Flashcards in Final Immuno-Allergy Deck (42):
the propensity for developing immediate hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental allergens
major Ig antibody in allergic reactions
antigens with little or no intrinsic toxicity that elicit an immune response
in allergic reactions today, the main focus has shifted to the role of?
Innate immune mechanisms
Allergens are a diverse group of these molecules
proteins and glycoproteins
the innate immune system is activated in response to allergens by?
intrinsic enzymatic activity and recognition of PRRs (pattern recognition receptors)
Th2 response is important in allergic reactions? T or F?
Asthma is associated with?
Allergic Rhinitis is associated with?
allergens have what kind of enzymatic activity?
protease- important property that has a role in crossing mucosal barriers
What are the four factors leading to Atopy in Th2 mediated allergic inflammation?
1. Genetic factors (specific HLA alleles, Polymorphisms)
2. Environmental factors (hygiene, diet, vaccination, antibiotics)
3. Defects in target organs (skin, gut, bronchial epithelium)
4. Triggering agents (pathogens, tobacco, pollutant)
presence of older siblings, early exposure to day care, TB, measles, Hep A, and rural environment are all factors that favor this phenotype in Protective immunity
Widespread use of Antibiotics, western lifestyle, urban environment, diet, sensitization to house allergens are factors that favor this type of phenotype in allergic diseases that include Asthma
tendency to allergic reactions has a?
strong heritability (Atopy)
Atopy is most easily defined as the presence of____ to an allergen
Type I hypersensitivity
Polymorphisms in genes involve?
IL-4 gene, HLA-DR alleles, CD14, and the beta chain of the high affintiy receptor for IgE (FceRIB)
CD14 constitutes part of the receptor for ___ and has a role in promote hypersensitivity
bacterial cell wall LPS
studies on HLA show that IgE and IgG hypersensitivity to ragweed antigens is associated with?
in monozygotic identical twins, concordance for Asthma is only 20% suggesting another factor more importantly involved?
high levels of IgE in cord blood can predict the future development of?
Atopic tendencies during fetal or infant life
What is the cause of increasing prevalence of allergies?
excessive hygiene, environmental changes, and life style changes (diet)
a shift from Th1 to Th2 type of immunity and decreasing number or activity of T reg cells can best be explained by the?
the increased incidence of allergy is associated with the decrease in exposure to common infections during early life is best explained by?
a Th2 type bias is shown in?
Neonatal immune system
development of atopic (Th2 type) phenotype in a child can be prevented by the
Th1 type response
infections in childhood causing Th1 type responses from Viruses and intracellular bacteria can be restored by the?
what can limit the development of unrelated allergen-mediated disease?
increasing the number of T regulatory cells
insect venoms, drugs, and foods that cause IgE production on basophils AND mast cells resulting from edema, bronchoconstriction, vascular collapse, and death.
Asthma, hay fever, and food allergies are associated with which effectors?
IgE on Mast cells and Th2 cells
Major site of maturation for mast cells
major site of maturation for Basophils and Eosinophils
Major basic protein in helminthic infections are secreted by?
major development cytokine for Mast cells and Basophils
Major developmental cytokine for Eosinophil
Histamine is a granule released during allergic reactions by?
Mast Cells and Basophils
Expression of FcRI is low in which cells?
histamine, bradykinin, and leukotrienes are the most important in
indicated for disorders in which IgE hypersensitivity is clearly confirmed
Desensitization tests-skin test and allergen specific IgE detection
a shift away from the Th2 to Th1 producing CD4 cells results in the generation of cytokines (IFN-y) which are inhibitory to IgE production.