Flashcards in Final Exam Chapter 17 Deck (55):
1. Which statement is true about smoking in adolescence?
a. Smoking is related to other high-risk behaviors.
b. Smoking will not continue unless peer pressure continues.
c. Smoking is less common when the adolescent’s parent(s) smokes.
d. Smoking among adolescents is becoming more prevalent
Cigarettes are considered a gateway drug. Teenagers who smoke are 11.4 times more likely to use an illicit drug. Teenagers begin smoking for a variety of reasons, such as imitation of adult behavior, peer pressure, imitation of behaviors portrayed in movies and advertisements, and a desire to control weight. The absence of peer pressure alone will not stop smoking. Teenagers who do not smoke usually have parents and friends who do not smoke or who oppose smoking. The percentage of young people who report current cigarette use and frequent cigarette use has declined significantly.
2. Smokeless tobacco is:
a. not addicting.
b. proven to be carcinogenic.
c. easy to stop using.
d. a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.
Smokeless tobacco is a popular substitute for cigarettes and poses serious health hazards to children and adolescents. Smokeless tobacco is associated with cancer of the mouth and jaw. The nicotine in the smokeless tobacco is addicting, and therefore it is very difficult to quit. Because the product is addicting and can cause cancer, it is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.
3. A child has been diagnosed with enuresis. TCA imipramine (Tofranil) has been prescribed for the child. The nurse understands that this medication is in which category?
Drug therapy is increasingly being prescribed to treat enuresis. Three types of drugs are used: tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), antidiuretics, and antispasmodics. The selection depends on the interpretation of the cause. The drug used most frequently is the TCA imipramine (Tofranil), which exerts an anticholinergic action in the bladder to inhibit urination. Tofranil is in the antispasmodic category. Analgesics are not used to treat enuresis.
4. A 12-year-old male has short stature because of a constitutional growth delay. The nurse should be the most concerned about which of the following?
a. Proper administration of thyroid hormone
b. Proper administration of human growth hormones
c. Child’s self-esteem and sense of competence
d. Helping child understand that his height is most likely caused by chronic illness and is not his fault
Most cases of constitutional growth delay are caused by simple constitutional delay of puberty, and the child can be assured that normal development will eventually take place. Listening to distressed adolescents and conveying interest and concern are important interventions for these children and adolescents. They should be encouraged to focus on the positives aspects of their bodies and personalities. Thyroid hormones and human growth hormones would not be beneficial in a constitutional growth delay. A constitutional growth delay is not caused by a chronic illness.
5. Which syndrome involves a common sex chromosome defect?
Turner syndrome is caused by an absence of one of the X chromosomes. Down syndrome is caused by trisomy 21, three copies rather than two copies of chromosome 21. Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Hemophilia is a disorder of blood coagulation inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern.
6. Turner syndrome is suspected in an adolescent girl with short stature. This is caused by:
a. absence of one of the X chromosomes.
b. presence of an incomplete Y chromosome.
c. precocious puberty in an otherwise healthy child.
d. excess production of both androgens and estrogens.
Turner syndrome is caused by an absence of one of the X chromosomes. Most girls who have this disorder have one X chromosome missing from all cells. No Y chromosome is present in individuals with Turner syndrome. This young woman has 45 rather than 46 chromosomes.
7. An adolescent asks the nurse what causes primary dysmenorrhea. The nurse’s response should be based on which statement?
a. It is an inherited problem.
b. Excessive estrogen production causes uterine pain.
c. There is no physiologic cause; it is a psychological reaction.
d. There is a relation between prostaglandins and uterine contractility.
The exact etiology of primary dysmenorrhea is debated. Overproduction of uterine prostaglandins has been implicated, as has overproduction of vasopressin. Dysmenorrhea is not known to be inherited. Excessive estrogen has not been implicated in the etiology. It has a physiologic cause. Women with dysmenorrhea have higher prostaglandin levels.
8. An adolescent girl asks the school nurse for advice because she has dysmenorrhea. She says that a friend recommended she try an over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The nurse’s response should be based on which statement?
a. Aspirin is the drug of choice for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.
b. Over-the-counter NSAIDs are rarely strong enough to provide adequate pain relief.
c. NSAIDs are effective because of their analgesic effect.
d. NSAIDs are effective because they inhibit prostaglandins, leading to reduction in uterine activity.
