First Aid 2014 Rapid Review Classic Presentations Flashcards Preview

Pathology > First Aid 2014 Rapid Review Classic Presentations > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid 2014 Rapid Review Classic Presentations Deck (118):
1

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)

2

Achilles tendon xanthoma

Familial hyperholesterolemia (decreased LDL receptor signalling)

3

Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC

Waterhouse-Friderichson syndrome (meningococcemia)

4

Anterior drawer sign +

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

5

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect)

6

Athlete with polycythemia

Secondary to EPO injection

7

Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss

Pott disease (vertebral TB)

8

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granuloma)

9

Blue sclera

Osteogenesis imperfects (Type I collagen defect)

10

Bluish line on gingiva

Lead poisoning (Burton line)

11

Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis

Paget disease of bone (osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)

12

Bounding pulses, diastolic <3 murmur, head bobbing

Aortic regurgitation

13

Butterfly facial rash, and Raynaud phenomenon in a young female

Systemic lupus erythmatosus

14

Cafe au lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (+pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

15

Cafe au lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

16

Calf pseudohypertrophy

Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne); X-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene)

17

Cherry red spots on macula

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation), Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

18

Chest pain on exertion

Angina: Stable: with moderate exertion; unstable: with minimal exertion

19

Chest pain, pericardial effusion, friction rub, persistent fever following MI

Dressler syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)

20

Child uses arms to stand up from squat

Gowers sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

21

Child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body

Slapped cheeks (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)

22

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

Huntington's disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)

23

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria

McArdle disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency) Type V

24

Cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

25

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Internuclear opthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral [MS], unilateral [stroke]

26

Continuous machine like murmur

PDA (close with indomethacin; open or maintain with misoprostol)

27

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism. Grave's disease [pretibial]

28

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS

Kaposi's sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

29

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation

Kussmaul respirations (DKA)

30

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Pellagra (niacin, B3, deficiency)

31

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition

Wet beriberi (thiamine, B1 deficiency)

32

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasturella multocida (cellulitis at innoculation site)

33

Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis

Sjogren syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

34

Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal SCC)

35

Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints

Elhers-Danlos syndrome (type III collagen defect)

36

Enlarged hard left supraclavicular node

Virchow node (abdominal mets)

37

Erythroderma, LAD, HSM, atypical T cells

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or Sezary syndrome (mycosis fungoides + malignant T cells in blood

38

Facial muscle spasm upon tapping

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

39

Fat, female, forty, and fertile

Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

40

Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

41

Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash

Measles

42

Fever, night sweats, weight loss

B symptoms (staging of lymphoma)

43

Fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis

Peyronie's disease (connective tissue disorder)

44

Gout, intellectual disability, self-mutilating behavior in a boy

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency; X-linked recessive)

45

Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson disease)

46

Hamartomous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands

Peutz-Jehgers syndrome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased cancer risk , mainly GI)

47

Hepatomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms

Gaucher disease (glucocerebrocidase deficiency)

48

Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts

Alport syndrome (mutation in type IV collagen)

49

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility

Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

50

Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign present

UMN damage

51

Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations

LMN damage

52

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

Blue bloater (chronic bronchitis); hyperplasia of mucous cells)

53

Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Painless: chancre (primary syphilis, Treponema pallidum) Painful + exudate (Haemophilus ducreyi)

54

Infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

55

Infant with FTT, HSM, and neurodegeneration

Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

56

Infant with hypoglycemia, FTT, and hepatomegaly

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) or Von Gierke disease ( glucose-6-phosphate deficiency, more severe)

57

Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural <3 defect

Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)

58

Jaundice, palpable distended nontender gallbladder

Courvoisier sign (distal obstruction of the biliary tree)

59

Large rash with bullseye appearance

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)

60

Lucid interval after TBI

Epidermal hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)

61

Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells

Bruton disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)

62

Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time

Glanzmann thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIbIIIa)

63

Muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins, hypotension

Becks triad of cardiac tamponade

64

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teeth

Gardner's syndrome (subtype of FAP)

65

Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance

Pompeii disease (lysosomal alpha-1-4 glucosidase deficiency)

66

Neonate with arm paralysis folllowing difficult birth

Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk C5/C6 brachial plexus injury, "waiter's tip")

67

No lactation postpatrum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance

Sheehan syndrome (pituitary infarction)

68

Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear opthalmoplegia

MS

69

Oscillating slow/fast breathing

Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or increased ICP)

70

Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia

Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)

71

Painful, pale, cold fingers and toes

Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm in extremities)

72

Painful, raised red lesions on pad of fingers/toes

Osler nodes (infectious endocarditis, immune complex deposition)

73

Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles

Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/microabscesses)

74

Painless jaundice

Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing the bile duct

75

Palpable purpura on the buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain (child), hematuria

Henoch-Shonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)

76

Pancreatic, pituitary, and parathyroid tymors

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1: autosomal dominant

77

Periorbital and or peripheral edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia

Nephrotic syndrome

78

Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation

Pink puffer (emphysema: centriacinar [smoking], panacinar [alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency]

79

Polyuria, RTA type II, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances, hypophosphatemic rickets

Fanconi syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)

80

Pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6Ps)

Lichen planus

81

Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis

Horner syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)

82

Pupil accomodates but doesn't react

Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)

83

Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends following GI/URI

Guillan-Barre syndrome (acute autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)

84

Rash on palms and soles

Coxsackie A, secondary syphilis, RMSF

85

Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE

Hyper-IgE syndrome (Job syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)

86

Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients

Klebsiella pneumoniae

87

Red "currant jelly" stools

Acute mesenteric ischemia (adults)

88

Red itchy swollen rash of the nipple/areola

Paget disease of the breast (sign of underlying neoplasm)

89

Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

90

Renal cell carcinoma (bilateral), hemangioblastomas, angomatosis, pheochromocytoma

von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

91

Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability

Parkinson disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)

92

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)

93

Severe jaundice in the neonate

Criggler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

94

Severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ

Rovsing sign (acute appendicitis)

95

Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

McBurney sign (acute appendicitis)

96

Short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia

Fanconi anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)

97

Single palmar crease

Down syndrome

98

Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility

Kartagener's syndrome (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)

99

Skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension, fatigue

Addison disease (primary adrenocortical insufficiency causes increased ACTH and increase alpha MSH production)

100

Slow progressive muscle weakness in boys

Becker muscular dystrophy (X-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne)

101

Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers

Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)

102

Smooth, flat, moist, painless white lesions on genitals

Condylomata lata (secondary syphilis)

103

Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails

Bacterial endocarditis

104

Strawberry tongue

Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome

105

Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema

Turner syndrome, XO

106

Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi

Gout, podagra (hyperuricemia)

107

Swollen gyms, mucosal bleeding, poor wound healing, petechiae

Scurvy, Vitamin C deficiency; can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis

108

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints

Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard nodes], DIP [Herberden nodes]

109

Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)

Aortic valve stenosis

110

Thyroid, and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma

MEN 2A (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

111

Thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis

MEN 2B (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

112

Toe extension, fanning upon plantar scrape

Babinski sign (UMN lesion)

113

Unilateral facial drooping involving the forehead

Facial nerve (LMN CN VII palsy)

114

Urethritis, conjunctivitisy, arthritis in a male

Reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27

115

Vascular birhtmark (port-wine stain)

Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)

116

Vomiting blood following gastroesophageal lacerations

Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)

117

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy

Whipple disease (Tropheryma whipplei)

118

Worst headache of my life

Subarachnoid hemorrhage