____ of nose

bridge

57

structure initially forms during 3rd week of prenatal development

primitive streak

58

disintegration of oropharyngeal membrane enlarges the

stomodenum

59

from which embryonic layer is mesoderm derived?

epiblast layer

60

statement concerning prenatal development correct

initiation of embryonic layers occurs during the first week

61

which period of prenatal development is characterized by increased cellular differentiation

embryonic period

62

neural tube from early prenatal development will from which structure?

spinal cord

63

which week of prenatal development is palate complete?

12th

64

the mandibular arch during the embryonic period is the

fusion of the two mandibular processes

65

the primitive streak forms in the embryonic disc, causing

bilateral symmetry

66

what structure partially separates the nasal and oral cavities in the 5th week of prenatal development

primary palate

67

type of cleft lip can result from lack of fusion between

medial nasal and maxillary processes

68

which week of prenatal development does facial development begin in the embryo

fourth

69

which facial structure is formed from the mandibular arch

lower face

70

neural crest cells migrate from which embryonic structure?

neural folds

71

which phrase concerning the second branchial arch is correct?

it contains Reichert's cartilage

72

which structure is the palatine tonsillar tissue derived

second pharyngeal pouches

73

tongue develops from multiple swellings derived from

the first four branchial arches

74

the oropharyngeal membrane of the embryo

is located superior to the first branchial arch

75

the frontonasal process is a swelling that appears over the developing brain in the embryo and forms the

forehead

76

the fusion of the two palatal shelves with the primary palate is dependent on the

change in the position of the tongue

77

during which week of prenatal development does the neural plate differentiate?

third week

78

by the end of the 1st week of prenatal development, the blastula stops traveling and undergoes

implantation

79

which of the following changes occurs to those specific cells from the enamel organ which will differentiate into preameloblasts

they repolarize their nuclei

80

which embryonic structure is specifically responsible for the development of the root

cervical loop

81

if a tooth has 2 roots, how many horizontal epithelial extensions or flaps will be involved in its root formation?

two

82

the dental lamina is an embryonic structure that develops from the

oral epithelium

83

enamel hypocalcification is a type of enamel dysplasia that involves

interference in the metabolic processes of ameloblasts

84

which statement concerning active eruption of a permanent succedaneous tooth is correct

the shedding of the associated primary tooth is intermittent

85

how many buds in the dental lamina appear along each dental arch during odontogenesis of the primary dentition?

10

86

nonsuccedanous permanent teeth develop from buds that grow off an extension of the

primary second molar's dental lamina

87

the outer cells of the dental papilla are induced to differentiate into

ondontoblasts

88

Which portion of the tooth germ is the primary source of the periodontal ligament?

dental follicle

89

Which portion of the enamel organ is the primary source of the junctional epithelium?

stratum intermedium

90

When is the palate formed?

spanning both the embryonic and fetal periods

91

What portion of the final palate does the secondary palate give rise to?

two-thirds of the hard palate

92

The overlapping period between the primary and permanent dentition is considered the

mixed dnetition period

93

Which of the following statements are correct when considering odontogenesis?

parallels the formation of the face

94

Where does the dental lamina begin to form initially in the developing dental arches?

near the midline

95

What is known etiology of supernumerary teeth?

hereditary factors

96

Which of the following permanent teeth can be considered nonsuccedaneous?

molars

97

which of the following is the most common complication associated with dens invaginatus?

lingual pit formation

98

What is the term used for the movement of the nuclei within the inner enamel epithelium as the tissue forms into preameloblasts?

repolarization

99

What is the angled portion of the ameloblast that secretes the enamel matrix?

Tome's process

100

In which of the following doe the final stages of meiosis occur during prenatal development?

ovum

101

How many x-type of chromosomes enables the embryo to become a female when present?

two

102

When does the blastocyte stop traveling and undergo implantation during prenatal development?

