Introduction to Anesthesia Flashcards Preview

Surgery & Anaesthesia - NSULA Vet Tech Program Spring 2016 > Introduction to Anesthesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Anesthesia Deck (37):
1

Desirable properties of anesthesia and/or chemical restraint

convenient, safe, effective restraint that is inexpensive
with minimal stress, pain, discomfort, and toxic side effects

2

General anesthesia

a reversible state of unconsciousness, immobility, muscle relaxation, and loss of sensation produced by the administration of one or more anesthetic agents

3

Surgical anesthesia

stage of general anesthesia in which there is sufficient analgesia and muscle relaxation to allow surgery to be performed without patient pain/movement

4

Analgesia

loss of sensitivity to pain

5

Sedation

drug-induced CNS depression and drowsiness that varies in intensity from light to deep

6

Tranquilization

drug-induced state of calm in which the patient is reluctant to move and is aware of but unconcerned about its surroundings

7

Hypnosis

sleep-like state in which the patient can be aroused with sufficient stimulation

8

Narcosis

drug-induced sleep from which the patient is not easily aroused, usually associated with the administration of narcotics

9

Local anesthesia

loss of sensation in a small area of the body produced by the administration of a local anesthetic agent

10

Topical anesthesia

loss of sensation of a localized area produced by the administration of a local anesthetic directly to a body surface

11

Regional anesthesia

Loss of sensation in a limited region of the body produced by administration of an agent in proximity to sensory nerves

12

Types of Anesthesia
(by route of administration)

IM/SQ
IV
Inhalation
Infiltration
Field block
Regional nerve block
Topical
Rectal
Epidural/Spinal
Intratesticular
Oral
Acupuncture

13

veins used for IV anesthesia in the dog/cat

Cephalic
Jugular
Saphenous/Femoral

14

veins used for IV anesthetic in the horse/cow/goat/sheep

Jugular
Coccygeal v. (cow – not common)

15

period to withhold food in adult dogs/cats

12 hours, water 2 hours

16

period to withold food in puppies/kittens < 3 months, toy breed dogs < 10 lbs, birds, pocket pets

short to no fast

17

period to withhold food in horses

4-8 hours , do not withhold water

18

period to withhold food in pigs

adults 8-12 hours, neonates 1-3 hours, do not withhold water

19

period to withhold foot in large ruminants

12-36 hours, water 8-12 hours

20

period to withhold food in small ruminants

12-24 hours, do not withhold water

21

period to withhold food in calves, lambs, kids

2-4 hours

22

reasons for IV catheterization

Easy administration of IV anesthetics
Good route for emergency drugs
Fluid therapy during surgery/recovery
Transfusion therapy prn

23

routes of IV catherization

Dog – cephalic, jugular, saphenous v.
Cat – cephalic, jugular, femoral v.
Horse, Cow, Sheep – Jugular v.
Pig – Ear veins
Rabbit – Ear veins
Neonates – Medullary cavity

24

risks of IV catheterization

Air embolism
Accidental over-hydration

25

signs of accidental overhydration

ocular/nasal discharge; chemosis (edema/swelling of conjunctiva); increased lung sounds; increased respiratory rate; dyspnea)

26

maintainence fluid administration rate for dogs

2 mL/kg/hr OR 30-45 ml/lb/24 hours

27

maintainence fluid administration rate for small dogs/cats

4 ml/kg/hr OR 30-45 ml/lb/24 hours

28

dehydration deficit

% dehydration X wt (kg) X 1000 = mL deficit
Replace ½ over 4-8 hr; remainder over rest of 24 hr. period

29

fluid administration rate during anesthesia

2-10 mL/lb/hr with 5 mL/lb/hr most common

30

fluids to replace blood loss

3 mL fluid/1 mL blood loss
Total blood volume = 40 mL/lb
If PCV > 20%; TP > 3.5 mg/dL

31

blood to replace blood loss

If > 30% blood volume lost acutely
If PCV < 15% - chronic anemia
Administer 1mL blood/mL lost acutely
One 3X3 gauze sponge holds 5-6 mL
If donor PCV 40%, 1mL whole blood/lb raises PCV 1% in recipient

32

rapid rehydration fluid administration rate for healthy dogs

40 mL/kg for 1 hr. w/ ½ in first 15 min.
Must then slow IV flow rates

33

rapid rehydration fluid administration rate for cats

20 mL/kg for 1 hr.
Must then slow IV flow rates

34

shock therapy fluid administration rate for dogs

Up to 90 mL/kg/hr max (40 mL/lb/hr)

35

shock therapy fluid administration rate for cats

50-70 mL/kg/hr

36

crystalloid IV fluid (water-based)

Normal saline – 0.9% NaCl
Hypertonic saline – 3, 5, or 7% - For shock therapy, May give 3 mL/lb IV of 7%
Lactated Ringer’s (LRS) - Balanced electrolytes Na, Cl, K, Ca
Dextrose in water or added to saline or LRS - 2.5% or 5%

37

colloid IV fluid

Not water based; higher specific gravity; contain molecules which do not cross vessel walls

Plasma or blood

Synthetic - Dextran, Hetastarch - Remain in circulation – draw fluids

Blood substitutes - Oxyglobin, etc. - Contraindicated with renal or cardiac impairment