First-line therapy for adolescents with dysmenorrhea is NSAIDs. This group of drugs blocks the formation of prostaglandins. NSAIDs, not aspirin, are the drugs of choice in dysmenorrhea. NSAIDs are potent anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit prostaglandin. Although NSAIDs have analgesic effects, the mechanism of action in dysmenorrhea is most likely the antiprostaglandin effect.
9. The school nurse is discussing testicular self-examination with adolescent boys. Why is this important?
a. Epididymitis is common during adolescence.
b. Asymptomatic sexually transmitted diseases may be present.
c. Testicular tumors during adolescence are generally malignant.
d. Testicular tumors, although usually benign, are common during adolescence.
Tumors of the testes are not common, but when manifested in adolescence, they are generally malignant and demand immediate evaluation. Epididymitis is not common in adolescence. Asymptomatic sexually transmitted disease would not be evident during testicular self-examination. The focus of this examination is on testicular cancer. Testicular tumors are most commonly malignant.
10. Which is the usual presenting symptom for testicular cancer?
a. Hard, painful mass
b. Hard, painless mass
c. Epididymis easily palpated
d. Scrotal swelling and pain
The usual presenting symptom for testicular cancer is a heavy, hard, painless mass that is either smooth or nodular and palpated on the testes. A hard, painful mass, an epididymis easily palpated, and scrotal swelling and pain are not the clinical presentations of testicular cancer.
11. A 14-year-old boy and his parents are concerned about bilateral breast enlargement. The nurse’s discussion of this should be based on which statement?
a. This is usually benign and temporary.
b. This is usually caused by Klinefelter syndrome.
c. Administration of estrogen effectively reduces gynecomastia.
d. Administration of testosterone effectively reduces gynecomastia.
The male breast responds to hormonal changes. Some degree of bilateral or unilateral breast enlargement occurs frequently in boys during puberty. Although individuals with Klinefelter syndrome can have gynecomastia, it is not a common cause for male breast enlargement. Estrogen is not a therapy for gynecomastia. Administration of testosterone has no benefit for gynecomastia and may aggravate the condition.
12. An adolescent tells the school nurse that she is pregnant. Her last menstrual period was 4 months ago. She has not received any medical care. She smokes but denies any other substance use. The priority nursing action is to:
a. notify her parents.
b. refer for prenatal care.
c. explain the importance of not smoking.
d. discuss dietary needs for adequate fetal growth
Teenage girls and their unborn children are at greater risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery. With improved therapies, the mortality for teenage pregnancy is decreasing, but the morbidity is high. A pregnant teenager needs careful assessment by the nurse to determine the level of social support available to her and possibly her partner. Guidance from the adults in her life would be invaluable, but confidentiality should be maintained. Although it is important to explain the importance of not smoking and to discuss dietary needs for adequate fetal growth, because of her potential for having a high-risk pregnancy, she will need a comprehensive prenatal program to minimize maternal-fetal complications.
13. An adolescent girl calls the nurse at the clinic because she had unprotected sex the night before and does not want to be pregnant. The nurse should explain that:
a. it is too late to prevent an unwanted pregnancy.
b. an abortion may be the best option if she is pregnant.
c. Norplant can be administered to prevent pregnancy for up to 5 years.
d. postcoital contraception is available to prevent implantation.
Several emergency methods of contraception are available. Postcoital contraception options do exist. It is nontherapeutic to tell her it is too late or that an abortion is the best option. Norplant is not a postcoital contraceptive.
14. A sexually active female adolescent asks the nurse about the contraceptive Depo-Provera. The nurse should explain that it:
a. requires injections every 3 months.
b. requires daily administration of medication by mouth.
c. provides long-term continuous protection, up to 5 years.
d. prevents pregnancy if given within 72 hours of unprotected sex.
The contraceptive Depo-Provera is administered by injection every 3 months. Oral contraceptives, not Depo-Provera, require daily administration of medication by mouth. Norplant, not Depo-Provera, provides long-term continuous protection for up to 5 years. Postcoital contraception, not Depo-Provera, prevents pregnancy if given within 72 hours of unprotected sex.
