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Flashcards in Final Review Deck (484):
1

What sense helps an animal maintain balance by keeping track of position and movements of the head?

equilibrium

1

what are the 2 main systems that control breathing

mechanical system and chemical system

2

What does SA node stand for?

Sinoatrial node

2

What are the three ossicles of the ear called?

1. Malleus

2. Incus

3. Stapes

3


Acetycholine and norepinephrine are examples of?

Neurotransmitters

4

What state is a neuron in when it is not being stimulated?

Resting state

5


Lymphocytes

B-Cells and T-Cells

6

What is the top of a dog's nose also known as?

Planum nasale

6

What is calcitonin ? and where is it produced ?

Hormone that prevents the level of calcium in the blood from getting to high. it is produced in the thyroid gland

6


Which cranial nerves are both sensory and motor nerves

CN V- Trigeminal

CN VII- Facial

CN IX-Vestibulocochlear

X-Vagus

6

List the layers of the skeletal muscle

Muscle fiber, fascicle, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium.

7

Erthroctyes are formed in bone marrow by a process  called?

Hematopoeisis

8


Where does most tubular secretion take place?

In the distal convoltued tubule (DCT).

9

Which blood cell is responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues?

RBCs

9

Which part of the spleen acts as reservoir for blood?

Red Pulp

9

What is the term for the presence of glucose in urine?

Glycosuria

9


The kidney's nerve supply comes from where?

Sympathetic portion of the Autonomic nervous system.

10

What is Anemia?

A condition where there is decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.  This is caused by there not being enough red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration or both.

11


Diuresis

Producing and passing large amounts of urine

11

What three hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?

1. T3  

2. T4  

3. Calcitonin

11

T or F Uterine hornes are also known as falopian tubes?

False

12

Ventral

towards the belly

13

Where does the pineal gland play a role in?

 


Regulation of body rythyms

13

What hormones are produced in the anterior pituitary?

GH, Prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, MSH

13

which type of muscle does not have sarcomeres? 

smooth

13

What is infection of the mammary gland?

Mastitis

14

Which gland produces sebum?

Sebaceous

14

Normal feline Heart Rate

150-210bpm

14


What is the primary source of passive immunity in veterinary medicine?


Colostrum

14

What is lymph filtered by?

Lymph Nodes

14

What muscle is found all over the body in places such as eyes, stomach and urinary bladder?

Smooth muscle

14

What are the basic functions of the digestive tract?

1. Prehension (grasping) of food with the lips or teeth. 2. Mastication, the mechanical grinding and breaking down of food. 3. Chemical digestion of food 4. Absorption of nutrients and water 5. Elimination of wastes.

15

What protects the keratinocytes from UV radiation?

Melanin

16

Where can stratified squamous epithelium be found?

Areas where cells must reproduce rapidly: vagina, mouth, anus.

18

An increase in what hormone causes ovulation to occur?

Luteinizing hormone

19

Which extraocular muscle do humans not share with animals and what does it do? 

Retractor Bulbi

Retracts the eye further into the orbit, enhancing the other extraocular muscles

20

The passageways that lead from the ______ to the ______ are called the bronchial tree.

bronchi

alveoli

22

What is the colostrums most important role?

providing the newborn with passive immunity.

23

What are the two types of immune response?

Specific and Nonspecific

23

The ________ is often covered by a fatty substance called _______

Axons & myelin

24

What is micturition?

Urination

25

Mineralocorticoid hormones target what organ?

Kidneys

26

What is the name of the division of the trachea into the two main bronchi?

Bifurcation of the trachea

27

What are the two targets for oxytocin?

The uterus and mammary glands.

27

The hypothalamus is a part of the ________ of the brain.

diencephalon

27

what organ is both an exocrine and endocrine gland that is associated with the digestive system?

pancreas

28

What does TSH do?

stimulate growth and development of the thyroid gland and cause it to produce it's hormones

29

Cranial

Toward the head

29

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

30

What is Cell-Mediated Immunity?

The function of T cells that attach to antigenic sites on the surfaces of foreign cells.

30

What divides the aqueous compartment? 

Iris

31

Deep grooves in the cerebrum 

Fissures

32

In what cardiac cycle does the heart muscle contract, eject blood from the atria to the ventricles, and then from the ventricles to the arteries?

Systole

33


Where is blood stored when the body doesn't need all of its blood circulating?


The spleen

33

What is a common neurotransmitter used to signal muscle contraction?

Acetylcholine

33

Name the 2 main systems that control breathing and what they do.

1. Mechanical system: that sets routine inspiration and expiration limits. 2. Chemical system: that monitors the levels of certain substances in the blood and directs adjustments in breathing if they get out of balance

34

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

Seminiferous Tubules

35

Skeletal muscle cells are______?

Multinucleated

36


cardiac muscle is also know as ?

involuntary striated muscle

36

Air, blood, lymph and nerves enter and leave the lung at the _____, located on the medial side

Hilus.

37

What are the general senses ?

