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Flashcards in Final Exam Chapter 12 Deck (53):

1. Which factor is most important in predisposing toddlers to frequent infections?
a. Respirations are abdominal.
b. Pulse and respiratory rates are slower than those in infancy.
c. Defense mechanisms are less efficient than those during infancy.
d. Toddlers have a short, straight internal ear canal and large lymph tissue.

Toddlers continue to have the short, straight internal ear canal of infants. The lymphoid tissue of the tonsils and adenoids continues to be relatively large. These two anatomic conditions combine to predispose the toddler to frequent infections. The abdominal respirations and lowered pulse and respiratory rate of toddlers do not affect their susceptibility to infection. The defense mechanisms are more efficient compared with those of infancy.


2. The psychosocial developmental tasks of toddlerhood include which characteristic?
a. Development of a conscience
b. Recognition of sex differences
c. Ability to get along with age-mates
d. Ability to delay gratification

If the need for basic trust has been satisfied, then toddlers can give up dependence for control, independence, and autonomy. One of the tasks that the toddler is concerned with is the ability to delay gratification. Development of a conscience occurs during the preschool years. The recognition of sex differences occurs during the preschool years. The ability to get along with age-mates develops during the preschool and school-age years.


3. The child of 15 to 30 months is likely to be struggling with which developmental task?
a. Trust
b. Initiative
c. Autonomy
d. Intimacy

Autonomy vs shame and doubt is the developmental task of toddlers. Trust vs mistrust is the developmental stage of infancy. Initiative vs guilt is the developmental stage of early childhood. Intimacy and solidarity vs isolation is the developmental stage of early adulthood.


4. A parent of an 18-month-old boy tells the nurse that he says “no” to everything and has rapid mood swings. If he is scolded, he shows anger and then immediately wants to be held. The nurse’s best interpretation of this behavior is included in which statement?
a. This is normal behavior for his age.
b. This is unusual behavior for his age.
c. He is not effectively coping with stress.
d. He is showing he needs more attention.

Toddlers use distinct behaviors in the quest for autonomy. They express their will with continued negativity and the use of the word “no.” Children at this age also have rapid mood swings. The nurse should reassure the parents that their child is engaged in expected behavior for an 18-month-old. Having a rapid mood swing is an expected behavior for a toddler.


5. A nurse is planning care for a 17-month-old child. According to Piaget, which stage should the nurse expect the child to be in cognitively?
a. Trust
b. Preoperational
c. Secondary circular reaction
d. Tertiary circular reaction

The 17-month-old child is in the fifth stage of the sensorimotor phase, tertiary circular reactions. The child uses active experimentation to achieve previously unattainable goals. Trust is Erikson’s first stage. Preoperational is the stage of cognitive development usually present in older toddlers and preschoolers. Secondary circular reactions last from about ages 4 to 8 months.


6. Which is descriptive of a toddler’s cognitive development at age 20 months?
a. Searches for an object only if he or she sees it being hidden
b. Realizes that “out of sight” is not out of reach
c. Puts objects into a container but cannot take them out
d. Understands the passage of time, such as “just a minute” and “in an hour”

At this age, the child is in the final sensorimotor stage. Children will now search for an object in several potential places, even though they saw only the original hiding place. Children have a more developed sense of objective permanence. They will search for objects even if they have not seen them hidden. When a child puts objects into a container but cannot take them out, this is indicative of tertiary circular reactions. An embryonic sense of time exists, although the children may behave appropriately to time-oriented phrases; their sense of timing is exaggerated.


7. Although a 14-month-old girl received a shock from an electric outlet recently, her parent finds her about to place a paper clip in another outlet. Which is the best interpretation of this behavior?
a. Her cognitive development is delayed.
b. This is typical behavior because toddlers are not very developed.
c. This is typical behavior because of the inability to transfer knowledge to new situations.
d. This is not typical behavior because toddlers should know better than to repeat an act that caused pain.

During the tertiary circular reactions stage, children have only a rudimentary sense of the classification of objects. The appearance of an object denotes its function for these children. The slot of an outlet is for putting things into. Her cognitive development is appropriate for her age. Trying to put things into an outlet is typical behavior for a toddler. Only some awareness exists of a causal relation between events.