1st week

103

Which tissue usually uses both interstitial and appositional growth to attain their final size?

cartilage

104

. What function is performed by the Golgi complex in the cell?

packages protein compounds

105

The attached gingiva and buccal mucosa are mainly pinkish in color and not reddish due to

increased thickness of epithelial layers

106

the basal layer of oral mucosa generally has (not sure if it says basal, pic was blurry)

cells undergoing mitosis

107

when viewing the oral mucosa of the floor of the mouth though a microscope which of the following can be

extesnive vascular supply

108

the most common type of connective tissues such as the pulp and periosdontal ligament is the

fibroblast

109

Which type of bone tissue contains (idk what the word is)

compact

110

Which tissue provides nutrition for the underlying compact bone?

periosteum

111

Which area of the oral cavity is categorized as a lining mucosa?

soft palate

112

in a lymph node, B-cell lymphocytes mature in the

germinal centers

113

In salivary glands, which of the following structures is composed of secretory epithelial cells?

acinus

114

Which of the following statements concerning pigmentation in the oral cavity is correct?

pigmentation serves no known function in the oral cavity

115

Which of the following basic tissue types is characterized by many different types of cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance with vascularization present?

connective tissue

116

During cell division, microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the

centromere

117

Which type of blood cell is directly responsible for immunoglobulin production?

plasma cells

118

Sharpey’s fibers are located in which dental tissue?

cementum

119

Which dental tissue provides the vascular nutrition for the tooth’s cementum?

periodontal ligament

120

. Which pulp structure is formed when Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath encounters a blood vessel?

accessory canal

121

. During tooth development, the cervical loop is

the area where root formation begins

122

type of tissue makes up the bulk of the lamina propria of the oral mucosa?

connective tissue

123

The peritubular dentin is that found surrounding each odontoblasitc process is

more calcified than intertubular dentin

124

The connective tissue capsule surrounding the salivary gland is continuous with the connective tissue septa that run between the epithelial components creating

lobes and lobules

125

Which term is used to describe the alveolar bone proper?

cribriform plate

126

The rests of Malassez are correctly described as

remnants of Hertwig's root sheath

127

. Pulp and dentin are products of the

dental papilla

128

(154) Which of the following structures is not considered part of the periodontium

basal bone

129

(155) which tissue is most likely the source of cementogenic cells in adults who have undergone root planning?

periodontal ligament

130

(156)which of the following fiber groups of the periodontal ligament do not contribute to the tooth’s anchorage?

gingival fiber group

131

which is not a part of the gingival fiber group

interdental fiber group

132

anchoring fibrils are found

in the connective tissue adjacent to the lamina densa

133

the epithelial attachment refers to the internal basal lamina and the

hemidesmosomes of the basal cells

134

the rests of Malassez are

cells derived from odontogenic epithelium

135

. each alveolus is lined with which of the following

cribriform plate of compact bone

136

secondary dentin usually forms within the tooth

after the completion of the apical foramen

137

dentin is on the average about _____% mineralized by weight

70

138

on radiographs, the periodontal ligament appears as a

radiolucent space

139

which of the following situations can be present at the cementoenamel junction

cementum overlaps enamel

140

the foramen cecum of the tongue is a

depression of the apex of the sulcus terminalis

141

what is the chemical formula for calcium hydroxyapatite

Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2

142

in which location is the cell body of the odontoblast found in a mature, healthy, erupted tooth?

in the outer pupal wall

143

what describes a pronounced band due to the trauma of birth present on the cross section of both enamel and dentin

neonatal line

144

what statement concerning the oblique group of the periodontal ligament is correct?

it resists intrusive forces to the tooth

145

with increased age, the pulp tissue can become

increasingly fibrotic

146

which protion of the jaws contains cancellous bone?

interdental septum

147

which salivary gland is associated with the circumvallate lingual papillae and secrete only serous saliva?

von ebners

148

which paranasal sinuses may be compromised with a periapical infection in a permanent maxillary molar?

maxillary sinus

149

which gland is unencapsulated?

sublingual gland

150

the attached gingiva of the oral cavity consists of which type of mucosa?

masticatory mucosa

151

melanin pigment is synthesized in which of the following cells?

melanosomes

152

keratohyalin granules are located in which of the following epithelial layers?

stratum granulosum

153

of the various epithelia that make up the gingiva, which one does not normally keratinize?

junctional epithelium

154

the most permeable section of the gingiva is considered which of the following

junctional epithelium

155

the most common type of connective tissue fiber in the periodontium is which group?

collagen

156

which fiber group does not have any cemental insertion?