1. Visceral sensations 2. Touch 3. Temperature 4. Pain 5. Proprioception

37

Cardiac and smooth muscle are voluntary or involuntary

Involuntary

38

what is the normal pcv (packed cell volume) range for a dog

37% - 55%

38

Which neurotransmitter can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending on location

Acetylcholine

39

Dendrites are called ______

Sensory receptors

40

What symptom is common in FLUTD?

Presesnce of Uroliths(stones)

41

What type of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

Monocyte

42

What is the withdrawal reflex also called?

Flexor reflex

42

What are oviducts also known as?

fallopian tubes and uterine tubes

43

Immunoglobulin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids. It plays an important role in preventing diseases caused by antigens that may enter the body through mucosal surfaces.

IgA

44

What does it mean when the kidneys are referred to be located retroperitoneal?

outside (behind or dorsal to) the abdominal cavity

45

What is a sarcomere? 

The area from 1 Z line to another Z line

45

Muscles attach to bones at both ends by what?

tough, fibrous connective tissue band called tendons.

46

Function of kidneys?

Filtration, reabsorption, secretion
Fluid balance regulation
Acid-base balance regulation
Production of hormones

 

47

3 layers of the eyeball

outer: fibrous layer; the middle: vascular layer; the inner: nervous layer

48

what is another name for Thyroid Simulating Hormone?

Thyrotrophic Hormone

50

What is a uniparous species?

A species that typically only gives birth to one offspring at a time.

51

what vein carries oxygenated blood

pulmonary vein

51

What are the 3 main mechanisms by which the kidneys carry out their waste elimination role?

1. Filtration of blood 2. Reabsorption of useful substance back into the bloodstream. 3. Secretion of waste products from the blood into the tubules of the nephron.

52

What do you call the movement of air between the atmosphere and the lungs?

Ventilation

53

the diaphragm is made of what type of muscle

Skeletal muscle

54


what organ of the ear controls equilibrium.

Semicircular canals

55

The vein most commonly used for venipuncture is the____vein?

Jugular

55

What is the difference between epinephrine and norepinephrine?

Epinephrine is short acting and norepinephrine Similar Hormones related to “Fight or Flight” of the ANS Increased HR, BP, blood flow, output Decrease GI activity Increased BG Bronchioles dilate Pupils dilate

55

What are the four  types of stimuli for sensory receptors? Give an example of each

1. Mechanincal Stimuli example: touch

2. Thermal stimuli example: hot and cold

3. Electromagnetic stimuli example: vision

4. Chemical stimuli example: taste

55

what are the 3 phases of a single muscle fiber contraction

latent phase, contracting phase, relaxation phase

56

where does external respiration take place

in the aveoli

57

What 2 layers is the dermis composed of ?

Papillary and Reticular

57

Normal Canine Heart Rate

70-160 bpm

58

What hormone helps regulate the body's metabolic rate?

Thyroid Hormone

59

What causes pigmentation of skin?

The presence or absence of melanin granules in the armlike extensions in the melanocytes.

60

At the epidermal-dermal junction which cells found in small numbers are always associated with a sensory nerve

Merkel Cells

60

What is an interferon?


Protein produced by a cell after it has been infected by a virus

60

The renal corpuscle is made up of the ____ and _____.

Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule

60

What links the hypothalmus to the anterior pituitary gland?

A system of tiny blood vessels called a Portal System

61

What is produced during the breakdown of hemoglobin?

Bilirubin

61

What is the second largest component of the brain?

Cerebellum

62

The conjunction of the cornea and sclera is called the...?

Limbus.

62

What are the 2 muscles that help in expiration?

internal intercostal and abdominal muscles

63

Breaks in the suface of mucous and in the underlying mucousa are called erisions. What are deep erosions called?

Gastric Ulcers

64


What is the origin, insertion and action of the splenius muscle?

Origin: Fascia along the middorsal line of the neck

Insertion: Lambdoidal ridge of the occipital bone.

Action :Lateral flexion of the head.

66

Glucose gets stored as glycogen in the liver by a process called...

glycogenesis

67

 

what does chemotaxis do?

 

Uses chemicals to attract neutrophils to the site of an infection

68

when one or both testes do not descend into the scrotum

cryptorchidism

69

What is a blood protein that the liver provides a major source of?

albumin

70

Which type of smooth muscle is large and relatively powerfull

Visceral smooth muscle

71


What are pre-T cells in the thymus called?


thymocytes

71

the gallbladder is a storage compartment for what ?

bile

72

The area oc the thorax that contains the heart and trachea.

Mediastinum

73

Name the layers that makes up the GI wall

1) the mucosa, the lining layer

2) the submucosa, beneath the mucosa

3) the thick muscle layer, outside the submucosa

4) the serosa, outermost layer

74

What is a synergist?

A muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action.

74

what is another term for voice production

phonation

75

How many extraocular muscles do animals have?

7

76

Phagocytosis

When a cell ingests a microorganism

76

What is the function of plasma cells?


To produce, store, and release antibodies

76

The kidneys are covered by what?