15. Which statement is true about gonorrhea?
a. It is caused by Treponema pallidum.
b. Treatment is by multidose administration of penicillin.
c. Treatment is by topical applications to lesions.
d. Treatment of all sexual contacts is an essential part of treatment.
The treatment plan should include finding and treating all sexual partners. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Syphilis is caused by T. pallidum. Primary treatment is with different antibiotics because of N. gonorrhoeae resistance to penicillin. Systemic therapy is necessary to treat this disease.
16. Which statement regarding chlamydia infection is correct?
a. Treatment of choice is oral penicillin.
b. Treatment of choice is nystatin or miconazole.
c. Clinical manifestations include dysuria and urethral itching in males.
d. Clinical manifestations include small, painful vesicles on genital areas.
Symptoms of chlamydia infection in males include meatal erythema, tenderness, itching, dysuria, and urethral discharge. Some infected males have no symptoms. Oral penicillin and nystatin or miconazole are not the antibiotics of choice. Small, painful vesicles on genital areas are clinical manifestations true of chlamydia infection but may also indicate herpetic lesions.
17. A nurse is conducting a class for adolescent girls about pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Why should the nurse emphasize the importance of preventing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
a. PID can be sexually transmitted.
b. PID cannot be treated.
c. PID can have devastating effects on the reproductive tract.
d. PID can cause serious defects in future children of affected adolescents.
PID is a major concern because of its devastating effects on the reproductive tract. Short-term complications include abscess formation in the fallopian tubes, whereas long-term complications include ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and dyspareunia. PID is an infection of the upper female genital tract, most commonly caused by sexually transmitted infections but it is not sexually transmitted to another person. PID can be treated by treating the underlying cause. There is a possibility of ectopic pregnancy but not birth defects in children.
18. Which statement is correct about childhood obesity?
a. Heredity is an important factor in the development of obesity.
b. Childhood obesity in the United States is decreasing.
c. Childhood obesity is the result of inactivity.
d. Childhood obesity can be attributed to an underlying disease in most cases.
Heredity is an important fact that contributes to obesity. Identical twins reared apart tend to resemble their biologic parents to a greater extent than their adoptive parents. It is difficult to distinguish between hereditary and environmental factors. The number of overweight children is increasing in the United States. Inactivity is related to childhood obesity, but it is not the only component. Underlying diseases such as hypothyroidism and hyperinsulinism account for only a small number of cases of childhood obesity.
19. The psychological effects of being obese during adolescence include:
a. sexual promiscuity.
b. poor body image.
c. feelings of contempt for thin peers.
d. accurate body image but self-deprecating attitude.
Common emotional consequences of obesity include poor body image, low self-esteem, social isolation, and feelings of depression and isolation. Sexual promiscuity, feelings of contempt for thin peers, and accurate body image but self-deprecating attitude are not usually associated with obesity.
20. Anorexia nervosa may best be described as:
a. occurring most frequently in adolescent males.
b. occurring most frequently in adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups.
c. resulting from a posterior pituitary disorder.
d. resulting in severe weight loss in the absence of obvious physical causes.
The etiology of anorexia remains unclear, but a distinct psychological component is present. The diagnosis is based primarily on psychological and behavioral criteria. Females account for 90% to 95% of the cases. No relation has been identified between socioeconomic groups and anorexia. Posterior pituitary disorders are not associated with anorexia nervosa.
21. Young people with anorexia nervosa are often described as being:
d. low achieving.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa are described as perfectionist, academically high achievers, conforming, and conscientious. “Independent,” disruptive,” and “low achieving” are not part of the behavioral characteristics of anorexia nervosa.
22. The weight loss of anorexia nervosa is usually triggered by
a. sexual abuse.
b. school failure.
c. independence from family.
d. traumatic interpersonal conflict.
Weight loss may be triggered by a typical adolescent crisis such as the onset of menstruation or a traumatic interpersonal incident; situations of severe family stress, such as parental separation or divorce; or circumstances in which the young person lacks personal control, such as being teased, changing schools, or entering college. “Sexual abuse,” “school failure,” and “independence from family” are not part of the behavioral characteristics of anorexia nervosa.