8. Two toddlers are playing in a sandbox when one child suddenly grabs a toy from the other child. Which is the best interpretation of this behavior?
a. This is typical behavior because toddlers are aggressive.
b. This is typical behavior because toddlers are egocentric.
c. Toddlers should know that sharing toys is expected of them.
d. Toddlers should have the cognitive ability to know right from wrong.

Play develops from the solitary play of infancy to the parallel play of toddlers. The toddler plays alongside other children, not with them. This typical behavior of the toddler is not intentionally aggressive. Shared play is not within their cognitive development. Toddlers do not conceptualize shared play. Because the toddler cannot view the situation from the perspective of the other child, it is okay to take the toy. Therefore, no right or wrong is associated with taking a toy.


9. Steven, 16 months old, falls down a few stairs. He gets up and “scolds” the stairs as if they caused him to fall. This is an example of which of the following?
a. Animism
b. Ritualism
c. Irreversibility
d. Delayed cognitive development

Animism is the attribution of lifelike qualities to inanimate objects. By scolding the stairs, the toddler is attributing human characteristics to them. Ritualism is the need to maintain the sameness and reliability. It provides a sense of comfort to the toddler. Irreversibility is the inability to reverse or undo actions initiated physically. Steven is acting in an age-appropriate manner.


10. Which should the nurse expect for a toddler’s language development at age 18 months?
a. Vocabulary of 25 words
b. Increasing level of comprehension
c. Use of holophrases
d. Approximately one third of speech understandable

During the second year of life, level of comprehension and understanding of speech increases and is far greater than the child’s vocabulary. This is also true for bilingual children, who are able to achieve this linguistic milestone in both languages. The 18-month-old child has a vocabulary of 10 or more words. At this age, the child does not use the one-word sentences that are characteristic of the 1-year-old child. The child has a limited vocabulary of single words that are comprehensible.


11. Which statement is correct about toilet training?
a. Bladder training is usually accomplished before bowel training.
b. Wanting to please the parent helps motivate the child to use the toilet.
c. Watching older siblings use the toilet confuses the child.
d. Children must be forced to sit on the toilet when first learning.

Voluntary control of the anal and urethral sphincters is achieved sometime after the child is walking. The child must be able to recognize the urge to let go and to hold on. The child must want to please parent by holding on rather than pleasing self by letting go. Bowel training precedes bladder training. Watching older siblings provides role modeling and facilitates imitation for the toddler. The child should be introduced to the potty chair or toilet in a nonthreatening manner.


12. Which characteristic best describes the gross motor skills of a 24-month-old child?
a. Skips and can hop in place on one foot
b. Rides tricycle and broad jumps
c. Jumps with both feet and stands on one foot momentarily
d. Walks up and down stairs and runs with a wide stance

The 24-month-old child can go up and down stairs alone with two feet on each step and runs with a wide stance. Skipping and hopping on one foot are achieved by 4-year-old children. Jumping with both feet and standing on one foot momentarily are achieved by 30-month-old children. Tricycle riding and broad jumping are achieved at age 3.


13. In the clinic waiting room, a nurse observes a parent showing an 18-month-old child how to make a tower out of blocks. The nurse should recognize in this situation that:
a. blocks at this age are used primarily for throwing.
b. toddlers are too young to imitate the behavior of others.
c. toddlers are capable of building a tower of blocks.
d. toddlers are too young to build a tower of blocks.

Building with blocks is a good parent-child interaction. The 18-month-old child is capable of building a tower of three or four blocks. The ability to build towers of blocks usually begins at age 15 months. With ongoing development, the child is able to build taller towers. The 18-month-old child imitates others around him or her.


14. At what age should the nurse expect a child to give both first and last names when asked?
a. 15 months
b. 18 months
c. 24 months
d. 30 months

At 30 months, the child is able to give both first and last names and refer to self with an appropriate pronoun. At 15 and 18 months, the child is too young to give his or her own name. At 24 months, the child is able to give first name and refer to self by that name.