Fibrous connective tissue capsule

76

The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland that is attaches to what?

the hypothalamus 

76

Main functions of the testes

spermatogenesis and hormone production

77


Agranulocytes

Monocytes, Lymphocytes

79

What is it called when the uterus goes back to it's non pregnant size?

involution

80


What layer lies just beneath the epithelial layer of the epidermis and is composed of loose conective tissue with loosely woven fibers and ground substance.

Papillary layer

81


Erythrocyte

Red Blood Cell

82

What hormones do the kidneys produce?

erythropoietin and prostaglandin

83

Cells give up vital organelles and nuclei to make room for Which tough, protective substance.

keratin

83

what is the normal pcv (packed cell volume) range for a cat

24% - 45%

84

What are digestive enzymes?

Proteins that promote the chemical reactions that split complex food molecules up into simpler compounds.

86

What is dystocia?

Difficult birth

87

What is the name of the fibers that connects the two halves of the cerebral cortex?

Corpus callosum

88


Normal Feline Heart Rate

150-210 bpm

88

What hormones control the estrus cycle?

LH and FSH.

89

Where do blood and lymph vessels, nerves and ureters enter/leave the kidney?

Hilus

90

What are the three parts of the brain stem?

1. Midbrain

2. Pons

3. Medulla Oblongata

91

What does the GH help regulate?

metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids in all body's cells

91

What are two types of smooth muscle?

Visceral smooth muscle and multiunit smooth muscle.

91

What area of the medulla oblongata in the brainstem controls breathing?

respiratory center

92

What is the "passageway" that divide each nasal?

Nasal Metus

94

Which cranial nerve stimulates the stomach?

Vagus nerve.

95

What is parturition?

The act of giving birth.

96

Where is the tricuspid valve located and what is another name for it?

Between the right atrium and right ventricle, right atrioventricular valve.

97

What happens during diastole?

The heart relaxes and refills with blood

98

Basic unit of the endocrine system

endocrine glands

98

______ is located in the cell membrane and actively pumps NA out and K ions in to the neuron.

Sodium-potassium pump

99

Touch is also know as what?

the tactile sense

100

Where is the pacinian corpuscle located?

The hypodermis

101

General term for the formation of white blood cells

Leukopoiesis

102

What muscle is controlled by the conscious mind and moves the bones of the skeleton so the animal can move?

Skeletal muscle

103

What four refractive media in the eye help to form a clear image on the retina?

The cornea, the aqueous humor, the lens and he vitreous humor.

104

What is the difference between Sinus bradycardia and Sinus tachycardia?

Sinus bradycardia Abnormally slow heart rate Normal conductivity Sinus tachycardia Abnormally fast heart rate Normal conductivity

105

What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system? 

Acetylcholine

106

what are the three ossicles bones

malleus, incus, stapes

107

Which substances are eliminated by secretion?

Hydrogen, potassium and ammmonia.

107

What does colostrum contain?

Antibodies, proteins, and vitamins.

109

oval opening that alows blood to by pass the fetus's lungs

Foramen ovale

109

What does the term stenotic nares mean

The nostrils are pinched or narrow

110

Name the principle cells found in the Epidermis?

Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans cells.

112

What seperates the left nasal passage from the right?

Nasal septum

113

Where do blood cells originate?

Bone marrow

114

Vessel cranial to the heart

Axillary artery

116

What are 2 proteins that function in muscle contraction?

Actin and Myosin

117

Where is gastrin produced and what does it act on?


The stomach wall

118

What are the 5 parts of a monogastric stomach?

Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pyloric Antrum, Pylorus

119

Which WBC produces antibodies?

Lymphocytes

120

Flat, ribbon like structure that lies along the surface of the testis

Epididymis

121

The muscles that make the digestive tube

skeletsl muscles and smooth muscle

122

Muscle that has intercalated disks

Cardiac

122

What is the gestation period of cats?

56-69 days

124

What glands produce tears?

Lacrimal glands and the accessory lacrimal glands

126

mechanical digestion is known as

mastication

127

Thin scroll-like bones in the nasal passage

Nasal Turbinates

128

Calcitonin helps regulate what?

Blood calcium levels

128

The hypothalamus produces what two hormones?

ADH and oxytocin

129

What is pruritus

Itchiness

130

Between what two layers of the heart is there a fluid filled space and what is its purpose?

Visceral and parietal layers. The fluid acts as a lubricant to allow smooth expansion and contraction.

130

a thin, transparent memebrane that covers the front portion of the eyeball and lines the interior surfaces of the eyelid

conjunctiva

131

The corpus leteum developes during which phase?

Metestrus.

132

At the hind limbs, the trunk of the aorta divides into right and left______

Iliac arteries.

132

What are the 4 primary functions of the lymphatic system

Removal of excess tissue fluid, Waste material transport, Filtration of lymph, & Protein transport.

132

Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands

Endocrine-secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

Exocrine-secrete their product onto epithelial surfaces through tiny tubes (ducts)

132

What is pneumonia?

Inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses or chemical irritants.

133

What are the saclike spaces that make up the vestibule?

The utricle and the saccule

135

What is the T-shaped plate of cartilage covered by the conjunctiva?

The third eyelid

136

The 2 factors for cardiac output

Stroke volume and heart rate

136

What are Suppressor T Cells?

These cells inhibit helper T cell and cytotoxic T cells function by negative feedback. They prevent B cells from transforming into plasma cells.

138

Glucagon is produced by which organ?

Pancreas

138

Most of the ear structures are housed within the ____ bones

Temporal.

139

List the 5 WBC types

Neutrophil

Monocyte

Lymphocyte

Eosinophil

Basophil

139

What pushes lymph back towards the heart?


Body Movement

140

what are the three stages of labor?

1. uterine contractions

2. delivery of the newborn

3. delivery of the placenta

141

What are the main expiratory muscles?

Internal intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles.

143

what are the 4 chemical hormone groups?

1. peptides and proteins, 2. steroids, 3. amino acid derivatives, 4. fatty acid derivatives

143

Pain produces what type of stimulies

Mechanical, chemical, or thermal

145

What cells in the pancreas produce glucagon?

alpha cells

146

What cells are produced in the bone marrow?

Langerhans Cells

148

What 3 categories are carbohydrates divded into?

Sugars, starches, cellulose

149

What are the functions of Prostaglandins E and I?

Reduce stomach's hydrochloric acid production and stimulate production of the protective mucous layer within the stomach.

150

150

Normal Feline RR

24-42

151

    Rostral 

towards the nose

151


What are tail glands thought to assist with?


Recognition and identification of other animals

152

Hormone that encourages follicles to develope in the ovaries

FSH

152

Where is the central temperature receptor located?

hypothalamus

153

What are the main inspiratory muscles?

Diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles

154

Where is the mitral valve located and what is another name for it?

Between the left atrium and left ventricle, left atrioventricular valve.

156

The masseter muscles origin is ________arch, its insertion point is ramus of the _________. Without this muscle animals would not be able to elevate their mandible.

Zygomatic & mandible

157

T or F

Sarcomere contraction is All or Nothing? 

True

158

Thyroid hormone is actually what two hormones?

T3 (Triiodothyronine) & T4 (Tetraiodothyronine)

159

The skin is responsible for the production of which vitamin?

Vitamin D

160

Name the 4 planes of reference

Sagital plane, Median plane, Transverse plane, Dorsal plane

162

What is the electrical anatomy of the heart?

SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of His, Purkinje Fibers

162

G cells are found in the....?

Stomach.

164

What does the tightly capillary wall and additional glial cell membranes prevents?

drugs, proteins, ions and other molecules from passinf from the blood into the brain

165

What provides a rapid response to foreign invaders?

Nonspecific Immunity

166


What is the difference between polyuria and pollakuria?


Polyuria means an increase in volume of urine

Pollakiuria means in an increase in frequency of urination

166

Where does blood filtration occur?

Renal corpuscle

167

What are hormones


Chemical messengers of the body that are produced and excreted by specific cells for the purpose of regulating specific organs or cells.

168

What 2 erectile tissue structures make up the body of the penis?

Corpus cavernosum urethrae and corpus caernosum penis

169

What is the difference between peristaltic contractions and segmental contractions?

Peristaltic contractions move contents along the digestive tract. Segmental contractions cause back-and-forth mixing movements of the digestive tract contents.

170

What happens during Systole?

Heart muscle contracts and blood leaves the atria to the ventricles or from the ventricles to the arteries.

171

What is the gestation range for canines?

59-68 days approximately 2 months

173

Which photoceptors are sensitive to color and detail?

Cones.

174

What is happening to the heart muscle during the "P" phase of the PQRS complex?

The atria are contracting

175


Which WBCs are granulocytes

Eosinophils, Basophils, neutrophils

175

What is the nephron?

The basic functional unit of the kidney

176

Where are sebaceous glands not found?

paw pads and planum nasale

177

what does the hormone prolactin do?

helps trigger and maintain lactation

178

what are the 4 primary functions of the lymphatic system?

Removal of excess tissue fluid, waste material transport, filtration of lymph, and protein transport,

179


What are 6 functions of skin?


1.Protect, cover and line.
2.Filter biochemical substances.
3.Absorb nutrients
4.Provide sensory input
5.Manufacture secretions
6.Manufacture excretions

179

3 segments of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

180

What 3 main hormone groups does the adrenal cortex produce?

Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids and Sex Hormones

182

what kind of muscle is the arrector pilli

smooth muscle

182

The efferent glomerular arterioles divide into capillaries that surrond the nephron, what are these capillaries called?

peritubular capillaries 

182

The three layers of the meninges.

1. Dura Mater

2. Arachnoid

3. Pia Matter

183


What do somatic reflexes involve?


Contraction of skeletal muscles

184

What does the upper respiratory tract consist of?

The nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea

185

What does parathyroid hormone do?

