Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (46):
Define preemptive analgesia.
treating for pain before it occurs
absence of sensibility to pain
any method or drug that relieves pain
Define deep pain.
pain originating in the tendons, joints, muscles and periosteum
state in which the animal is unable to adapt to an altered environment/stimuli
pain exhibiting periodic intensification which extends along the course of one or more nerves
perception of an unpleasant sensory/emotional experience that results from potential or actual tissue damage
indifferent to pain or pleasure
What are siz observations of inferred pain in animals?
withdrawal of injured part
looking at, licking, scratching, or kicking at the site of perceived pain
What are peripheral pain receptors sensitive to?
mechanosensitive, thermosensative, chemosensitive
Describe the peripheral pain pathway.
peripheral nerves -> spinal cord -> neuron in brain that conveys conscious sensation of pain
Define spinal facilitation/wind up.
increase in activity of spinal neurons resuting in a prolonged phase of hyperalgesia
In what animal has wind up pain been frequently noted?
What should be done to prevent wind up pain?
preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative analgesia in order to prevent establishment of pain and central sensitization
Name four methods of pain control.
remove the primary cause
stimulate the release of endorphins
provide nursing care
What are four methods that endorphin release may be stimulated?
transcutaneous electric nerve stim. (TENS)
What are four methods of preemptive analgesia?
What is the mechanism of pain relief at the tissue level?
NSAIDs block production of prostaglandins
What is the mechanism of pain relief at the peripheral/spinal level?
local anesthetics block transmission
What is the mechanism of pain relief at the CNS level?
opioids and alpha-2 agonists block perception of pain; some NSAIDs have action here as well
How do opioids work to provide analgesia?
acts on pain receptors in the spinal cord and brain
What does preemptive opioid use diminish the occurance of?
wind up pain
Name four opioids used for moderate-severe pain
Name three opioids used for mild-moderate pain.
How do NSAIDs work to provide analgesia?
inhibit prostaglandin synthesis
What types of pain are NSAIDs effective for?
somatic pain, some for visceral pain 30-60 minutes after admin
What other benefit do most NSAIDs provide?
most are antiinflammitory and antipyretic
Name nine NSAIDs.
Meloxicam (Metacam, Mobic)
What are two NSAIDs that can be used for preemptive analgesia in healthy animals?
What are two adverse effects of acetominopen use in cats?
hepatotixicity and hemolytic anemia
What are five adverse effects of NSAID use?
antagonize action of certain drugs (ACE inhibitors, Diuretics)
may impair platelet function
What are two alpha-2 adrenergic agonists?
What must need to be prescribed when the patient goes home?
analgesic drugs for the post operative period
act of inducing painless death in animals
permanant abolition of CNS function
What are nine factors affection selection of euthanasia method.
Species of animal
Size and weight
The animal’s behavior
Type of physical restraint necessary
Skill of personnel and risk involved
Number of animals to be euthanized
What are four categories of euthanizing agents?
mechanical, chemical, electrical, gaseous
What is the most common drug used for chemical euthanasia in domestic animals?
phenobarbitol sodium dosed at 50 mg/lb IV
What three mechanisms do euthanasing agents produce death by?
hypoxia, depression of the CNS, and physical damage or concussion of the brain
What are the eight evaluation criteria of acceptable methods of euthanasia?
Production of death without pain
Immediate loss of consciousness, breathing, heart beat (peripheral pulse)
Restraining capabilities; ability to minimize physical and psychological stress
Safety to personnel
Emotional effect on observers
Equipment or drug availability/abuse potential
What are the current standards/recommendations for small animal euthanasia?
IV catheter should be in place, the animal may be sedated/tranquilized first, and the owner should be allowed to be present if they choose
What should a witness expect to see during a chemical euthanasia?
loss of consciousness occurs within seconds but reflex motor movement or sympatheric responses may occur, vocalization is rare but may occur, loss of bladder/bowel control is possible
What are two agents for euthanasia via hypoxia?
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide
What consideration should be made for euthanasia via carbon monoxide hypoxia?
chamber is required; CO is hazardous to personell
What are three methods of euthanasia via direct CNS depression?
Barbituric acid derivatives
Chloral hydrate alone or in combo
Acceptable for large animals after sedation