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Surgery & Anaesthesia - NSULA Vet Tech Program Spring 2016 > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (46):
1

Define preemptive analgesia.

treating for pain before it occurs

2

Define analgesia.

absence of sensibility to pain

3

Define analgesic.

any method or drug that relieves pain

4

Define deep pain.

pain originating in the tendons, joints, muscles and periosteum

5

Define distress.

state in which the animal is unable to adapt to an altered environment/stimuli

6

Define neuralgia.

pain exhibiting periodic intensification which extends along the course of one or more nerves

7

Define pain.

perception of an unpleasant sensory/emotional experience that results from potential or actual tissue damage

8

Define stoic.

indifferent to pain or pleasure

9

What are siz observations of inferred pain in animals?

limp/altered gait
withdrawal of injured part
abnormal postures
distressed expression
looking at, licking, scratching, or kicking at the site of perceived pain
vocalizing

10

What are peripheral pain receptors sensitive to?

mechanosensitive, thermosensative, chemosensitive

11

Describe the peripheral pain pathway.

peripheral nerves -> spinal cord -> neuron in brain that conveys conscious sensation of pain

12

Define spinal facilitation/wind up.

increase in activity of spinal neurons resuting in a prolonged phase of hyperalgesia

13

In what animal has wind up pain been frequently noted?

cats

14

What should be done to prevent wind up pain?

preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative analgesia in order to prevent establishment of pain and central sensitization

15

Name four methods of pain control.

remove the primary cause
stimulate the release of endorphins
provide nursing care
analgesic drugs

16

What are four methods that endorphin release may be stimulated?

acupuncture
transcutaneous electric nerve stim. (TENS)
massage
cold/heat application

17

What are four methods of preemptive analgesia?

Preanesthetic Drugs
Epidural Anesthesia
Local Anesthetics
NSAIDs

18

What is the mechanism of pain relief at the tissue level?

NSAIDs block production of prostaglandins

19

What is the mechanism of pain relief at the peripheral/spinal level?

local anesthetics block transmission

20

What is the mechanism of pain relief at the CNS level?

opioids and alpha-2 agonists block perception of pain; some NSAIDs have action here as well

21

How do opioids work to provide analgesia?

acts on pain receptors in the spinal cord and brain

22

What does preemptive opioid use diminish the occurance of?

wind up pain

23

Name four opioids used for moderate-severe pain

Morphine
Oxymorphone
Hydromorphone
Fentanyl

24

Name three opioids used for mild-moderate pain.

Meperidine
Butorphanol
Buprenorphine

25

How do NSAIDs work to provide analgesia?

inhibit prostaglandin synthesis

26

What types of pain are NSAIDs effective for?

somatic pain, some for visceral pain 30-60 minutes after admin

27

What other benefit do most NSAIDs provide?

most are antiinflammitory and antipyretic

28

Name nine NSAIDs.

Aspirin
Acetominophen
Ibuprofen
Flunixin
Ketoprofen
Ketorolac (Toradol)
Carprofen (Rimadyl)
Meloxicam (Metacam, Mobic)
Etodolac (EtoGesic)

29

What are two NSAIDs that can be used for preemptive analgesia in healthy animals?

Carprofen
Meloxicam

30

What are two adverse effects of acetominopen use in cats?

hepatotixicity and hemolytic anemia

31

What are five adverse effects of NSAID use?

GI ulceration/hemorrhage
renal toxicity
liver damage
antagonize action of certain drugs (ACE inhibitors, Diuretics)
may impair platelet function

32

What are two alpha-2 adrenergic agonists?

xylazine, medetomidine

33

What must need to be prescribed when the patient goes home?

analgesic drugs for the post operative period

34

Define euthanasia.

act of inducing painless death in animals

35

Define death.

permanant abolition of CNS function

36

What are nine factors affection selection of euthanasia method.

Species of animal
Size and weight
The animal’s behavior
Type of physical restraint necessary
Owner preference
Skill of personnel and risk involved
Number of animals to be euthanized
Economics
Facilities available

37

What are four categories of euthanizing agents?

mechanical, chemical, electrical, gaseous

38

What is the most common drug used for chemical euthanasia in domestic animals?

phenobarbitol sodium dosed at 50 mg/lb IV

39

What three mechanisms do euthanasing agents produce death by?

hypoxia, depression of the CNS, and physical damage or concussion of the brain

40

What are the eight evaluation criteria of acceptable methods of euthanasia?

Production of death without pain
Immediate loss of consciousness, breathing, heart beat (peripheral pulse)
Restraining capabilities; ability to minimize physical and psychological stress
Reliability
Safety to personnel
Emotional effect on observers
Economic considerations
Equipment or drug availability/abuse potential

41

What are the current standards/recommendations for small animal euthanasia?

IV catheter should be in place, the animal may be sedated/tranquilized first, and the owner should be allowed to be present if they choose

42

What should a witness expect to see during a chemical euthanasia?

loss of consciousness occurs within seconds but reflex motor movement or sympatheric responses may occur, vocalization is rare but may occur, loss of bladder/bowel control is possible

43

What are two agents for euthanasia via hypoxia?

carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide

44

What consideration should be made for euthanasia via carbon monoxide hypoxia?

chamber is required; CO is hazardous to personell

45

What are three methods of euthanasia via direct CNS depression?

Barbituric acid derivatives
Anesthetic gases
Chloral hydrate alone or in combo
Acceptable for large animals after sedation

46

What are four mechanical methods of euthanasia?

Gunshot or captive bolt
Decapitation/cervical dislocation
Electrocution
Pithing