Maintains homeostasis by preventing Hypocalcemia.

186

What is another name for parathyroid hormone?

Parathormone

188

What does negative feedbacks systems control?

Hormone secretion

189

What is the average life span of a red blood cell in dogs?

110 days

190

What does the T wave represent?

relaxing of the ventricle and recharging of the node

191

what is special about the insertion of the muscle

it undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts.

192

The small intestines is the major site of____ and_____.

digestion and absorption

194

synthesis of proteins is an example of?

Anabolism

195

What is the outer layer of the heart called? 

Pericardium

196

What is the IgE antibody associated with?

Allergic response

197

What is glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

The term used to describe how fast plasma is filtered as it passes through the glomerulus.

199



Which cranial nerves are sensory nerves

CN I - Olfactory 

CN II- Optic

VIII-Vestibulocochlear

200

the sense of smell is called what ?

olfactory sense

202

What are progestins produced by?

Corpus luteum

203

Principal cells found in the Epidermis

Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel, and Langerhans cells 

204

Shallow grooves in the cerebrum 

Sulci

205

A muscle or muscle group that opposes the action of a prime mover is?

antagonist

207

3 different types of muscle make up the muscular system, what are they?

skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle

208

Which system is voluntary control of skeletal muscles in?

Somatic nervous system

210

One nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates is?

Motor unit

211

From outside in name the main structures of the upper respiratory tract

Nostrils Nasal passages Pharynx Larynx Trachea

213

What is a synapse?

The junction between two neurons or a neuron and a target cell.

214


What type of muscle is the arrector pili muscle?

Smooth muscle

216

which area of the brain is responsible for higher order functions

cerebrum

218

Where is grey matter located?

Outer layer of the brain and center of the spinal cord

220

What are the 4 processes that contribute to nociception?

1. Transduction 2. Transmission 3. Modulation 4. Perception

221

Ruminant stomach is found in?

Cattle, sheep, goats, and llamas.

222

the liver is the major source of what blood protein?

albumin

224

What conducts nerve impulses away from the CNS?

Efferent nerves

224

what are the 2 types muscles of respiration

inspiratory muscles,  expiratory muscles

225

The small gaps in the myelin sheath between the glial cells is called?

Nodes of Ranvier

227

What does cerebrospinal fluid do? 

Provides cushioning and may regulate autonomic functions (i.e. respiration, vomiting)

229

What are the muscle's attachement sites called and which is more stable?

Origin of the muscle and insertion of the muscle. Origin of the muscle is more stable.

230

Physiology

The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.

231

Lymph fluid re-enters the bloodstream via what large lymph vessel near the heart?

Thoracic duct.

233

Where is glucagon produced in?

The pancreas

234

A broad sheet of fibrous tissue that attaches two muscles or a muscle to a bone. Ex. Linea alba.

Aponeuroses

235


What is plasma

The fluid portion of blood with cloting factors that makes up 45% to 78% of blood volume

235

What is depolarization?

Refers to the opening of the sodium channesl and the sudden influx of many sodium ions into the cell.

236

Composed of areolar tissue containing adipose, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves

Hypodermis

237

What is the ring-shaped structure located directly behind the iris?

Ciliary body

238

Medial

Toward the middle

239

Three categories of hair

1. Primary or Guard hairs

2. Secondary or Wool Hairs

3. Tactile or Sinus Hairs

239

What are the most easily visible parts of the atria called?

Auricles

240

a paper-thin, connective tissue membrane that is tightly stretched across the opening between the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity

tympanic membrane

242

What are tonsils?

noduals of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.

242

what is the larynx commonly reffered to as?

voice box

243

What organs are part of the lymphatic system?

Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and gut associated lymph tissue(GALT)

244

What does the blood regulate?

body temperature

tissue fluid content

blood ph

245

Hemoconcentration

Less plasma in bloodstream, and cells become more concentrated.

246

What type of white blood cell is this?

Q image thumb

Basophil

247

Condition in which the muscles of the heart have become thin and weak and now have a lower stroke volume than normal.


Dilated Cardiomyopathy

249

true or false

all male dogs have a bulbourethral gland

false

251

name the 3 parts of the ear

Pina, Middle ear, Inner ear

253

What enzyme is found the saliva of omnivores, but not in the saliva of carnivores?

Amylase

253

Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

spermatogenesis: spermatozoa is produced continously and in very large numbers

oogenesis: not produced continuosly and there is a fixed number of oocytes

 

254

What are 2 actions of skeletal muscle?

To move bones and generate heat

255

What does the Hormone Aldosterone do

stimulates sodium reabsorption in the Kidney

255

The opening into the larynx, made up ofthe arytenoid cartilages and the vocal cords.

Glottis

256

 What keeps the valve between the atrium and the ventricle from bending back into the atrium

Chordae tendineae

257

What type of white blood cell is this

Q image thumb

Basophil

259

Where is white matter located? 

The outer part of the spinal chord and the inner part of the brain

260


What is special about cells in the white pulp of the spleen.

