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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Study Guide Deck (92)
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occupation vs. activity vs. task

Occupation = activity that gives meaning and identity; ie: mother

Activity = thing done as part of an occupation; ie: cooking (as a mother)

Task = basic unit of an action/activity; ie: mixing batter (part of cooking)


contrived activities

Made-up activities that my include some of the same skills required for an occupation. Simulates actual activity, helps get client ready. Ex: using doll to practice before tying own shoes.


preparatory activities

activities which help the client ready for the purposeful activity; ROM, exercise, strengthening/stretching, etc.


purposeful activity

activity meaningful to client and used during intervention that is goal-directed and typically involves an end product (ie: making a sandwich as part of making lunch).


occupational performance

ability to carry out ADLs and one's occupations that result from interaction among client, context, and activity.



action for which a person is fit; the ability to perform.


Laddering (what and when?)

Laddering= Advancing career based on experience rather than returning to classroom.

1971-AOTA adopted resolution for COTAs to advance (to OTR) this way (Career Mobility Program).
1973-First group endorsed to take exam in 1974.
1982-Laddering stopped.


Important events of OTA history:

**1958: First 3-month educ prog. (for OTAs in mental health)
1958: Mildred Schwagmeyer joins AOTA; most knowledgeable on OTA
1967: AOTA holds first COTA meeting at conference
**1977: First COTA certification exam
1991: COTAs participate on AOTA exec board


Women behind the field of OTA

• Ruth A. Robinson - president of AOTA 1955-89; on Committee on OTA from inception; developed training curriculum for OTAs

• Marion W. Crampton - Chair of Mass. OTA education program

• Mildred Schwagmeyer - Asst. Director of Educ at AOTA; then dir. of technical ed.; Most knowledgable on subject of OTAs

• Ruth Brunyate Wiemer - Pres of AOTA, guided thru reorg period (OTRs feared unknown and new OTAs)


Benjamin Rush

US Quaker, first physician to institute moral treatment practices after Tuke and Pinel's work.


Herbert Hall

Considered a founder of OT as profession. “WORK CURE”

Harvard Med School physician who adapted arts and crafts movement for medical purposes/treatment. Worked with invalid patients providing supervised crafts to improve health/financial independence. Occupation as therapy for people with nervous/mental disorders called “WORK CURE.” Early president of Natl. Society for Promotion of OT (1920-23).


Thomas Kidner

TB treatment and vocational rehab.

Friend of George Barton; fellow architect/teacher. Established presence of OT in vocational rehab and TB treatment. Developed system of vocational rehab for disabled Canadian vets of WWI. Constructed institutions for disabled. Designed hospitals in CA and US for treatment of TB.


Gary Kielhofner

Developed Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) as grad student at USC. Published 19 textbooks and 150 journal articles; developed model that would allow OTs at all levels to better address important client issues. Provided profession with evidence to support occupation-based practice and tools to evaluate clients. Remained visionary and scholar; promoted field of OT.


List the Founders of the Profession of OT:

• Herbert Hall
• George Edward Barton
• Dr. William Rush Dunton Jr.
• Eleanor Clarke Slagle
• Susan Tracy
• Susan Cox Johnson
• Thomas Kidner


Eleanor Clarke Slagle


Student of social work; studied curative occupations; 1912, asked by Adolf Meyer to direct OT dept at Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic in MD. There, developed "HABIT TRAINING." Later in Chicago, started workshop for chronically unemployed and first professional school for OTs, Henry B. Favill School of Occupations. Her home was first hq of NSPOT. Served each office there, and AOTA now has an award named after her.


John Ruskin and William Morris

Led Arts and Crafts Movement; opposed machine production; using hands leads to health; high standard of craftsmanship


George Edward Barton

Architect under Morris. Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. Disabled himself. Consolation House.

Architect in London who studied under William Morris (arts and crafts movement). Went to Boston and founded Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. After personal experience with disabling conditions, he wanted to improve plight of convalescents. Opened Consolation House in 1914, using occupation (arts/crafts) for treatment.


Adolf Meyer

POV became philosophical base of OT.

Swiss physician, came to US in 1892; became prof of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Univ. Point of view became the philosophical base of OT. (Holistic, psycho-biological approach, meaningful activity promoting health)


Susan Cox Johnson

Designer and arts/crafts teacher from Berkeley. Became director of occupations at Montefiore Home in NY; there showed occupations as uplifting, improving mental/physical health. Later taught at Columbia.


Susan Tracy

First book on OT.

Nursing instructor involved with arts/crafts mvmt and use of occupations. Hired in 1905 at Adams Nervine Asylum in Mass., where she developed occupations program. Wrote first book on OT: “Studies in Invalid Occupations.”


William Rush Dunton Jr.

Father of OT.

Psychiatrist. In 1891, became physician at Sheppard Asylum in MD; incorporated arts/crafts treatment in early 1910s. Known for his writings on OT and was president of NSPOT for 21 years.


Philippe Pinel and William Tuke

Credited for Moral Treatment movement;
All ppl entitled to compassion; using purposeful activity.
Pinel=french physician
Tuke=english Quaker/merchant



Concerned with nature of humankind and addresses how humans engage, organize their lives, and find meaning and interact with others. OT practitioners are committed to holistic and humanistic practice.



Related to the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge and investigates such questions as "How do we know things?" and "How do we know that we know?" Provides base for understanding motivation, change and learning.



Concerned with the study of values. This area explores questions of desirability and questions of ethics, such as "What are the standards and rules of right conduct?" For OTs, this includes client-centered care, quality of life, and ethics.


reductionistic approach

US healthcare system generally operates this way; humankind reduced to separately functioning body parts. Professionals specialize and treat specific areas independently.


holistic approach

Perspective traced to Adolf Meyer's philosophy of OT. Emphasizes organic and functional relationship between parts and the whole being. Interaction of biological, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual elements. If one element is disrupted, it reflects throughout the whole.



The belief that the client should be treated as a person, not an object. Basis of OT. Goes further into concepts of altruism, equality, freedom, justice, dignity, truth and prudence (core values of OT).


Core values and attitudes of OT:

Altruism, equality, freedom, justice, dignity, truth, and prudence.


Emerging areas of practice

• Aging in place
• Driver assessments/training programs
• Community health and wellness
• Needs of children and youth
• Ergonomics consulting
• Tech and assistive-device developing and consulting
• Health and wellness
• Vision