23. Which symptoms should the nurse expect to observe during the physical assessment of an adolescent girl with severe weight loss and disrupted metabolism associated with anorexia nervosa?
a. Dysmenorrhea and oliguria
b. Tachycardia and tachypnea
c. Heat intolerance and increased blood pressure
d. Lowered body temperature and brittle nails
Symptoms of anorexia nervosa include lower body temperature, severe weight loss, decreased blood pressure, dry skin, brittle nails, altered metabolic activity, and presence of lanugo hair. Amenorrhea, rather than dysmenorrhea, and cold intolerance are manifestations of anorexia nervosa. Bradycardia, rather than tachycardia, may be present.
24. Which is descriptive of bulimia during adolescence?
a. Strong sense of control over eating behavior
b. Feelings of elation after the binge-purge cycle
c. Profound lack of awareness that the eating pattern is abnormal
d. Weight that can be normal, slightly above normal, or below normal
Individuals with bulimia are of normal or more commonly slightly above normal weight. Those who also restrict their intake can become severely underweight. The adolescent has a lack of control over eating during the episode. Patients with bulimia commonly have self-deprecating thoughts and a depressed mood after binge-purge cycles; they are also aware that the eating pattern is abnormal but are unable to stop.
25. An adolescent teen has bulimia. Which assessment finding should the nurse expect to assess?
c. Cold intolerance
d. Erosion of tooth enamel
Some of the signs of bulimia include erosion of tooth enamel, increased dental caries from vomited gastric acid, throat complaints, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, and abdominal complaints from laxative abuse. Diarrhea is not a result of the vomiting. It may occur in patients with bulimia who also abuse laxatives. Amenorrhea and cold intolerance are characteristics of anorexia nervosa, which some bulimics have. These symptoms are related to the extreme low weight.
26. Which is descriptive of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
a. Manifestations exhibited are so bizarre that the diagnosis is fairly easy.
b. Manifestations affect every aspect of the child’s life but are most obvious in the classroom.
c. Learning disabilities associated with ADHD eventually disappear when adulthood is reached.
d. Diagnosis of ADHD requires that all manifestations of the disorder be present.
ADHD affects every aspect of the child’s life, but the disruption is most obvious in the classroom. The behaviors exhibited by the child with ADHD are not unusual aspects of behavior. The difference lies in the quality of motor activity and developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that the child displays. Some children experience decreased symptoms during late adolescence and adulthood, but a significant number carry their symptoms into adulthood. Any given child will not have every symptom of the condition. The manifestations may be numerous or few, mild or severe, and will vary with the child’s developmental level.
27. The nurse is teaching the parents of a child recently diagnosed with ADHD who has been prescribed methylphenidate (Ritalin). Which should the nurse include in teaching about the side effects of methylphenidate?
a. “Your child may experience a sense of nervousness.”
b. “You may see an increase in your child’s appetite.”
c. “Your child may experience daytime sleepiness.”
d. “You may see a decrease in your child’s blood pressure.”
Nervousness is one of the common side effects of Ritalin. Decreased appetite with subsequent weight loss, insomnia, and increased blood pressure are other common side effects.
28. Which is an important consideration when the nurse is discussing enuresis with the parents of a young child?
a. Enuresis is more common in girls than in boys.
b. Enuresis is neither inherited nor has a familial tendency.
c. Organic causes that may be related to enuresis should be considered first.
d. Psychogenic factors that cause enuresis persist into adulthood.
Organic causes that may be related to enuresis should be ruled out before psychogenic factors are considered. Enuresis is more common in boys than in girls and has a strong familial tendency. Psychogenic factors may influence enuresis, but it is doubtful that they are causative.
29. The nurse is assisting the family of a child with a history of encopresis. Which should be included in the nurse’s discussion with this family?
a. Instruct the parents to sit the child on the toilet at twice-daily routine intervals.
b. Instruct the parents that the child will probably need to have daily enemas.
c. Suggest the use of stimulant cathartics weekly.
d. Reassure the family that most problems are resolved successfully, with some relapses during periods of stress.