They can clone themselves during an immune response.

261

Visceral

Referring to soft internal organs.

261

Correct path of urinary excretion

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.

261

the inside of the Bladder is lined with ?

transitional epithelium cells

262

what are the 3 things we can change to manage heart disease?

Pump - strength of the beat, Pipes - constrictict or dilate vessels, Fluid - viscosity

264

The elium is part of the small intestines? T or F

False. The Ilium is part of the small intestines, where as the Elium is part of the bony pelvis.

266


Where does most tubular secretion take place?

The distal convoluted tubule

268

What is the purpose of the hyaline cartilage rings?

To hold the trachea open and prevent it from collapsing on itself when the animal inhales.

269

what are rugae?

multiple long folds in the stomach, commonly seen on endoscopic exam

270

What are 3 plasma proteins?

Albumins, Globulins and Fibrinogen

271

Which side of the heart moves blood to the body?

Left side

271

which type of white blood cell is incapable of phagocytosis

Lymphocytes

272

2 categories of temperature receptors

superficial and central 

273

Name the layers of the epidermis from deepest to superficial

Stratum Basale, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Lucidum

274

The impulse for the heart beat originates in the...?

SA Node

276

What is the prepuce?

The sheath of skin that encloses the penis when it is not erect.

278

what are the two main divisions of the nervous systems

peripheral nervous system  (PNS)   and the  central nervous systems  (CNS)

279

What is the process of experiencing pain called?

Nociception

280

The CNS is composed of

the brain, and spinal cord

282

What are three types of gustatory papillae?

1.Fungiform

2.Foliate

3.Vallate

282

A muscle that moves a limb away from the midline is called

an abductor

284

Nervous impulses from rods and cones pass via the______to the brain.

Optic nerve

285

What are the 7 anterior pituitary hormones?

GH, Prolactin, TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH and MSH

286

Why does hair turn grey or white as animals age?

Melanin production decreases. The cortex loses its pigment entirely and the medulla becomes filled with air.

287

What is heart murmur often related to?


Periodontal disease

289

what are the four special senses

taste, smell, hearing, vision

290


What glands are found in the external ear canal of dogs?

Apocrine sweat glands

291

What's the sympathetic nervous system often called

fight or flight system

292

What is the caudal bend of the heart

The Apex

294

Palatal surface

The inner surface of the upper teeth.

295

Name the artery and the vein that supply and drain blood from the kidney?

Renal artery and the Renal Vein

296

What cell is associated with sensory nerve endings?

Merkel Cells

297

What is the Lymph from the digestive tract called?

Chyle

299

What is passive immunity

administering antibodies that weren't produced by the animals own immune system.

300

Superficial layer of the epidermis

Stratum Corneum

300


Air that is still in the lungs after a forced expiration is?

Residual volume

302

What are the main inspiratory muscles?

Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.

302

Gametes unite to become this

Zygote

303

What do Afferent nerves do

conduct nerve impulses toward the CNS

304

what are two of the main muscles that raise the head and neck

splenius muscle

trapezius muscle

305

What are the 2 kinds of respiration that are constantly going on in the body?

External respiration and Internal respiration

306

Which artery supplies blood to the tail?

Coccygeal

306

Thrombocyte

Platelet

307

What is the connection between the rest of the brain and the spinal cord ?

Brain stem

308

Hemodilution

Extra fluid in the plasma which dilutes the cells.

309

What is the process of aging in red blood cells called?

senescence

310

Where can simple epithelium be found?

Protected areas: internal compartments, ducts, vessels, and passageways.

312

5 types of immunoglobulins (Ig)

IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, and IgD

314

What type of cell is this?

Q image thumb

Neutrophil

315


Polymorphonuclear


A multilobed, segmented nucleus

317

What ototoxic drugs can cause deafness?

Gentamycin & neomycin

318

what muscle makes the hair stand up

arrector pilli muscle

319

Leukocyte

White Blood Cell

321


Granulocytes

Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils

322

Organism

An individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.

323

Only found in thick skin

Stratum Lucidium

325

In order from outside to in the main structures of the upper respiratory tract are

Nostrils, Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea

326

What type of nerve is the Olfactory?

Sensory

328

what artery carries deoxygenated blood

pulmonary artery

328

What type of white blood cell is this

Q image thumb

monocyte

330

What is the Calorigenic effect?

Thyroid hormones that help heat the body.

331

what ions are involved in nerve conduction

sodium and potassium

332

Cranial

Toward the head

333


Pulse Deficit

When the heart rate and pluse rate are not the same

335


Oliguria

passing small amounts of urine

337

What does prehension mean?

Grasping of food with lips or teeth.

339

What gland produces glucagon, & androgens

Testis

341

Signals are transmitted from one nerve to another via?

Neurotransmitters 

342

Which hormone encourages excess calcium to be deposited in the bones?

Calcitonin

343

What is the thickest layer of the heart?

Myocardium

344

Diabetes mellitus is caused by a deficiency of which hormone?

