What are the general senses ?
1. Visceral sensations 2. Touch 3. Temperature 4. Pain 5. Proprioception
What is the process of experiencing pain called?
What is the sense of body position and movement called?
What are the 4 processes that contribute to nociception?
1. Transduction 2. Transmission 3. Modulation 4. Perception
Another term for the sense of taste.
What are the three ossicles of the ear called?
What glands produce tears?
Lacrimal glands and the accessory lacrimal glands
What four refractive media in the eye help to form a clear image on the retina?
The cornea, the aqueous humor, the lens and he vitreous humor.
What function do otoliths have?
They help the macula determine the position of the head.
2 categories of temperature receptors
superficial and central
Where is the central temperature receptor located?
3 layers of the eyeball
outer: fibrous layer; the middle: vascular layer; the inner: nervous layer
what are the four special senses
taste, smell, hearing, vision
the sense of smell is called what ?
what are the three ossicles bones
malleus, incus, stapes
What are the four types of stimuli for sensory receptors? Give an example of each
1. Mechanincal Stimuli example: touch
2. Thermal stimuli example: hot and cold
3. Electromagnetic stimuli example: vision
4. Chemical stimuli example: taste
Touch is also know as what?
the tactile sense
what is transduction?
the first step in nociception.
The conversion of a painful stimulus to a nerve impulse that happens at the sensory nerve ending.
a paper-thin, connective tissue membrane that is tightly stretched across the opening between the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity
What sense helps an animal maintain balance by keeping track of position and movements of the head?
a thin, transparent memebrane that covers the front portion of the eyeball and lines the interior surfaces of the eyelid
Most of the ear structures are housed within the ____ bones
Which photoceptors are sensitive to color and detail?
The conjunction of the cornea and sclera is called the...?
name the 3 parts of the ear
Pina, Middle ear, Inner ear
what organ of the ear controls equilibrium.
What are the lacrimal glands responsible for.
What is the ring-shaped structure located directly behind the iris?
Nervous impulses from rods and cones pass via the______to the brain.
What are three types of gustatory papillae?
What divides the aqueous compartment?
How many extraocular muscles do animals have?
Which extraocular muscle do humans not share with animals and what does it do?
Retracts the eye further into the orbit, enhancing the other extraocular muscles
Dendrites are called ______
Pain produces what type of stimulies
Mechanical, chemical, or thermal
What ototoxic drugs can cause deafness?
Gentamycin & neomycin
What is the T-shaped plate of cartilage covered by the conjunctiva?
The third eyelid
What is the seventh extraocular muscle?
The retractor bulbi muscle
What are the saclike spaces that make up the vestibule?
The utricle and the saccule