Children may be unaware of a prior sensation and unable to control the urge once it begins. They may be so accustomed to bowel accidents that they are unable to smell or feel it. Family counseling is directed toward reassurance that most problems resolve successfully, although relapses during periods of stress are possible. Sitting the child on the toilet is not recommended because it may intensify the parent-child conflict. Enemas may be needed for impactions, but long-term use prevents the child from assuming responsibility for defecation. Stimulant cathartics may cause cramping that can frighten child.
30. A mother calls the school nurse saying that her daughter has developed a school phobia. She has been out of school 3 days. The nurse’s recommendations should include which intervention?
a. Immediately return child to school.
b. Explain to child that this is the last day she can stay home.
c. Determine cause of phobia before returning child to school.
d. Seek professional counseling before forcing child to return to school.
The primary goal is to return the child to school. Parents must be convinced gently, but firmly, that immediate return is essential and that it is their responsibility to insist on school attendance. The longer the child is permitted to stay out of school, the more difficult it will be for the child to reenter. Trying to find the cause of phobia will only delay the return to school and inhibit the child’s ability to cope. Professional counseling is recommended if the problem persists, but the child’s return to school should not wait for the counseling.
31. Parents have a concern that their child is depressed. The nurse relates that which characteristic best describes children with depression?
a. Increased range of affective response
b. Preoccupation with need to perform well in school
c. Change in appetite, resulting in weight loss or gain
d. Tendency to prefer play instead of schoolwork
Physiologic characteristics of children with depression include change in appetite resulting in weight loss or gain, nonspecific complaints of not feeling well, alterations in sleeping pattern, insomnia or hypersomnia, and constipation. Children who are depressed have sad facial expressions with absence or diminished range of affective response. These children withdraw from previously enjoyed activities and engage in solitary play or work with a lack of interest in play. A lack of interest is seen in doing homework or achieving in school, resulting in lower grades in children who are depressed.
32. A teen asks a nurse, “What is physical dependence in substance abuse?” Which is the correct response by the nurse?
a. Problem that occurs in conjunction with addiction
b. Involuntary physiologic response to drug
c. Culturally defined use of drugs for purposes other than accepted medical purposes
d. Voluntary behavior based on psychosocial needs
Physical dependence is an involuntary response to the pharmacologic characteristics of drugs such as opioids or alcohol. A person can be physically dependent on a narcotic/drug without being addicted; for example, patients who use opioids to control pain need increasing doses to achieve the same effect. Dependence is a physiologic response; it is not culturally determined or subject to voluntary control.
33. Which is descriptive of central nervous system stimulants?
a. They produce strong physical dependence.
b. They can result in strong psychological dependence.
c. Withdrawal symptoms are life threatening.
d. Acute intoxication can lead to coma.
Central nervous system stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine produce a strong psychological dependence. This class of drugs does not produce strong physical dependence and can be withdrawn without much danger. Acute intoxication leads to violent, aggressive behavior or psychotic episodes characterized by paranoia, uncontrollable agitation, and restlessness.
34. The nurse is caring for an adolescent brought to the hospital with acute drug toxicity. Cocaine is believed to be the drug involved. Data collection should include what information?
a. Mode of administration
b. Drug’s actual content
c. Function the drug plays in the adolescent’s life
d. Adolescent’s level of interest in rehabilitation
When the drug is questionable or unknown, every effort must be made to determine the type, amount of drug taken, the mode and time of administration, and factors relating to the onset of presenting symptoms. The actual content of most street drugs is highly questionable. Pharmacologic agents should be administered with caution, except for the narcotic antagonists in case of suspected opioid use. The function the drug plays in the adolescent’s life and the adolescent’s level of interest in rehabilitation are important considerations in the long-term management during the nonacute stage.
35. A school nurse is conducting a class with adolescents on suicide. Which true statement about suicide should the nurse include in the teaching session?
a. A sense of hopelessness and despair are a normal part of adolescence.
b. Gay and lesbian adolescents are at a particularly high risk for suicide.
c. Problem-solving skills are of limited value to the suicidal adolescent.
d. Previous suicide attempts are not an indication of risk for completed suicides.
A significant number of teenage suicides occur among homosexual youths. Gay and lesbian adolescents who live in families or communities that do not accept homosexuality are likely to suffer low self-esteem, self-loathing, depression, and hopelessness as a result of a lack of acceptance from their family or community. At-risk teenagers include those who are depressed, have poor problem-solving skills, or use drugs and alcohol. History of previous suicide attempt is a serious indicator for possible suicide completion in the future.
