What sense helps an animal maintain balance by keeping track of position and movements of the head?
what are the 2 main systems that control breathing
mechanical system and chemical system
What does SA node stand for?
What are the three ossicles of the ear called?
Acetycholine and norepinephrine are examples of?
What state is a neuron in when it is not being stimulated?
B-Cells and T-Cells
What is the top of a dog's nose also known as?
What is calcitonin ? and where is it produced ?
Hormone that prevents the level of calcium in the blood from getting to high. it is produced in the thyroid gland
Which cranial nerves are both sensory and motor nerves
CN V- Trigeminal
CN VII- Facial
List the layers of the skeletal muscle
Muscle fiber, fascicle, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium.
Erthroctyes are formed in bone marrow by a process called?
Where does most tubular secretion take place?
In the distal convoltued tubule (DCT).
Which blood cell is responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues?
Which part of the spleen acts as reservoir for blood?
What is the term for the presence of glucose in urine?
The kidney's nerve supply comes from where?
Sympathetic portion of the Autonomic nervous system.
What is Anemia?
A condition where there is decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This is caused by there not being enough red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration or both.
Producing and passing large amounts of urine
What three hormones are produced by the thyroid gland?
T or F Uterine hornes are also known as falopian tubes?
towards the belly
Where does the pineal gland play a role in?
Regulation of body rythyms
What hormones are produced in the anterior pituitary?
GH, Prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, MSH
which type of muscle does not have sarcomeres?
What is infection of the mammary gland?
Which gland produces sebum?
Normal feline Heart Rate
What is the primary source of passive immunity in veterinary medicine?
What is lymph filtered by?
What muscle is found all over the body in places such as eyes, stomach and urinary bladder?
What are the basic functions of the digestive tract?
1. Prehension (grasping) of food with the lips or teeth. 2. Mastication, the mechanical grinding and breaking down of food. 3. Chemical digestion of food 4. Absorption of nutrients and water 5. Elimination of wastes.
What protects the keratinocytes from UV radiation?
Where can stratified squamous epithelium be found?
Areas where cells must reproduce rapidly: vagina, mouth, anus.
An increase in what hormone causes ovulation to occur?
Which extraocular muscle do humans not share with animals and what does it do?
Retracts the eye further into the orbit, enhancing the other extraocular muscles
The passageways that lead from the ______ to the ______ are called the bronchial tree.
What is the colostrums most important role?
providing the newborn with passive immunity.
What are the two types of immune response?
Specific and Nonspecific
The ________ is often covered by a fatty substance called _______
Axons & myelin
What is micturition?
Mineralocorticoid hormones target what organ?
What is the name of the division of the trachea into the two main bronchi?
Bifurcation of the trachea
What are the two targets for oxytocin?
The uterus and mammary glands.
The hypothalamus is a part of the ________ of the brain.
what organ is both an exocrine and endocrine gland that is associated with the digestive system?
What does TSH do?
stimulate growth and development of the thyroid gland and cause it to produce it's hormones
Toward the head
What is Cell-Mediated Immunity?
The function of T cells that attach to antigenic sites on the surfaces of foreign cells.
What divides the aqueous compartment?
Deep grooves in the cerebrum
In what cardiac cycle does the heart muscle contract, eject blood from the atria to the ventricles, and then from the ventricles to the arteries?
Where is blood stored when the body doesn't need all of its blood circulating?
What is a common neurotransmitter used to signal muscle contraction?
Name the 2 main systems that control breathing and what they do.
1. Mechanical system: that sets routine inspiration and expiration limits. 2. Chemical system: that monitors the levels of certain substances in the blood and directs adjustments in breathing if they get out of balance
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
Skeletal muscle cells are______?
cardiac muscle is also know as ?
involuntary striated muscle
Air, blood, lymph and nerves enter and leave the lung at the _____, located on the medial side
What are the general senses ?