15. The parents of a newborn say that their toddler “hates the baby; he suggested that we put him in the trash can so the trash truck could take him away.” Which is the nurse’s best reply?
a. “Let’s see if we can figure out why he hates the new baby.”
b. “That’s a strong statement to come from such a small boy.”
c. “Let’s refer him to counseling to work this hatred out. It’s not a normal response.”
d. “That is a normal response to the birth of a sibling. Let’s look at ways to deal with this.”

The arrival of a new infant represents a crisis for even the best-prepared toddler. Toddlers have their entire schedule and routines disrupted because of the new family member. The nurse should work with parents on ways to involve the toddler in the newborn’s care and to help focus attention on the toddler. The toddler does not hate the infant. This is an expected response to the changes in routines and attention that affect the toddler. The toddler can be provided with a doll to tend to the doll’s needs at the same time the parent is performing similar care for the newborn.


16. A toddler’s parent asks the nurse for suggestions on dealing with temper tantrums. Which is the most appropriate recommendation?
a. Punish the child.
b. Leave the child alone until the tantrum is over.
c. Remain close by the child but without eye contact.
d. Explain to child that this is wrong.

The parent should be told that the best way to deal with temper tantrums is to ignore the behaviors, provided that the actions are not dangerous to the child. Tantrums are common in toddlers as the child becomes more independent and overwhelmed by increasingly complex tasks. The parents and caregivers need to have consistent and developmentally appropriate expectations. Punishment and explanations will not be beneficial. The parent’s presence is necessary both for safety and to provide a feeling of control and security to the child when the tantrum is over.


17. A parent asks the nurse about negativism in toddlers. Which is the most appropriate recommendation?
a. Punish the child.
b. Provide more attention.
c. Ask child not always to say “no.”
d. Reduce the opportunities for a “no” answer.

The nurse should suggest to the parent that questions be phrased with realistic choices rather than yes or no answers. This provides the toddler with a sense of control and reduces the opportunity for negativism. Negativism is not an indication of stubbornness or insolence and should not be punished. The negativism is not a function of attention; the child is testing limits to gain an understanding of the world. The toddler is too young to be asked to not always say “no.”


18. Which technique is best for dealing with the negativism of the toddler?
a. Offer the child choices.
b. Remain serious and intent.
c. Provide few or no choices for child.
d. Quietly and calmly ask the child to comply.

The child should have few opportunities to respond in a negative manner. Questions and requests should provide choices. This allows the child to be in control and reduces opportunities for negativism. The child will continue trying to assert control. The toddler is too young for verbal explanations. The negativism is the child testing limits. These should be clearly defined by structured choices.


19. The parents of a 2-year-old tell the nurse that they are concerned because the toddler has started to use “baby talk” since the arrival of their new baby. The nurse should recommend which intervention?
a. Ignore the “baby talk.”
b. Explain to the toddler that “baby talk” is for babies.
c. Tell the toddler frequently, “You are a big kid now.”
d. Encourage the toddler to practice more advanced patterns of speech.

The baby talk is a sign of regression in the toddler. It should be ignored, while praising the child for developmentally appropriate behaviors. Regression is children’s way of expressing stress. The parents should not introduce new expectations and allow the child to master the developmental tasks without criticism.


20. Parents tell the nurse that their toddler daughter eats little at mealtime, only sits at the table with the family briefly, and wants snacks “all the time.” Which intervention should the nurse recommend?
a. Give her nutritious snacks.
b. Offer rewards for eating at mealtimes.
c. Avoid snacks so she is hungry at mealtimes.
d. Explain to her in a firm manner what is expected of her.

Most toddlers exhibit a physiologic anorexia in response to the decreased nutritional requirement associated with the slower growth rate. Parents should help the child develop healthy eating habits. The toddler is often unable to sit through a meal. Frequent nutritious snacks are a good way to ensure proper nutrition. To help with developing healthy eating habits, food should be not be used as positive or negative reinforcement for behavior. The child may develop habits of overeating or eat nonnutritious foods in response.


21. A father tells the nurse that his daughter wants the same plate and cup used at every meal, even if they go to a restaurant. The nurse should explain that this is:
a. a sign the child is spoiled.
b. a way to exert unhealthy control.
c. regression, common at this age.
d. ritualism, common at this age.