36. Which is the most commonly used method in completed suicides?
b. Drug overdose
c. Self-inflected laceration
d. Carbon monoxide poisoning
Firearms are the most commonly used instruments in completed suicides among both males and females. For adolescent boys, firearms are followed by hanging and overdose. For adolescent females, overdose and strangulation are the next most common means of completed suicide. The most common method of suicide attempt is overdose or ingestion of potentially toxic substances such as drugs. The second most common method of suicide attempt is self-inflicted laceration. Carbon monoxide poisoning is not one of the more frequent forms of suicide completion.
37. Which is the most significant factor in distinguishing those who commit suicide from those who make suicidal attempts or threats?
a. Social isolation
b. Level of stress
c. Degree of depression
d. Desire to punish others
Social isolation is a significant factor in distinguishing adolescents who will kill themselves from those who will not. It is also more characteristic of those who complete suicide than of those who make attempts or threats. Level of stress, degree of depression, and desire to punish others are contributing factors in suicide, but they are not the most significant factor in distinguishing those who complete suicide from those who attempt suicide.
38. An adolescent girl tells the nurse that she is very suicidal. The nurse asks her whether she has a specific plan. Asking this should be considered:
a. an appropriate part of the assessment.
b. not a critical part of the assessment.
c. suggesting that the adolescent needs a plan.
d. encouraging the adolescent to devise a plan.
Routine health assessments of adolescents should include questions that assess the presence of suicidal ideation or intent. Questions such as, “Have you ever developed a plan to hurt yourself or kill yourself?” should be part of that assessment. Adolescents who express suicidal feelings and have a specific plan are at particular risk and require further assessment and constant monitoring. The information about having a plan is an essential part of the assessment and greatly affects the treatment plan.
39. An adolescent has been diagnosed with lactose maldigestion intolerance. The nurse teaches the adolescent about lactose maldigestion intolerance and notes the teen needs further teaching if which statement is made?
a. “I will limit my milk consumption to one to two glasses a day.”
b. “I should drink the milk alone and not with other foods.”
c. “Hard cheese, cottage cheese, or yogurt can be substituted for milk.”
d. “I will take a calcium supplement daily.”
Most people are able to tolerate small amounts of lactose ( 1 cup of milk per day) even in the presence of deficient lactase activity. It is recommended that individuals with lactose maldigestion who do not experience lactose intolerance symptoms continue to consume small amounts of dairy products with meals to prevent reduced bone mass density and subsequent osteoporosis. Hard cheese, cottage cheese, and yogurt are sources of lactose that may be better tolerated. A calcium supplement should be taken daily. Milk taken at meals may be better tolerated than when taken alone.
40. An adolescent has been diagnosed with Chlamydia infection. Which medication should the nurse expect to be prescribed for this condition?
a. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) IM
b. Azithromycin (Zithromax) PO
c. Acyclovir (Zovirax) PO
d. Penicillin G benzathine (Bicillin) IV
Azithromycin is used to treat Chlamydia. The patient should be rescreened in 3 to 4 months. Ceftriaxone is used to treat gonorrhea, acyclovir is used to suppress genital herpes simplex virus, and penicillin G benzathine is used to treat syphilis.
1. A nurse is recommending strategies to a group of school-age children for prevention of obesity. Which should the nurse include? (Select all that apply.)
a. Eat breakfast daily.
b. Limit fruits and vegetables.
c. Have frequent family meals with parents present.
d. Eat frequently at restaurants.
e. Limit television viewing to 2 hours a day.
ANS: A, C, E
The nurse should counsel school-age children to eat breakfast daily, have mealtimes with family, and limit television viewing to 2 hours a day to prevent obesity. Fruits and vegetables should be consumed in the recommended quantities, and eating at restaurants should be limited.
2. Which strategies should the school nurse recommend implementing in the classroom for a child with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD)? (Select all that apply.)
a. Schedule heavier subjects to be taught in the afternoon.
b. Accompany verbal instructions by written format.
c. Limit number of breaks taken during instructional periods.
d. Allow more time for testing.
e. Reduce homework and classroom assignments.