1. Visceral sensations 2. Touch 3. Temperature 4. Pain 5. Proprioception
Cardiac and smooth muscle are voluntary or involuntary
what is the normal pcv (packed cell volume) range for a dog
37% - 55%
Which neurotransmitter can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending on location
Dendrites are called ______
What symptom is common in FLUTD?
Presesnce of Uroliths(stones)
What type of WBC is this?
What is the withdrawal reflex also called?
What are oviducts also known as?
fallopian tubes and uterine tubes
Immunoglobulin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids. It plays an important role in preventing diseases caused by antigens that may enter the body through mucosal surfaces.
What does it mean when the kidneys are referred to be located retroperitoneal?
outside (behind or dorsal to) the abdominal cavity
What is a sarcomere?
The area from 1 Z line to another Z line
Muscles attach to bones at both ends by what?
tough, fibrous connective tissue band called tendons.
Function of kidneys?
Filtration, reabsorption, secretion
Fluid balance regulation
Acid-base balance regulation
Production of hormones
3 layers of the eyeball
outer: fibrous layer; the middle: vascular layer; the inner: nervous layer
what is another name for Thyroid Simulating Hormone?
What is a uniparous species?
A species that typically only gives birth to one offspring at a time.
what vein carries oxygenated blood
What are the 3 main mechanisms by which the kidneys carry out their waste elimination role?
1. Filtration of blood 2. Reabsorption of useful substance back into the bloodstream. 3. Secretion of waste products from the blood into the tubules of the nephron.
What do you call the movement of air between the atmosphere and the lungs?
the diaphragm is made of what type of muscle
what organ of the ear controls equilibrium.
The vein most commonly used for venipuncture is the____vein?
What is the difference between epinephrine and norepinephrine?
Epinephrine is short acting and norepinephrine Similar Hormones related to “Fight or Flight” of the ANS Increased HR, BP, blood flow, output Decrease GI activity Increased BG Bronchioles dilate Pupils dilate
What are the four types of stimuli for sensory receptors? Give an example of each
1. Mechanincal Stimuli example: touch
2. Thermal stimuli example: hot and cold
3. Electromagnetic stimuli example: vision
4. Chemical stimuli example: taste
what are the 3 phases of a single muscle fiber contraction
latent phase, contracting phase, relaxation phase
where does external respiration take place
in the aveoli
What 2 layers is the dermis composed of ?
Papillary and Reticular
Normal Canine Heart Rate
What hormone helps regulate the body's metabolic rate?
What causes pigmentation of skin?
The presence or absence of melanin granules in the armlike extensions in the melanocytes.
At the epidermal-dermal junction which cells found in small numbers are always associated with a sensory nerve
What is an interferon?
Protein produced by a cell after it has been infected by a virus
The renal corpuscle is made up of the ____ and _____.
Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule
What links the hypothalmus to the anterior pituitary gland?
A system of tiny blood vessels called a Portal System
What is produced during the breakdown of hemoglobin?
What is the second largest component of the brain?
The conjunction of the cornea and sclera is called the...?
What are the 2 muscles that help in expiration?
internal intercostal and abdominal muscles
Breaks in the suface of mucous and in the underlying mucousa are called erisions. What are deep erosions called?
What is the origin, insertion and action of the splenius muscle?
Origin: Fascia along the middorsal line of the neck
Insertion: Lambdoidal ridge of the occipital bone.
Action :Lateral flexion of the head.
Glucose gets stored as glycogen in the liver by a process called...
what does chemotaxis do?
Uses chemicals to attract neutrophils to the site of an infection
when one or both testes do not descend into the scrotum
What is a blood protein that the liver provides a major source of?
Which type of smooth muscle is large and relatively powerfull
Visceral smooth muscle
What are pre-T cells in the thymus called?
the gallbladder is a storage compartment for what ?
The area oc the thorax that contains the heart and trachea.
Name the layers that makes up the GI wall
1) the mucosa, the lining layer
2) the submucosa, beneath the mucosa
3) the thick muscle layer, outside the submucosa
4) the serosa, outermost layer
What is a synergist?
A muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action.
what is another term for voice production
How many extraocular muscles do animals have?
