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Flashcards in Final Immuno-Allergy Deck (42):
1

the propensity for developing immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental allergens

Atopy

2

major Ig antibody in allergic reactions

IgE

3

antigens with little or no intrinsic toxicity that elicit an immune response

Allergens

4

in allergic reactions today, the main focus has shifted to the role of?

Innate immune mechanisms

5

Allergens are a diverse group of these molecules

proteins and glycoproteins

6

the innate immune system is activated in response to allergens by?

intrinsic enzymatic activity and recognition of PRRs (pattern recognition receptors)

7

Th2 response is important in allergic reactions? T or F?

True

8

Asthma is associated with?

Indoor allergens

9

Allergic Rhinitis is associated with?

outdoor allergens

10

allergens have what kind of enzymatic activity?

protease- important property that has a role in crossing mucosal barriers

11

What are the four factors leading to Atopy in Th2 mediated allergic inflammation?

1. Genetic factors (specific HLA alleles, Polymorphisms)
2. Environmental factors (hygiene, diet, vaccination, antibiotics)
3. Defects in target organs (skin, gut, bronchial epithelium)
4. Triggering agents (pathogens, tobacco, pollutant)

12

presence of older siblings, early exposure to day care, TB, measles, Hep A, and rural environment are all factors that favor this phenotype in Protective immunity

Th1

13

Widespread use of Antibiotics, western lifestyle, urban environment, diet, sensitization to house allergens are factors that favor this type of phenotype in allergic diseases that include Asthma

Th2

14

tendency to allergic reactions has a?

strong heritability (Atopy)

15

Atopy is most easily defined as the presence of____ to an allergen

Type I hypersensitivity

16

Polymorphisms in genes involve?

IL-4 gene, HLA-DR alleles, CD14, and the beta chain of the high affintiy receptor for IgE (FceRIB)

17

CD14 constitutes part of the receptor for ___ and has a role in promote hypersensitivity

bacterial cell wall LPS

18

studies on HLA show that IgE and IgG hypersensitivity to ragweed antigens is associated with?

HLA-DR2

19

in monozygotic identical twins, concordance for Asthma is only 20% suggesting another factor more importantly involved?

Environmental

20

high levels of IgE in cord blood can predict the future development of?

Atopic tendencies during fetal or infant life

21

What is the cause of increasing prevalence of allergies?

excessive hygiene, environmental changes, and life style changes (diet)

22

a shift from Th1 to Th2 type of immunity and decreasing number or activity of T reg cells can best be explained by the?

Hygiene hypothesis

23

the increased incidence of allergy is associated with the decrease in exposure to common infections during early life is best explained by?

Hygiene Hypothesis

24

a Th2 type bias is shown in?

Neonatal immune system

25

development of atopic (Th2 type) phenotype in a child can be prevented by the

Th1 type response

26

infections in childhood causing Th1 type responses from Viruses and intracellular bacteria can be restored by the?

Th1-Th2 balance

27

what can limit the development of unrelated allergen-mediated disease?

increasing the number of T regulatory cells

28

insect venoms, drugs, and foods that cause IgE production on basophils AND mast cells resulting from edema, bronchoconstriction, vascular collapse, and death.

Anaphylaxis

29

Asthma, hay fever, and food allergies are associated with which effectors?

IgE on Mast cells and Th2 cells

30

Major site of maturation for mast cells

Connective tissue

31

major site of maturation for Basophils and Eosinophils

bone marrow

32

Major basic protein in helminthic infections are secreted by?

Eosinophils

33

major development cytokine for Mast cells and Basophils

IL-3

34

Major developmental cytokine for Eosinophil

IL-5

35

Histamine is a granule released during allergic reactions by?

Mast Cells and Basophils

36

Expression of FcRI is low in which cells?

Eosinophils

37

histamine, bradykinin, and leukotrienes are the most important in

allergic inflammation....

38

proteases activate.,......

Par 2....

39

Airway hyper-responsiveness

IL-13

40

indicated for disorders in which IgE hypersensitivity is clearly confirmed

Desensitization tests-skin test and allergen specific IgE detection

41

a shift away from the Th2 to Th1 producing CD4 cells results in the generation of cytokines (IFN-y) which are inhibitory to IgE production.

immune deviation

42

key interleukins in Allergy are

IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13