ANS: B, D, E
Children with ADHD need an orderly, predictable, and consistent classroom environment with clear and consistent rules. Homework and classroom assignments may need to be reduced, and more time may need to be allotted for tests to allow the child to complete the task. Verbal instructions should be accompanied by visual references such as written instructions on the blackboard. Schedules may need to be arranged so that academic subjects are taught in the morning when the child is experiencing the effects of the morning dose of medication. Regular and frequent breaks in activity are helpful because sitting in one place for an extended time may be difficult.
3. Which side effects should the nurse monitor when a child is taking an antipsychotic medication? (Select all that apply.)
a. Extrapyramidal effects
ANS: A, D, E
Common side effects of antipsychotic medications include dizziness, drowsiness, tachycardia, hypotension, and extrapyramidal effects, such as abnormal movements and seizures.
What is the most important goal when caring for an individual with anorexia nervosa?
a. Encourage weight gain
b. Correct malnutrition
c. Limit fluid intake
d. Provide effective oral care
Correct malnutrition is the priority goal of treatment.
The individual with anorexia nervosa would probably not be receptive to encouragement of weight gain because of the complex etiology of the disorder. Anorexics often have low self-esteem and have a need for control, which they meet by controlling their eating.
Fluids are often restricted by the individual with anorexia. It is important to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances if present and not restrict fluid intake.
Oral and dental care is more of an issue with the bulimia nervosa patient secondary to the excessive purging or vomiting episodes.
What is characteristic of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
a. Denial as a defense mechanism is unusual.
b. Traumatic effects cannot remain indefinitely.
c. Previous coping strategies and defense mechanisms are not useful.
d. Children often play out the situation over and over again in an attempt to come to terms with their fear.
This is an expected response by a child to a traumatic event. Play is often the safest means of communication for children and should be encouraged as a means of expression with a child experiencing PTSD.
Denial is a defense mechanism commonly used by children and adolescents.
Professional help is indicated if the stages of response are prolonged.
Coping strategies and defense mechanisms that have been effective previously may be effective for PTSD
When caring for the suicidal adolescent, the most important nursing intervention is
a. emphasizing that a suicide attempt is an immature way of dealing with stress
b. paying particular attention to children who are withdrawn and are giving away their personal belongings
c. ignoring threats of suicide because they are usually bids for attention
d. recognizing a suicide attempt as an impulsive act resulting from a temporary crisis
It is imperative that the nurse recognize warning signs of a potential suicide.
For the depressed youngster, suicide may appear to be the only way out, and telling a child that he or she is immature in feelings or behavior will exacerbate an already crisis-laden situation.
All threats of suicide must be taken seriously and should never be ignored.
Even if the crisis is temporary, the child's perception may be that suicide is the only way out of it.
The most appropriate question to ask a rape victim prior to the start of the physical examination is
a. Has she showered or bathed since the attack?
b. Does she think rape is a violent crime?
c. How many items did the attacker take?
d. When the attack occurred, could she have prevented it?
The nurse needs to document if the patient has bathed or showered prior to collecting evidence from the rape. Cleaning the body could remove trace body secretions, such as saliva, semen, or blood, left by the perpetrator, which would be important to collect if possible.
It is not appropriate to ask the patient if she thinks rape is a violent crime.
It is not a priority to ask how many items the attacker took from her.
It is not appropriate to ask the patient if she could have prevented the attack.
The nurse is collecting history on a 16-year-old admitted for treatment of anorexia nervosa. The patient limits the answers to yes or no. What is the primary nursing goal for this patient at this time?
a. Ask about favorite foods to provide for them to eat.
b. Return to ask further questions when the patient wants to talk.
c. Discuss the treatment plan and expected stay in the hospital.
d. Develop a positive rapport with the patient.
The nurse would focus on development and establishing a positive rapport with the patient at the early stage. Eating disorders in children often stem from low self-esteem. Children with eating disorders may have low self-esteem and a lack of trust in others. It is important to establish a trusting relationship with the patient.
Asking the patient about favorite foods is not a question that will build rapport with the patient.
Returning to ask further questions when the patient wants to talk is not the primary nursing goal at this time.
Discussing the treatment plan and expected stay in the hospital is not an appropriate goal because the patient is not open to discussion at this time.