When a cell ingests a microorganism
What is the function of plasma cells?
To produce, store, and release antibodies
The kidneys are covered by what?
Fibrous connective tissue capsule
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland that is attaches to what?
Main functions of the testes
spermatogenesis and hormone production
What is it called when the uterus goes back to it's non pregnant size?
What layer lies just beneath the epithelial layer of the epidermis and is composed of loose conective tissue with loosely woven fibers and ground substance.
Red Blood Cell
What hormones do the kidneys produce?
erythropoietin and prostaglandin
Cells give up vital organelles and nuclei to make room for Which tough, protective substance.
what is the normal pcv (packed cell volume) range for a cat
24% - 45%
What are digestive enzymes?
Proteins that promote the chemical reactions that split complex food molecules up into simpler compounds.
What is dystocia?
What is the name of the fibers that connects the two halves of the cerebral cortex?
Normal Feline Heart Rate
What hormones control the estrus cycle?
LH and FSH.
Where do blood and lymph vessels, nerves and ureters enter/leave the kidney?
What are the three parts of the brain stem?
3. Medulla Oblongata
What does the GH help regulate?
metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids in all body's cells
What are two types of smooth muscle?
Visceral smooth muscle and multiunit smooth muscle.
What area of the medulla oblongata in the brainstem controls breathing?
What is the "passageway" that divide each nasal?
Which cranial nerve stimulates the stomach?
What is parturition?
The act of giving birth.
Where is the tricuspid valve located and what is another name for it?
Between the right atrium and right ventricle, right atrioventricular valve.
What happens during diastole?
The heart relaxes and refills with blood
Basic unit of the endocrine system
______ is located in the cell membrane and actively pumps NA out and K ions in to the neuron.
Touch is also know as what?
the tactile sense
Where is the pacinian corpuscle located?
General term for the formation of white blood cells
What muscle is controlled by the conscious mind and moves the bones of the skeleton so the animal can move?
What four refractive media in the eye help to form a clear image on the retina?
The cornea, the aqueous humor, the lens and he vitreous humor.
What is the difference between Sinus bradycardia and Sinus tachycardia?
Sinus bradycardia Abnormally slow heart rate Normal conductivity Sinus tachycardia Abnormally fast heart rate Normal conductivity
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?
what are the three ossicles bones
malleus, incus, stapes
Which substances are eliminated by secretion?
Hydrogen, potassium and ammmonia.
What does colostrum contain?
Antibodies, proteins, and vitamins.
oval opening that alows blood to by pass the fetus's lungs
What does the term stenotic nares mean
The nostrils are pinched or narrow
Name the principle cells found in the Epidermis?
Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans cells.
What seperates the left nasal passage from the right?
Where do blood cells originate?
Vessel cranial to the heart
What are 2 proteins that function in muscle contraction?
Actin and Myosin
Where is gastrin produced and what does it act on?
The stomach wall
What are the 5 parts of a monogastric stomach?
Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pyloric Antrum, Pylorus
Which WBC produces antibodies?
Flat, ribbon like structure that lies along the surface of the testis
The muscles that make the digestive tube
skeletsl muscles and smooth muscle
Muscle that has intercalated disks
What is the gestation period of cats?
What glands produce tears?
Lacrimal glands and the accessory lacrimal glands
mechanical digestion is known as
Thin scroll-like bones in the nasal passage
Calcitonin helps regulate what?
Blood calcium levels
The hypothalamus produces what two hormones?
ADH and oxytocin
What is pruritus
Between what two layers of the heart is there a fluid filled space and what is its purpose?
Visceral and parietal layers. The fluid acts as a lubricant to allow smooth expansion and contraction.
a thin, transparent memebrane that covers the front portion of the eyeball and lines the interior surfaces of the eyelid
The corpus leteum developes during which phase?
At the hind limbs, the trunk of the aorta divides into right and left______
What are the 4 primary functions of the lymphatic system
Removal of excess tissue fluid, Waste material transport, Filtration of lymph, & Protein transport.
Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands
Endocrine-secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Exocrine-secrete their product onto epithelial surfaces through tiny tubes (ducts)
What is pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses or chemical irritants.
What are the saclike spaces that make up the vestibule?
The utricle and the saccule
What is the T-shaped plate of cartilage covered by the conjunctiva?
The third eyelid
The 2 factors for cardiac output
Stroke volume and heart rate
What are Suppressor T Cells?
These cells inhibit helper T cell and cytotoxic T cells function by negative feedback. They prevent B cells from transforming into plasma cells.
Glucagon is produced by which organ?
Most of the ear structures are housed within the ____ bones
List the 5 WBC types
What pushes lymph back towards the heart?
what are the three stages of labor?
1. uterine contractions
2. delivery of the newborn
3. delivery of the placenta
What are the main expiratory muscles?
Internal intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles.
what are the 4 chemical hormone groups?
1. peptides and proteins, 2. steroids, 3. amino acid derivatives, 4. fatty acid derivatives
Pain produces what type of stimulies
Mechanical, chemical, or thermal
What cells in the pancreas produce glucagon?
What cells are produced in the bone marrow?
What 3 categories are carbohydrates divded into?
Sugars, starches, cellulose
What are the functions of Prostaglandins E and I?
Reduce stomach's hydrochloric acid production and stimulate production of the protective mucous layer within the stomach.
Normal Feline RR
towards the nose
What are tail glands thought to assist with?
Recognition and identification of other animals
Hormone that encourages follicles to develope in the ovaries
Where is the central temperature receptor located?
What are the main inspiratory muscles?
Diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles
Where is the mitral valve located and what is another name for it?
Between the left atrium and left ventricle, left atrioventricular valve.
The masseter muscles origin is ________arch, its insertion point is ramus of the _________. Without this muscle animals would not be able to elevate their mandible.
Zygomatic & mandible
T or F
Sarcomere contraction is All or Nothing?
Thyroid hormone is actually what two hormones?
T3 (Triiodothyronine) & T4 (Tetraiodothyronine)
The skin is responsible for the production of which vitamin?
Name the 4 planes of reference
Sagital plane, Median plane, Transverse plane, Dorsal plane
What is the electrical anatomy of the heart?
SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of His, Purkinje Fibers
G cells are found in the....?
What does the tightly capillary wall and additional glial cell membranes prevents?
drugs, proteins, ions and other molecules from passinf from the blood into the brain
What provides a rapid response to foreign invaders?
What is the difference between polyuria and pollakuria?
Polyuria means an increase in volume of urine
Pollakiuria means in an increase in frequency of urination
Where does blood filtration occur?
What are hormones
Chemical messengers of the body that are produced and excreted by specific cells for the purpose of regulating specific organs or cells.
What 2 erectile tissue structures make up the body of the penis?
Corpus cavernosum urethrae and corpus caernosum penis
What is the difference between peristaltic contractions and segmental contractions?
Peristaltic contractions move contents along the digestive tract. Segmental contractions cause back-and-forth mixing movements of the digestive tract contents.
What happens during Systole?
Heart muscle contracts and blood leaves the atria to the ventricles or from the ventricles to the arteries.
What is the gestation range for canines?
59-68 days approximately 2 months
Which photoceptors are sensitive to color and detail?
What is happening to the heart muscle during the "P" phase of the PQRS complex?
The atria are contracting
Which WBCs are granulocytes
Eosinophils, Basophils, neutrophils
What is the nephron?
The basic functional unit of the kidney
Where are sebaceous glands not found?
paw pads and planum nasale
what does the hormone prolactin do?
helps trigger and maintain lactation
what are the 4 primary functions of the lymphatic system?
Removal of excess tissue fluid, waste material transport, filtration of lymph, and protein transport,
What are 6 functions of skin?
1.Protect, cover and line.
2.Filter biochemical substances.
4.Provide sensory input
3 segments of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What 3 main hormone groups does the adrenal cortex produce?
Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids and Sex Hormones
what kind of muscle is the arrector pilli
The efferent glomerular arterioles divide into capillaries that surrond the nephron, what are these capillaries called?
The three layers of the meninges.
1. Dura Mater
3. Pia Matter
What do somatic reflexes involve?
Contraction of skeletal muscles
What does the upper respiratory tract consist of?
The nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea
What does parathyroid hormone do?
Maintains homeostasis by preventing Hypocalcemia.
What is another name for parathyroid hormone?
What does negative feedbacks systems control?
What is the average life span of a red blood cell in dogs?
What does the T wave represent?
relaxing of the ventricle and recharging of the node
what is special about the insertion of the muscle
it undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts.
The small intestines is the major site of____ and_____.
digestion and absorption
synthesis of proteins is an example of?
What is the outer layer of the heart called?
What is the IgE antibody associated with?
What is glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
The term used to describe how fast plasma is filtered as it passes through the glomerulus.
Which cranial nerves are sensory nerves
CN I - Olfactory
CN II- Optic
the sense of smell is called what ?
What are progestins produced by?
Principal cells found in the Epidermis
Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel, and Langerhans cells
Shallow grooves in the cerebrum
A muscle or muscle group that opposes the action of a prime mover is?
3 different types of muscle make up the muscular system, what are they?
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
Which system is voluntary control of skeletal muscles in?
Somatic nervous system
One nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates is?
From outside in name the main structures of the upper respiratory tract
Nostrils Nasal passages Pharynx Larynx Trachea
What is a synapse?
The junction between two neurons or a neuron and a target cell.
What type of muscle is the arrector pili muscle?
which area of the brain is responsible for higher order functions
Where is grey matter located?
Outer layer of the brain and center of the spinal cord
What are the 4 processes that contribute to nociception?
1. Transduction 2. Transmission 3. Modulation 4. Perception
Ruminant stomach is found in?
Cattle, sheep, goats, and llamas.
the liver is the major source of what blood protein?
What conducts nerve impulses away from the CNS?
what are the 2 types muscles of respiration
inspiratory muscles, expiratory muscles
The small gaps in the myelin sheath between the glial cells is called?
Nodes of Ranvier
What does cerebrospinal fluid do?
Provides cushioning and may regulate autonomic functions (i.e. respiration, vomiting)
What are the muscle's attachement sites called and which is more stable?
Origin of the muscle and insertion of the muscle. Origin of the muscle is more stable.
The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.
Lymph fluid re-enters the bloodstream via what large lymph vessel near the heart?
Where is glucagon produced in?
A broad sheet of fibrous tissue that attaches two muscles or a muscle to a bone. Ex. Linea alba.
What is plasma
The fluid portion of blood with cloting factors that makes up 45% to 78% of blood volume
What is depolarization?
Refers to the opening of the sodium channesl and the sudden influx of many sodium ions into the cell.
Composed of areolar tissue containing adipose, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves
What is the ring-shaped structure located directly behind the iris?
Toward the middle
Three categories of hair
1. Primary or Guard hairs
2. Secondary or Wool Hairs
3. Tactile or Sinus Hairs
What are the most easily visible parts of the atria called?
a paper-thin, connective tissue membrane that is tightly stretched across the opening between the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity
What are tonsils?
noduals of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.
what is the larynx commonly reffered to as?
What organs are part of the lymphatic system?
Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and gut associated lymph tissue(GALT)
What does the blood regulate?
tissue fluid content
Less plasma in bloodstream, and cells become more concentrated.
What type of white blood cell is this?
Condition in which the muscles of the heart have become thin and weak and now have a lower stroke volume than normal.
true or false
all male dogs have a bulbourethral gland
name the 3 parts of the ear
Pina, Middle ear, Inner ear
What enzyme is found the saliva of omnivores, but not in the saliva of carnivores?
Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis
spermatogenesis: spermatozoa is produced continously and in very large numbers
oogenesis: not produced continuosly and there is a fixed number of oocytes
What are 2 actions of skeletal muscle?