The child is exhibiting the ritualism that is characteristic at this age. Ritualism is the need to maintain sameness and reliability. It provides a sense of comfort to the toddler. It will dictate certain principles in feeding practices, including rejecting a favorite food because it is served in a different container. Ritualism is not indicative of a child who has unreasonable expectations, but rather normal development. Toddlers use ritualistic behaviors to maintain necessary structure in their lives. This is not regression, which is a retreat from a present pattern of functioning.


22. Developmentally, most children at age 12 months:
a. use a spoon adeptly.
b. relinquish the bottle voluntarily.
c. eat the same food as the rest of the family.
d. reject all solid food in preference to the bottle.

By age 12 months, most children are eating the same food that is prepared for the rest of the family. Using a spoon usually is not mastered until age 18 months. The parents should be engaged in weaning a child from a bottle if that is the source of liquid. Toddlers should be encouraged to drink from a cup at the first birthday and be weaned from the bottle totally by 14 months. The child should be weaned from a milk- or formula-based diet to a balanced diet that includes iron-rich sources of food.


23. The most effective way to clean a toddler’s teeth is for the:
a. child to brush regularly with a toothpaste of his or her choice.
b. parent to stabilize the chin with one hand and brush with the other.
c. parent to brush the mandibular occlusive surfaces, leaving the rest for the child.
d. parent to brush the front labial surfaces, leaving the rest for the child.

For young children, the most effective cleaning of teeth is by the parents. Different positions can be used if the child’s back is to the adult. The adult should use one hand to stabilize the chin and the other to brush the child’s teeth. The child can participate in brushing, but for a thorough cleaning, adult intervention is necessary.


24. Which is an appropriate recommendation for preventing tooth decay in young children?
a. Substitute raisins for candy.
b. Substitute sugarless gum for regular gum.
c. Use honey or molasses instead of refined sugar.
d. When sweets are to be eaten, select a time not during meals.

Regular gum has high sugar content. When the child chews gum, the sugar is in prolonged contact with the teeth. Sugarless gum is less cariogenic than regular gum. Raisins, honey, and molasses are highly cariogenic and should be avoided. Sweets should be consumed with meals so that the teeth can be cleaned afterward. This decreases the amount of time that the sugar is in contact with the teeth.


25. Which is the leading cause of death during the toddler period?
a. Injuries
b. Infectious diseases
c. Congenital disorders
d. Childhood diseases

Injuries are the single most common cause of death in children ages 1 through 4 years. This represents the highest rate of death from injuries of any childhood age group except adolescence. Infectious diseases and childhood diseases are less common causes of deaths in this age group. Congenital disorders are the second leading cause of death in this age group.


26. Kimberly’s parents have been using a rearward-facing, convertible car seat since she was born. Most car seats can be safely switched to the forward-facing position when the child reaches which age?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

It is now recommended that all infants and toddlers ride in rear-facing car safety seats until they reach the age of 2 years or height recommended by the car seat manufacturer. Children 2 years old and older who have outgrown the rear-facing height or weight limit for their car safety seat should use a forward-facing car safety seat with a harness up to the maximum height or weight recommended by the manufacturer. One year is too young to switch to a forward-facing position.


27. The nurse recommends to parents that peanuts are not a good snack food for toddlers. The nurse’s rationale for this action is that they:
a. are low in nutritive value.
b. are high in sodium.
c. cannot be entirely digested.
d. can be easily aspirated.

Foreign-body aspiration is common during the second year of life. Although they chew well, this age child may have difficulty with large pieces of food, such as meat and whole hot dogs, and with hard foods, such as nuts or dried beans. Peanuts have many beneficial nutrients, but should be avoided because of the risk of aspiration in this age group. The sodium level may be a concern, but the risk of aspiration is more important. Many foods pass through the gastrointestinal tract incompletely undigested. This is not necessarily detrimental to the child.


28. The parent of a 16-month-old toddler asks, “What is the best way to keep our son from getting into our medicines at home?” The nurse’s best advice is:
a. “All medicines should be locked securely away.”
b. “The medicines should be placed in high cabinets.”
c. “The child just needs to be taught not to touch medicines.”
d. “Medicines should not be kept in the homes of small children.”