A nurse is assessing a patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). What behavior would the nurse anticipate the patient to demonstrate?
a. Ability to complete school work during class
b. Requires reminders to keep focused and on task
c. Is defiant with parents and refuses to complete chores at home
d. Is aggressive with peers when asked to participate in team sports
Children with ADHD are often not able to remain focused and require frequent reminders to remain focused and complete an assigned task. They generally are not able to complete work at school and require extra time to complete assignments.
The ability to complete school work during class is not something the nurse would anticipate this patient to demonstrate.
Defiance with parents and refusal to complete chores at home are not behaviors the nurse would anticipate this patient to demonstrate.
Aggression with peers when asked to participate in team sports is not typical of ADHD behavior.
The nurse is discussing health behaviors with a 14-year old who recently began smoking cigarettes. An appropriate tactic for the nurse to use when discussing this lifestyle choice is
a. cigarette smoking is only “cool” in high school and is not accepted in college.
b. cigarette smoking can cause permanent damage to the lungs and can cause cancer as an adult.
c. cigarettes are expensive, and a 14-year-old will not be able to afford them, so he should stop smoking.
d. cigarettes contain nicotine, and this will cause addiction to other drugs
Cigarette smoking can cause permanent damage to the lungs and can cause cancer as an adult. At 14, the child only thinks of the present. The nurse would need to include and explain, and even use pictures to illustrate, what might happen to the body if the child continues to smoke.
Saying cigarette smoking is only cool in high school and is not accepted in college is not a useful tactic the nurse should use when discussing smoking cigarettes.
Suggesting that cigarettes are not affordable and the 14-year-old should therefore stop smoking is not a healthy approach to teaching adolescents to stop smoking.
Cigarettes contain nicotine, and this will cause addiction to other drugs. Adolescents are not often concerned with whether cigarette smoking will lead to other addictions.
The nurse is teaching a class on the dangers of “huffing.” What information is included as a major side effect of “huffing?”
a. Cardiac arrest
b. Loss of vision
c. Delay of growth
d. Loss of consciousness
Skin discoloration is not a side effect of huffing.
Cardiac arrest is not typically a major side effect of huffing.
Loss of consciousness and respiratory arrest are major side effects of huffing.
Delay of growth is not a side effect of huffing.
A nurse working with adolescents is aware of common drugs of abuse. Which of the following drugs is the most common drug of abuse in the adolescent population?
Alcohol is the drug most often used and abused by the adolescent population. The ease of access and the low cost make alcohol the drug of choice for many teenagers.
Morphine is not the most common drug of abuse in the adolescent population.
Cocaine is not the most common drug of abuse in the adolescent population.
Oxycontin is not the most common drug of abuse in the adolescent population.
A nurse is working with teenagers and their parents in a school drug prevention program. Several of the parents ask how they can determine if their child has a problem with drugs. The most appropriate response by the nurse is
a. “There is no way to know until they tell you.”
b. “At some point, the child will develop depression and attempt suicide; then you can put them in rehab.”
c. “It is common for them to withdraw and not achieve normal developmental tasks. You should then consult a professional.”
d. “You should make your child take a home test for drugs. You can buy those at the drug store.”
Children and teenagers who begin using drugs may often stop participating in routine activities and not continue to achieve the normal milestones of the adolescent period. If the parent ever has a question, they should seek information from a health care provider.
Waiting for the child to tell the parent is not a way to determine if the child has a problem with drugs. It is a very passive approach to parenting.
Waiting for the child to develop depression and attempt suicide is not a preventive approach to handling drug use.
Taking a home test for drugs is not a measure that should be taken unless the child has been caught engaging in drug use.
A 15-year-old female is in a free clinic seeking information on birth control. The girl tells the nurse that she is sexually active with multiple partners. She states that she does not want to have to remember to take a pill every day. The most appropriate birth control option for this patient is
a. an intrauterine device.
Condom use is recommended for birth control in teens who are sexually active with multiple partners.
An intrauterine device is not a method of birth control that protects from sexually transmitted diseases.
Abstinence is not an effective approach to birth control for a teen who is sexually active with multiple partners.
A diaphragm is not a method of birth control that protects from sexually transmitted diseases.