To move bones and generate heat
What does the Hormone Aldosterone do
stimulates sodium reabsorption in the Kidney
The opening into the larynx, made up ofthe arytenoid cartilages and the vocal cords.
What keeps the valve between the atrium and the ventricle from bending back into the atrium
What type of white blood cell is this
Where is white matter located?
The outer part of the spinal chord and the inner part of the brain
What is special about cells in the white pulp of the spleen.
They can clone themselves during an immune response.
Referring to soft internal organs.
Correct path of urinary excretion
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.
the inside of the Bladder is lined with ?
transitional epithelium cells
what are the 3 things we can change to manage heart disease?
Pump - strength of the beat, Pipes - constrictict or dilate vessels, Fluid - viscosity
The elium is part of the small intestines? T or F
False. The Ilium is part of the small intestines, where as the Elium is part of the bony pelvis.
Where does most tubular secretion take place?
The distal convoluted tubule
What is the purpose of the hyaline cartilage rings?
To hold the trachea open and prevent it from collapsing on itself when the animal inhales.
what are rugae?
multiple long folds in the stomach, commonly seen on endoscopic exam
What are 3 plasma proteins?
Albumins, Globulins and Fibrinogen
Which side of the heart moves blood to the body?
which type of white blood cell is incapable of phagocytosis
2 categories of temperature receptors
superficial and central
Name the layers of the epidermis from deepest to superficial
Stratum Basale, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Lucidum
The impulse for the heart beat originates in the...?
What is the prepuce?
The sheath of skin that encloses the penis when it is not erect.
what are the two main divisions of the nervous systems
peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous systems (CNS)
What is the process of experiencing pain called?
The CNS is composed of
the brain, and spinal cord
What are three types of gustatory papillae?
A muscle that moves a limb away from the midline is called
Nervous impulses from rods and cones pass via the______to the brain.
What are the 7 anterior pituitary hormones?
GH, Prolactin, TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH and MSH
Why does hair turn grey or white as animals age?
Melanin production decreases. The cortex loses its pigment entirely and the medulla becomes filled with air.
What is heart murmur often related to?
what are the four special senses
taste, smell, hearing, vision
What glands are found in the external ear canal of dogs?
Apocrine sweat glands
What's the sympathetic nervous system often called
fight or flight system
What is the caudal bend of the heart
The inner surface of the upper teeth.
Name the artery and the vein that supply and drain blood from the kidney?
Renal artery and the Renal Vein
What cell is associated with sensory nerve endings?
What is the Lymph from the digestive tract called?
What is passive immunity
administering antibodies that weren't produced by the animals own immune system.
Superficial layer of the epidermis
Air that is still in the lungs after a forced expiration is?
What are the main inspiratory muscles?
Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.
Gametes unite to become this
What do Afferent nerves do
conduct nerve impulses toward the CNS
what are two of the main muscles that raise the head and neck
What are the 2 kinds of respiration that are constantly going on in the body?
External respiration and Internal respiration
Which artery supplies blood to the tail?
What is the connection between the rest of the brain and the spinal cord ?
Extra fluid in the plasma which dilutes the cells.
What is the process of aging in red blood cells called?
Where can simple epithelium be found?
Protected areas: internal compartments, ducts, vessels, and passageways.
5 types of immunoglobulins (Ig)
IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, and IgD
What type of cell is this?
A multilobed, segmented nucleus
What ototoxic drugs can cause deafness?
Gentamycin & neomycin
what muscle makes the hair stand up
arrector pilli muscle
White Blood Cell
Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils
An individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
Only found in thick skin
In order from outside to in the main structures of the upper respiratory tract are
Nostrils, Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea
What type of nerve is the Olfactory?
what artery carries deoxygenated blood
What type of white blood cell is this
What is the Calorigenic effect?
Thyroid hormones that help heat the body.
what ions are involved in nerve conduction
sodium and potassium
Toward the head
When the heart rate and pluse rate are not the same
passing small amounts of urine
What does prehension mean?
Grasping of food with lips or teeth.
