Flashcards in Immune response to microbes Deck (31):
C3a and C5a activate?
C3b is teh major complement protein that activates?
the major chemotaxic complement protein is?
CRP (C-reactive protein) bind to this at the primary infection stage
bacterial coat polysaccharides
chemokines .....attract neutrophils to the site of infection
Th2 activates a B cell to convert to plasma form to secrete IgM, clonal expansion, isotype switching to specific antigen. with the use of?
plasma cells stay in the lymph node after infection and the memory B cells migrate to?
Diphtheria toxin mechanism of action is to?
shut down protein synthesis in infected cells
inhibits neuromuscular transmission
Diphtheria, Cholera, and Tetanus toxins are types of?
Endotoxins (LPS) of gram negative bacteria is a major activator of?
macrophages, DC's, and endothelial cells
pathogenicity of EC bacteria has two principal mechanisms
inflammation and toxin production
Exotoxins are associated with this type of cellular damage?
Peptidoglycans from Gram + and LPS from Gram - can activate which pathway?
independent alternate pathway
bacteria that express mannose on their surface can activate?
the lectin pathway
MAC can be inhibited by?
CD59-the MAC inhibitory protein and the fluid phase vitronectin and S protein
Anaphylatoxins are potent proinflammatory molecules generated by the cleavage of?
C4, C3, and C5 into **C3a, C5a, and C4a**
Scavenger receptors respond to?
negative charges to promote phagocytosis
**CD14 is the coreceptor for?
TLR4 for recognition of LPS
Caspase 1released to the EC environment
killing of microbes inside a phagolysosome is by?
ROS or NO from arginine derivative and through phagocyte oxidase
pathogens can defend themselves by producing
Catalase-to convert ROS/RNS to less harmful compounds
Humoral immunity is the prinicial
genetic defects in TH17 development and patients who make neutralizing auto-abs specific for IL-17 are?
susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections with a formation of skin abscesses.
IL-18 induces activation of?
IFN-gamma which in turn further activates macrophages
mediators of septic shock
the major mechanism used by bacteria to evade humoral immunity is?
variation of surface antigens
Naive B cells acquiring viral particles on IgM or IgD process and present viral peptides to?