Insulin

345

The urinary system removes...

urea, salts, water, and other soluble waste products

346

Pleomorphic


Non-segmented nucleus with varying shapes

346

What is the function of memory cells?

They wait for a second infection of the same antigen that originally caused their formation.  The immune response is more rapid the second time the body is exposed to the antigen.

347

The period of transition between the anagen and telogen phase is called?

The catagen phase

349

What has both exocrine and endocrine functions?

The Pancreas

350


Erythropoeitin is secreted by which organ?


Kidney

351

What are three functions of the muscular system?

1.Produce movement of the body and parts.

2.Maintains posture

3.Produces heat

352

What is the birth process called?

Parturition

353

What does serum have that plasma does not?

fibrinogen and other clotting factors

354

What are 2 other names for urination?

Uresis, Micturition

355

what WBCs are agranulocytes

Lymphocytes, monocytes

357

What organ has both exocrine and endocrine functions

The pancreas

357

transmission of an impulse from one neuron to the next is called...

Synaptic transmission

358

Made of 4-5 layers

Epidermis

360

The total number of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell is called?

Diploid chromosome number.

362

What organs make up the Renal system

2 kidney's 2 ureters 1 urinary blader and 1 urethra

363

What is asystole?

When the heart has completely stopped.

364

How many teeth do canines have (deciduous and adult)?

Deciduous: 28

Adult: 42

365

Caudal

Towards the tail

367

where does reabsorbtion take place

in the PCTs and the loop of Henle

369

What part of the nervous system that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and endocrine glands automatically without conscious control.

Automatic nervous system

370

What does the kidney maintain?

Homeostasis

BODY LIKE SAME

372


What does GALT satnd for?

Gut associated lymph tissue.

374

Two types of sweat glands and the difference between them

1. Eccrine Gland - Empties onto the surface

2. Apocrine Gland - Empties into a hair follicle

374

What is urolithiasis?


Condition of having urinary stones

375

What is Hemoglobin?

The protein in RBCs that gives them their red color and allows them to carry oxygen

377

Erythropoietin

Hormone necessary for red blood cell production

379

Where is breathing controlled and what is it known as?

by an area in the medulla oblongata and it's known as the respiratory center

380

Define Hypoxia

low levels of oxygen in the blood

381

Where is the Renal corpuscle located?

in the cortex of the kidney

382

3 - types of lymphocytes

T - lymphocytes (B- cells)

B - lymphocytes  (T- cells)

Natural Killer (NK) cells

383

What is the functional unit if the kidney?

Nephron

384

What is pseudopregnancy?

False pregnancy

385

Name 4 glands of the skin

1.Sebaceous glands

2.Sweat glands

3.Tail Glands

4.Anal Sacs

387

What's internal respiration?

the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood in the capillaries all over the body and all of the cells and tissues

388

What is active immunity

Activation of the immune system by administration of a vaccine that contains a modified antigen or exposure to the antigen.

389

In what cardiac cycle does the heart relax and refill with blood to be ejected during the next systolic contraction?

Diastole

390

The chordae tendineae connect to the _______ muscles

Papillary

392

Erythropoietin is a hormone made by the kindeys. What does this have to do with RBCs?

Erythropoietin stimulates bone marrow to increase the relase of RBCs

393

Define homeostasis

Balance within the body

395

Which is the first antibody that is produced when an animal is exposed to an antigen?

IgM

397


What is the difference between plasma and serum?

Plasma is whole blood without cells.  Serum is whole blood without the cells and clotting elements.

(Or Plasma without the clotting factors.)

399

what is transduction?

the first step in nociception.

The conversion of a painful stimulus to a nerve impulse that happens at the sensory nerve ending.

400

What type of muscle is NOT striated?

Smooth muscle

401

True or False: Both T cells & B cells can become memory cells.

True

402

Where is GALT located?

the lining of the intestine

403


Two other names for the pituitary gland

 1.) Hypophysis    2.) master endocrine gland

404

The three layers of skin

1. Epidermis

2. Dermis

3. Hypodermis

406

Cell type involved in humoral immune response  

B cells that transform into plasma cells after antigen stimulation

407

When would an eosinophil be present and why?

At the site of an allergic reaction, their granules contain anti-inflammatory properties.

408

what lymphoid organ is full size at birth. then gets smaller with age

Thymus

409

List the 4 parts of a nephron in order.

Renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and a distal convoluted tubule.

411

T- Lymphocytes are produced in the __ and mature in the ___.

Bone Marrow and Thymus

413

In order from outside in, the main structures of the lower respiratory tract are

Bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

414

What is the order of blood flow?

Vena cava

Right Atrium

Tricuspid valve

Right ventricle

Pulmonary valve

Pulmonary artery

Lungs

Pulmonary vein

Left atrium

Mitral valve

left ventricle

aortic valve

aorta

Systemic circulation

416

What hormone affects moods and wake-sleep cycle

Melatonin

417

What is the process by which ova are produced in follicles in the ovaries called?

Oogenesis

419

2 normal physiological states of hemoglobin

Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin

420

What is urolithiasis?