What gland produces glucagon, & androgens
Signals are transmitted from one nerve to another via?
Which hormone encourages excess calcium to be deposited in the bones?
What is the thickest layer of the heart?
Diabetes mellitus is caused by a deficiency of which hormone?
The urinary system removes...
urea, salts, water, and other soluble waste products
Non-segmented nucleus with varying shapes
What is the function of memory cells?
They wait for a second infection of the same antigen that originally caused their formation. The immune response is more rapid the second time the body is exposed to the antigen.
The period of transition between the anagen and telogen phase is called?
The catagen phase
What has both exocrine and endocrine functions?
Erythropoeitin is secreted by which organ?
What are three functions of the muscular system?
1.Produce movement of the body and parts.
What is the birth process called?
What does serum have that plasma does not?
fibrinogen and other clotting factors
What are 2 other names for urination?
what WBCs are agranulocytes
What organ has both exocrine and endocrine functions
transmission of an impulse from one neuron to the next is called...
Made of 4-5 layers
The total number of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell is called?
Diploid chromosome number.
What organs make up the Renal system
2 kidney's 2 ureters 1 urinary blader and 1 urethra
What is asystole?
When the heart has completely stopped.
How many teeth do canines have (deciduous and adult)?
Towards the tail
where does reabsorbtion take place
in the PCTs and the loop of Henle
What part of the nervous system that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and endocrine glands automatically without conscious control.
Automatic nervous system
What does the kidney maintain?
BODY LIKE SAME
What does GALT satnd for?
Gut associated lymph tissue.
Two types of sweat glands and the difference between them
1. Eccrine Gland - Empties onto the surface
2. Apocrine Gland - Empties into a hair follicle
What is urolithiasis?
Condition of having urinary stones
What is Hemoglobin?
The protein in RBCs that gives them their red color and allows them to carry oxygen
Hormone necessary for red blood cell production
Where is breathing controlled and what is it known as?
by an area in the medulla oblongata and it's known as the respiratory center
low levels of oxygen in the blood
Where is the Renal corpuscle located?
in the cortex of the kidney
3 - types of lymphocytes
T - lymphocytes (B- cells)
B - lymphocytes (T- cells)
Natural Killer (NK) cells
What is the functional unit if the kidney?
What is pseudopregnancy?
Name 4 glands of the skin
What's internal respiration?
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood in the capillaries all over the body and all of the cells and tissues
What is active immunity
Activation of the immune system by administration of a vaccine that contains a modified antigen or exposure to the antigen.
In what cardiac cycle does the heart relax and refill with blood to be ejected during the next systolic contraction?
The chordae tendineae connect to the _______ muscles
Erythropoietin is a hormone made by the kindeys. What does this have to do with RBCs?
Erythropoietin stimulates bone marrow to increase the relase of RBCs
Balance within the body
Which is the first antibody that is produced when an animal is exposed to an antigen?
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Plasma is whole blood without cells. Serum is whole blood without the cells and clotting elements.
(Or Plasma without the clotting factors.)
what is transduction?
the first step in nociception.
The conversion of a painful stimulus to a nerve impulse that happens at the sensory nerve ending.
What type of muscle is NOT striated?
True or False: Both T cells & B cells can become memory cells.
Where is GALT located?
the lining of the intestine
Two other names for the pituitary gland
1.) Hypophysis 2.) master endocrine gland
The three layers of skin
Cell type involved in humoral immune response
B cells that transform into plasma cells after antigen stimulation
When would an eosinophil be present and why?
At the site of an allergic reaction, their granules contain anti-inflammatory properties.
what lymphoid organ is full size at birth. then gets smaller with age
List the 4 parts of a nephron in order.
Renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and a distal convoluted tubule.
T- Lymphocytes are produced in the __ and mature in the ___.
Bone Marrow and Thymus
In order from outside in, the main structures of the lower respiratory tract are
Bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
What is the order of blood flow?
What hormone affects moods and wake-sleep cycle
What is the process by which ova are produced in follicles in the ovaries called?