The major reason for poisoning in the home is improper storage. Toddlers can climb, unlatch cabinets, and obtain access to high-security places. For medications, only a locked cabinet is safe. Toddlers can climb by using furniture. High places are not a deterrent to an exploring toddler. Toddlers are not able to generalize as dangerous all the different forms of medications that may be available in the home. It is not feasible to not keep medicines in the homes of small children. Many parents require medications for chronic illnesses. Parents must be taught safe storage for their home and when they visit other homes.


29. The most fatal type of burn in the toddler age group is:
a. flame burn from playing with matches.
b. scald burn from high-temperature tap water.
c. hot object burn from cigarettes or irons.
d. electric burn from electric outlets.

Flame burns from matches and lighters represent one of the most fatal types of burns in the toddler age group. High-temperature tap water, hot objects, and electrical outlets are all significant causes of burn injury. The child should be protected from these causes by reducing the temperature on the hot water in the home, keeping objects such as cigarettes and irons away from children, and placing protective guards over electric outlets when not in use.


30. Which play item should the nurse bring from the playroom to a hospitalized toddler in isolation?
a. Small plastic Lego
b. Set of large plastic building blocks
c. Brightly colored balloon
d. Coloring book and crayons

Play objects for toddlers must still be chosen with an awareness of danger from small parts. Large, sturdy toys without sharp edges or removable parts are safest. Large plastic blocks are appropriate for a toddler in isolation. Small plastic toys such as Lego can cause choking or can be aspirated. Balloons can cause significant harm if swallowed or aspirated. Coloring book and crayons would be too advanced for a toddler.


31. A nurse places some x-ray contrast the toddler is to drink in a small cup instead of a large cup. Which concept of a toddler’s preoperational thinking is the nurse using?
a. Inability to conserve
b. Magical thinking
c. Centration
d. Irreversibility

The nurse is using the toddler’s inability to conserve. This is when the toddler is unable to understand the idea that a mass can be changed in size, shape, volume, or length without losing or adding to the original mass. Instead, toddlers judge what they see by the immediate perceptual clues given to them. A small glass means less amount of contrast. Magical thinking is believing that thoughts are all-powerful and can cause events. Centration is focusing on one aspect rather than considering all possible alternatives. Irreversibility is the inability to undo or reverse the actions initiated, such as being unable to stop doing an action when told.


32. Parents need further teaching about the use of car safety seats if they make which statement?
a. “Even if our toddler helps buckle the straps, we will double-check the fastenings.”
b. “We won’t start the car until everyone is properly restrained.”
c. “We won’t need to use the car seat on short trips to the store.”
d. “We will anchor the car seat to the car’s anchoring system.”

Parents need to be taught to always use the restraint even for short trips. Further teaching is needed if they make this statement. Parents have understood the teaching if they encourage the child to help attach buckles, straps, and shields but always double-check fastenings; do not start the car until everyone is properly restrained; and anchor the car safety seat securely to the car’s anchoring system and apply the harness snugly to the child.


1. Which are characteristic of physical development of a 30-month-old child? (Select all that apply.)
a. Birth weight has doubled.
b. Primary dentition is complete.
c. Sphincter control is achieved.
d. Anterior fontanel is open.
e. Length from birth is doubled.
f. Left or right handedness is established.

Usually by age 30 months, the primary dentition of 20 teeth is completed, and the child has sphincter control in preparation for bowel and bladder control. Birth weight doubles at approximately ages 5 to 6 months. The anterior fontanel closes at age 12 to 18 months. Birth length is doubled around age 4. Left or right handedness is not established until about age 5.


2. Which should the nurse teach to parents of toddlers about accidental poison prevention? (Select all that apply.)
a. Keep toxic substances in the garage.
b. Discard empty poison containers.
c. Know the number of the nearest poison control center.
d. Remove colorful labels from containers of toxic substances.
e. Caution child against eating nonedible items, such as plants.

ANS: B, C, E
To prevent accidental poisoning, parents should be taught to promptly discard empty poison containers, know the number of the nearest poison control center and to caution the child against eating nonedible items, such as plants. Parents should place all potentially toxic agents, including cosmetics, personal care items, cleaning products, pesticides, and medications in a locked cabinet, not in the garage. Parents should be taught to never remove labels from containers of toxic substances.