The presence of urinary stones

421

What can an overdose of insulin cause?

Hypoglycemia

422

What white blood cell is this?

Q image thumb

Eosinophil

424

Which muscle has little or no attachment to bones?

cutaneous muscle

425

What is a dilated esophagus called?

megaesophagus

427

What is the sense of body position and movement called?

Proprioception

429

What do lymphocytes produce?

Antibodies

431

What is the action of the skeletal muscle

To move the bones, and generate heat

432

On the way to the thoracic duct, lymph vessels pass through at least one lymph node and pick up what?

Lymphocytes

433

Muscles that contract without the need for external stimulation

cardiac and smooth

434

From outside in name the main structures of the lower respiratory tract

Bronchi Bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli

435

Homeostasis

Normal state of the body -composition of body tissue fluid is maintained as constant as possible. 

 

BODY LIKE SAME  :  )

436

Which Cranial nerves are motor nerves

CN III-Oculomotor

CN IV-Trochlear

CN VI-Abducent

CN XI-Accessory

CN XII-Hypoglossal

437

What is the purpose of the intercalated disks?

They securely fasten the muscle cells together and transmit impulses from cell to cell in order to contract.

438

What 2 factors control cardiac output?

Stroke Volume and Heart Rate

439

What are lymphokines?

Chemical messengers secreted by T cells - also called cytokines

440

What are the lacrimal glands responsible for.

Tear production

441

The 4 types of tissue

Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue

443

What's external respiration?

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air inhaled into the lungs and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries.

444


the mitral valve separates what 2 chambers of the heart

left atrium and the left ventricle

445

What sphincter seperates the stomach from the small intestine?

Pylorus (pyloric sphincter)

446

Where are keratinocytes found? 

Stratum Basale

447

where does internal respiration take place

in the cells and tissuse of the body

448


Which antibody arrives after IgM but stays at the site longer?


IgG

449

What are the milk secreting units of the mammory gland?

alveoli

450

Instrument that is used to measure electrical activity of the heart

Electrocardiogram

451


what are the 3 layers of hair

outer layer- cuticle

middle layer - cortex

intermost layer - medulla

452


What does the mouth do?

1.Receives food and mixes it with saliva during mastication.
2.Bolus is formed.

453

What is often reffered to as the master endocrine gland?

The pituitary gland

454

What is the seventh extraocular muscle?

The retractor bulbi muscle

455

What are the 3 main functions of blood

Transportation, Regulation, & Defense

456

What are the stages of the estrous cycle?

Proestrus Estrus Metestrus Diestrus Anestrus ( occurs in some animals between breeding seasons )

457

T or F  Sertoli cell is also called a nurse cell?

True.

458

What does the cerebellum allows the body to do?

coordinated movement, balance, posture and complex reflexes

459

What makes up 93% of plasma?

Water

461

T or F skeletal muscle is voluntary

True

462

What is the purpose of hemoglobin?

Transport oxygen to tissues..

463

What waterproofs the skin and gives it strength?

Keratinocytes

464

The part of the hair that is visible above the skin is called the ________, and the portion of the buried within the skin is called the _______.

Shaft & Root

465

What are the 3 types of cellular junctions found between epithelial cells?

1.Tight junction

2.Desmosomes

3. Gap Junctions

466

The 2 types of specific immunity

cell-mediated immunnity and humoral immunity

467

What are 3 charateristics important to the control of the breathing process?

CO2 content, pH and O2 content of arterial blood

468

What does unsaturated fatty acids include?

monounsaturated and polyunsturated fats

469

What are the 2 parts of the renal corpuscle?

outer - bowmans capsule , inner - glomerulus

470

what type of cells are memory cells

T cells

B cells

471


Anuria

No urine is being passed from the body

472

What does the blood transport?

Oxygen

Nutrients

Waste

Hormones

473

What function do otoliths have?

They help the macula determine the position of the head.

474

Term used for aging cells

Senescence

475

What 3 groups of hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex

Glucocorticoid hormones

Mineralocorticoid hormones

Sex hormones

476

Another term for the sense of taste.

Gustatory Sense

477

What are the three main activities of the nervous system?

1. Sensory Functions

2. Integrating Functions

3. Motor Functions

478

Normal Canine RR

10-30

479

Axons conduct nerve impulses ______ from the cell body toward another neuron or an _________.

away,  effector cell

480


What seperates the left and right ventricles?


Interventricular septum

481

What is fight-or-flight?

A whole-body response resulting from a animal  feeling threatened that prepares the body for intense physical activity. It results from a combination of direct sympathetic nerve stimulation and the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood stream from the medulla of the adrenal gland. effects the body include increased heart rate and out put, increase blood pressure, dilated air passageways in the lungs, and decreased gastrointestinal function.

482

What are the contractions that move food along the digestive tract called?

Peristalsis (peristaltic contractions)

483

What does red pulp consist of?

Blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood storage spaces (sinuses)

484

true or false

 only dogs have an os penis

false