2 normal physiological states of hemoglobin
Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin
What is urolithiasis?
The presence of urinary stones
What can an overdose of insulin cause?
What white blood cell is this?
Which muscle has little or no attachment to bones?
What is a dilated esophagus called?
What is the sense of body position and movement called?
What do lymphocytes produce?
What is the action of the skeletal muscle
To move the bones, and generate heat
On the way to the thoracic duct, lymph vessels pass through at least one lymph node and pick up what?
Muscles that contract without the need for external stimulation
cardiac and smooth
From outside in name the main structures of the lower respiratory tract
Bronchi Bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli
Normal state of the body -composition of body tissue fluid is maintained as constant as possible.
BODY LIKE SAME : )
Which Cranial nerves are motor nerves
What is the purpose of the intercalated disks?
They securely fasten the muscle cells together and transmit impulses from cell to cell in order to contract.
What 2 factors control cardiac output?
Stroke Volume and Heart Rate
What are lymphokines?
Chemical messengers secreted by T cells - also called cytokines
What are the lacrimal glands responsible for.
The 4 types of tissue
Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue
What's external respiration?
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air inhaled into the lungs and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries.
the mitral valve separates what 2 chambers of the heart
left atrium and the left ventricle
What sphincter seperates the stomach from the small intestine?
Pylorus (pyloric sphincter)
Where are keratinocytes found?
where does internal respiration take place
in the cells and tissuse of the body
Which antibody arrives after IgM but stays at the site longer?
What are the milk secreting units of the mammory gland?
Instrument that is used to measure electrical activity of the heart
what are the 3 layers of hair
outer layer- cuticle
middle layer - cortex
intermost layer - medulla
What does the mouth do?
1.Receives food and mixes it with saliva during mastication.
2.Bolus is formed.
What is often reffered to as the master endocrine gland?
The pituitary gland
What is the seventh extraocular muscle?
The retractor bulbi muscle
What are the 3 main functions of blood
Transportation, Regulation, & Defense
What are the stages of the estrous cycle?
Proestrus Estrus Metestrus Diestrus Anestrus ( occurs in some animals between breeding seasons )
T or F Sertoli cell is also called a nurse cell?
What does the cerebellum allows the body to do?
coordinated movement, balance, posture and complex reflexes
What makes up 93% of plasma?
T or F skeletal muscle is voluntary
What is the purpose of hemoglobin?
Transport oxygen to tissues..
What waterproofs the skin and gives it strength?
The part of the hair that is visible above the skin is called the ________, and the portion of the buried within the skin is called the _______.
Shaft & Root
What are the 3 types of cellular junctions found between epithelial cells?
3. Gap Junctions
The 2 types of specific immunity
cell-mediated immunnity and humoral immunity
What are 3 charateristics important to the control of the breathing process?
CO2 content, pH and O2 content of arterial blood
What does unsaturated fatty acids include?
monounsaturated and polyunsturated fats
What are the 2 parts of the renal corpuscle?
outer - bowmans capsule , inner - glomerulus
what type of cells are memory cells
No urine is being passed from the body
What does the blood transport?
What function do otoliths have?
They help the macula determine the position of the head.
Term used for aging cells
What 3 groups of hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex
Another term for the sense of taste.
What are the three main activities of the nervous system?
1. Sensory Functions
2. Integrating Functions
3. Motor Functions
Normal Canine RR
Axons conduct nerve impulses ______ from the cell body toward another neuron or an _________.
away, effector cell
What seperates the left and right ventricles?
What is fight-or-flight?
A whole-body response resulting from a animal feeling threatened that prepares the body for intense physical activity. It results from a combination of direct sympathetic nerve stimulation and the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood stream from the medulla of the adrenal gland. effects the body include increased heart rate and out put, increase blood pressure, dilated air passageways in the lungs, and decreased gastrointestinal function.
What are the contractions that move food along the digestive tract called?
Peristalsis (peristaltic contractions)
What does red pulp consist of?
Blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood storage spaces (sinuses)
true or false
only dogs have an os penis