3. Which gross motor milestones should the nurse assess in an 18-month-old child? (Select all that apply.)
a. Jumps in place with both feet
b. Takes a few steps on tiptoe
c. Throws ball overhand without falling
d. Pulls and pushes toys
e. Stands on one foot momentarily

ANS: A, C, D
An 18-month-old child can jump in place with both feet, throw a ball overhand without falling, and pull and push toys. Taking a few steps on tiptoe and standing on one foot momentarily is not acquired until 30 months of age.


The parents of a toddler ask the nurse for suggestions about discipline. When discussing the use of timeouts, which of the following suggestions should the nurse include?
a. Send the child to his or her room.
b. If the child cries, refuses, or is more disruptive, try another approach.
c. Select an area that is safe and nonstimulating, such as a hallway.
d. The general rule for length of time is 1 hour per year of age.

The area must be nonstimulating and safe. The child becomes bored in this environment and then changes his or her behavior to rejoin activities.
The child's room may have toys and other forms of amusement that may negate the effect of being separated from family activities.
When the child engages in this type of behavior, the timeout begins when the child quiets.
The general rule is 1 minute per year. An hour per year is excessive.


The nurse is discussing toddler development with a parent. Which intervention will foster the achievement of autonomy?
a. Help the toddler complete tasks.
b. Provide opportunities for the toddler to play with other children.
c. Help the toddler learn the difference between right and wrong.
d. Encourage the toddler to do things for himself or herself when he or she is capable of doing them.

Toddlers have an increased ability to control their bodies, themselves, and the environment. Autonomy develops when children complete tasks of which they are capable.
To successfully achieve autonomy, the toddler needs to have a sense of accomplishment. This does not occur if parents complete tasks.
Children at this age engage in parallel play. This will not foster autonomy.
This concept is too advanced for toddlers and will not contribute to autonomy.


One of the major tasks of toddlerhood is toilet training. In teaching the parents about a child's readiness for toilet training, it is important for the nurse to emphasize that
a. nighttime bladder control develops first, so parents should focus on that in the initial teaching with their toddler.
b. bowel control is accomplished before bladder control, so the parent should focus on bowel training first.
c. the toddler must have the gross motor skill to climb up to the adult toilet before training is begun.
d. the universal age for toilet training to begin is 2 years, and the universal age for completion is 4 years.

Bowel training is usually accomplished before bladder training because of its greater regularity and predictability. The sensation to defecate is stronger than that of urination. The completion of bowel training will give the toddler a sense of accomplishment that can be carried onto bladder training.
Nighttime bladder control normally takes several months to years after daytime training; therefore, this should not be the initial focus of toilet training with a toddler.
Nighttime bladder control normally takes several months to years after daytime training; therefore, this should not be the initial focus of toilet training with a toddler.
There is no universal right age to begin toilet training or an absolute deadline to complete training. One of the nurse's most important responsibilities is to help parents identify the readiness signs in their child.


Which statement is most characteristic of the motor skills of a 24-month-old child?
a. The toddler walks alone but falls easily.
b. The toddler's activities begin to produce purposeful results.
c. The toddler is able to grasp small objects but cannot release them at will.
d. The toddler's motor skills are fully developed but occur in isolation from the environment.

Gross and fine motor mastery occurs with other activities that have a purpose, such as walking to a particular location or putting down one toy and picking up a new toy.
By 2 years of age, children are able to walk up and down stairs without falling.
Grasping small objects without being able to release them is a task of infancy.
Interaction with the environment is essential for mastery of both fine and gross motor skills at this age and beyond.


The nurse notices that a toddler is more cooperative taking medicine from a small cup than from a large cup. This is an example of which characteristic of preoperational thought?
a. Egocentrism
b. Irreversibility
c. Inability to conserve
d. Transductive reasoning

The smaller cup makes it look like less medicine to the child at this stage of cognitive development.
The inability to see situations from other perspectives, besides their own, does not facilitate medication administration.
The inability to reverse or undo actions physically initiated does not facilitate medication administration.
Focusing on particulars does not explain the cooperation with the smaller medication cup.


