OTA 100 - Ch. 11 Across Lifespan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in OTA 100 - Ch. 11 Across Lifespan Deck (19)
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Define Lifespan Stages

1. Infancy: birth to 1 year
2. Childhood: Early (1-6 years); Later (6-12 years)
3. Adolescence: 12-20 years
4. Young and Middle Adulthood: 20-65 years
5. Later Adulthood: Over 65 years


Cerebral Palsy

Motor abnormalities in children caused by insult to brain near birth; do not reach milestones for age; disorder does not progress, but seems to get worse with age as more is expected of person.


Developmental Delays

Slower acquisition of skills over first several years of life.


Developmental Frame of Reference

Used to evaluate infants. Theory that practice in a skill set will enhance brain development and help child progress through stages. OT determines current level of skill development; examines underlying client factors that may influence; intervention to improve hindering factors.


Family-centered Care

Used when working with infants/children. Collaborating closely with family as the goal-setters. Works best when family respect/listen to each other.


Learned Helplessness

When older adults feel/act helpless and relinquish control over things that previously held value. When others do everything for them; they are not making any decisions or engaging in activities.


Least Restrictive Environment

Classroom closest to a regular classroom in which student can be successful.



Motor responses to sensory stimuli (infants have special, primitive ones like sucking).


Pediatrics – Define and Common Issues

Pediatrics = Birth to end of high school. (Sometimes work with pregnant mothers.)

Common issues:
• Sensory processing disorders
• Low muscle tone, decreased muscle strength
• Fear of movement
• Decreased attention span, hyperactivity
• Difficulty with motor planning, balance, gross motor delays, fine motor delays
• Immature play skills, overreacting
• Improper pencil grip/poor handwriting
• Impaired bilateral or hand-eye coordination
• Difficulty with self care, ADLs


Landmarks of Infancy:

• Rapid growth in motor, social, cognitive skills
• Gross/fine motor develop via reach, grasp, roll, sit, crawl and walk
• Primitive reflexes
• Social-expressing emotions
• ADLs – recognition of food sources, bathtime, allowing dressing
• Cognitive – awareness of objects, faces, voices


Landmarks of Childhood:

• Growth and refining skills
• Play is main occupation
• Play goes from solitary to parallel, moves toward end goal, rules start, cooperative play
• Imaginative play from 3-5 years
• Move into occupation of education – rules, routines, reading, writing, socializing, cog. skills


Landmarks of Adolescence:

• Striving toward independence, peer group pressure
• Games with rules, group standards instead of adult standards, leisure and social activities
• Focus moves outside of family
• Confusion in relationship with adults
• Sexual identity developing
• Growth changes, postural changes, awkward motor movement


Landmarks of Young/Middle Adulthood:

• Time of achievement
• Employment decisions
• Group affiliations
• Guiding next generation; child rearing
• Completing education
• Relationships
• Home management


Landmarks of Late Adulthood:

• Reflection/evaluation of one’s life
• Physical changes – sensory/health issues
• Adjustment to/acceptance of impending death
• What I’m leaving behind
• Decreased workload – increased time on hands
• Loss of peers


Intervention for Infancy:

• Muscle tone
• Coordination
• Symmetrical movements
• Posture
• Play (motor skill development), sensory regulation, splinting, positioning, cardiac rehab., feeding, behavior reg., parent training
• Family centered


Intervention for Childhood:

• Play development (Motor, cognitive, social, psychological, language skills)
• Least restrictive environment – closest to a regular classroom, yet encouraging success


Intervention for Adolescence:

• Firm yet fair limits
• Emotional expression
• Learn to trust
• Give control where possible
• Group interaction
• Self care
• Work preparation activities
• Leisure exploration


Intervention for Young/Mid Adults:

• Help re-engage in meaningful occupation
• Help be successful in roles and consider context
• Ergonomics
• Rehab from illness/injury


Intervention for Later Adults:

• Safety
• Home evaluation
• Driving
• Rehab for illness/injury
• Depression
• Learned helplessness – person relinquished control to others due to level of help offered; no longer making decisions