gingival

157

which cell types is not renewable during the lifetime of the tooth

ameloblasts

158

the periodontal ligament forms which portion of the developing tooth germ

dental sac

159

dentin is produced as a result of secretion by

odontoblasts

160

cementoblasts originate from which embryonic structure?

dental sac

161

the alveolar bone proper of the jaws refers to the

layer of compact bone lining the alveolus

162

the failure of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath to separate from the dentin surface during root development may give rise to what anomaly?

enamel pearl

163

cellular cementum is most likely found around which root region?

apical portion of root

164

the lamina dura noted on radiographs corresponds to which structure?

alveolar bone proper of the alveolar process

165

cells are grouped together to form

tissues

166

what is the term for the amount of time it takes for newly divided cells to be completely replaced through a tissue?

turnover

167

which of the following tissues covers and lines both the external and internal body surfaces?

epithelium

168

what is the special term used for the simple squamous epithelium that lines the vessels and serious cavities of the body?

endothelium

169

what is the name given to the clot that forms during repair of the dermis?

scab

170

t/f:
the face and its related tissues begin to form during the sixth week of prenatal development

false

171

t/f: facial development is completed during the 12th week of prenatal development

true

172

t/f:
the stomodeum initially appears as a shallow depression in the embryonic surface ectoderm at the cephalic end

true

173

t/f:
the paired medial nasal processes also fused internally and grow inferiorly on the inside of the stomodeum, forming the intermaxillary segment

true

174

t/f:
the upper lip is formed when each maxillary process fuses with each medial nasal process

true

175

t/f:
the stacked bilateral swellings of the tissue that appear inferior to the stomodeum and include the mandibular arch are the branchial pouches

false

176

t/f:
palatal fusion allows the fusion of swellings or tissue from different surfaces of the embryo

true

177

t/f:
the secondary palate will give rise to the anterior third of the hard palate

false

178

t/f:
the tongue develops during the fourth to 8th weeks of prenatal development

true

179

t/f:
tongue development beings as a triangular median swelling, the tuberculum impar.

true

180

t/f:
the copula is formed from the fusion of mesenchyme of mainly the 3rd and parts of the 4th branchial arches

true

181

t/f:
the foramen cecum is the beginning of the thymus

false

182

t/f:
the oral epithelium grows deeper into the ectomesenchyme and is induced to produce a layer called the dental membrane

false

183

t/f:
a depression results in the deepest part of each tooth bud of dental lamina and forms the enamel knot

false

184

t/f:
the dental papilla will produce the future dentin and pulp tissue for the inner portion of the tooth

false

185

t/f:
the interdental gingiva assumes a non visible concave form between the facial and lingual surfaces called the col

true

186

t/f:
healthy attached gingiva is pink in color, with some areas of melanin pigmentation possible

true

187

t/f:
in some cases, a free gingival groove separates the sulcular gingiva from the marginal gingiva

true

188

t/f:
the dentogingival junction is the junction between the tooth surface and the periodontal ligament tissues

false

189

t/f:
before the eruption of the tooth and after enamel maturation, the ameloblasts secrete a basal lamina on the surface that serves as a portion of the primary epithelial attachment

true

190

t/f:
an endocrine gland is a gland having a duct associated with it

false

191

t/f:
mucoserous acini have both a group of mucous cells surrounding the lumen and a serous demilune

true

192

t/f:
more than one myoepithelial cell can sometimes be found on a single acinus

false

193

t/f:
the submandibular salivary gland is the smallest, most diffuse, and only unencapsulated major salivary gland

false

194

t/f:
tissue fluid drains from the surrounding region into the lymphatic vessels as lymph

true

195

t/f:
the palatine tonsils are four rounded masses of variable size located between the anterior and posterior faucial pillers

false

196

t/f:
the lingual tonsil is an indistinct layer of diffuse lymphoid tissue located on the base of the lateral surface of the tongue

false

197

t/f:
each lateral wall of the nasal cavity has 3 projecting structures, or nasal conchae, which extend inward

true

198

t/f:
the nasal cavity is lined by a respiratory mucosa, like the rest of the respiratory system

true

199

t/f:
the moist mucus forms a deep, invasive system in the respiratory mucosa

false