A hospitalized toddler clings to a worn, tattered blanket. The toddler screams when anyone tries to take it away. Which is the best explanation for the toddler’s attachment to the blanket?
a. The blanket encourages immature behavior.
b. The blanket is an important transitional object.
c. The developmental task of individuation–separation has not been mastered.
d. The child and mother have inadequate bonding.

The blanket is an important transitional object that provides security when the child is separated from parents.
Transitional objects are important to help toddlers separate, and attachment to them does not indicate immature behavior.
Transitional objects are helpful when a toddler experiences increased stress such as hospitalization.
The attachment to the blanket does not reflect inadequate bonding with the mother.


Which characterizes the development of a 2-year-old child?
a. Engages in parallel play
b. Fully dresses self with supervision
c. Has a vocabulary of at least 500 words
d. Has attained one third of his or her adult height

Two-year-olds play alongside each other, otherwise known as parallel play.
Toddlers need help with dressing because this is a task they are just beginning to learn; learning this extends into the preschool years.
A toddler commonly has a vocabulary of 300 words.
A toddler has attained one half of his or her adult height.


What should the nurse recommend to the parents to help a toddler cope with the birth of a new sibling?
a. Give the toddler a doll with which he or she can imitate the parents.
b. Discourage the toddler from helping with care of the new sibling until the baby is much older.
c. Prepare the toddler about 1 to 2 weeks before the birth of a new sibling.
d. Explain to the toddler that a new playmate will soon come home.

The toddler can participate in the activity of caring for a new family member, which will make him or her feel included and important.
The child should be encouraged to participate within his or her capabilities. The toddler should never be discouraged, because this will make him or her feel isolated and left out.
Preparation should begin when obvious changes begin to happen to the mother's body and at home.
This will establish unrealistic expectations for the toddler. Toddlers take language literally, and therefore will be disappointed when the new baby cannot play when he or she arrives home.


A 2-year-old child has recently started having temper tantrums where breath holding occurs and occasionally fainting. The most appropriate action by the nurse is to
a. Refer the child for a respiratory evaluation
b. Refer the child for a psychological evaluation
c. Explain to the parent that this is not harmful
d. Explain to the parent that the child is spoiled

The rising carbon dioxide levels restart the breathing process when a child holds his or her breath; therefore, the process is self-limiting and not harmful.
A respiratory evaluation is not indicated for this toddler.
Temper tantrums are part of this developmental stage as the toddler asserts his or her independence. A psychological evaluation is not warranted.
Temper tantrums are part of this developmental stage as the toddler asserts independence. There are no data to indicate that the child is spoiled.


Which statement characterizes toddlers' eating behavior?
a. They have increased appetites.
b. They have few food preferences.
c. Their table manners are predictable.
d. They become fussy eaters

Toddlers have physiologic anorexia, which contributes to picky, fussy eating. This usually begins at about 18 months of age.
They have a decrease in appetite known as physiologic anorexia at this age.
They have strong taste preferences at this age.
Use of finger foods contributes to the unpredictable table manners of toddlers.


For a toddler with sleep problems, the nurse should suggest that the parents
a. use a transitional object at bedtime.
b. vary the bedtime ritual.
c. restrict stimulating activities throughout the day.
d. explain away their fears

Transitional objects may help ease the toddler's anxiety and facilitate sleep.
A consistent set of bedtime rituals will facilitate a toddler's sleep.
Toddlers should have stimulating physical activity during the daytime in order for them to sleep at night.
Toddlers do not understand verbal explanations, so parents cannot explain away their fears.


The nurse is teaching the parent of a 2-year-old child how to care for the child's teeth. Which instruction should be included?
a. Flossing is not recommended at this age.
b. Toddlers are old enough to brush their teeth effectively.
c. The parent should brush the toddler's teeth with plain water if he or she does not like toothpaste.
d. The toddler's toothbrush should be small and have hard, rounded, nylon bristles.

Some toddlers do not like the flavor of toothpaste, so water can be used for teeth brushing at this age.
Flossing should be done after brushing to establish it as part of dental care for the toddler.
Two-year-olds cannot effectively brush their own teeth; parental assistance is necessary.
Soft multitufted bristled toothbrushes are recommended to avoid damaging a toddler's teeth or gums.


Which statement about bottle-mouth caries should be taught to the parents?
a. This syndrome is distinguished by protruding upper front teeth, resulting from sucking on a hard nipple.
b. Giving a bottle of milk or juice at nap time or bedtime predisposes the child to this syndrome.
c. This syndrome can be completely prevented by breastfeeding.
d. Giving the child juice in the bottle instead of milk at bedtime prevents this syndrome.

Sweet liquids, or the sugars in milk and even breast milk, pooling in a toddler's mouth during sleep increase the incidence of dental caries.
Changes in the positioning of the teeth may result from pacifier use or thumb-sucking and are not related to bottle-mouth caries.
Frequent breastfeeding before sleep can cause bottle-mouth caries, since breast milk does contain lactose, which is present in higher concentrations than in cow's milk–based formula.
Juice, which contains varying concentrations of sugar, in bottles before sleep contributes to bottle-mouth caries.


A parent brings a 2-year-old to the clinic for a well-child checkup. Which statement by the parent would indicate to the nurse that the parent needs more instruction regarding accident prevention?
a. "We locked all the medicines in the bathroom cabinet."
b. "We turned the thermostat down on our hot water heater."
c. "We placed gates at the top and bottom of the basement steps."
d. "We stopped using the car seat and put our child in the seat belt now that he is older."

A car seat should be used until the child weighs 18 kilograms (40 pounds) and is approximately 4 years old.
Locking up medicines and any other harmful household products is an appropriate action; therefore, there is no need for further instruction.
Turning down the thermostat on the hot water heater is an appropriate action; therefore, there is no need for further instruction.
Placing gates at the top and bottom of the basement stairs is an appropriate action; therefore, there is no need for further instruction.


When explaining the proper restraint of toddlers in motor vehicles to a group of parents, the nurse should include
a. wearing safety belts snugly over the toddler's abdomen.
b. placing the car seat in the front passenger seat if there is an airbag.
c. using lap and shoulder belts when child is over 3 years of age.
d. placing the car seat in the back seat of the car facing forward

Car seats are required for toddlers to prevent injury in case of a motor vehicle accident. The car seat should be placed in the back seat, forward facing.
Safety belts can cause injuries if they are placed over a toddler's abdomen.
Car seats should be in rear of the car because airbags can injure the toddler.
Three-year-olds should be restrained in car seats.


The nurse should teach parents of toddlers how to prevent poisoning by instructing them to
a. consistently use safety caps.
b. store poisonous substances in a locked cabinet.
c. keep ipecac in the home.
d. store poisonous substances out of reach.

This is an appropriate action to prevent the curious toddler from getting into poisonous substances and products.
Not all poisonous substances have safety caps, and safety caps are not always foolproof.
Ipecac does not prevent poisoning and is not recommended as a treatment for poisoning.
Toddlers can climb and are curious; therefore, storing substances out of reach only does not eliminate the potential for poisoning.


The primary reason for universal screening of young children for lead poisoning is that
a. children with lead poisoning rarely have symptoms.
b. water and food in the United States are usually contaminated with lead.
c. most children are exposed to lead through herbal products.
d. most children in the United States are exposed to toxic amounts of lead.

In the early stages of lead poisoning, children are asymptomatic.
Water and food in the United States are not highly contaminated. Risks are homes painted before 1978, when painting products still had high lead levels.
Universal screening will identify children who may receive lead via herbal supplements, if applicable.
Universal screening will identify children who may receive lead via environmental exposure, if applicable.


Characteristics of physical development of a 30-month-old child are (Select all that apply)
a. anterior fontanel is open.
b. birth weight has doubled.
c. genital fondling is noted.
d. sphincter control is achieved.
e. primary dentition is complete.

Sphincter control in preparation for bowel and bladder control is usually achieved by 30 months of age.
Primary dentition is usually completed by 30 months of age.
Anterior fontanel closes between 12-18 months of age.
Birth weight should double at 5-6 months of age and quadruple by 2½ years of age.
Genital fondling is not a characteristic of physical development of this age group. This is part of the development of gender identity.