Flashcards - 4 Preview

Gre Words > Flashcards - 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Flashcards - 4 Deck (100):
0

Forfeit

: something that is lost or given up as punishment or because of a rule or law
Full Definition
1 : something forfeited or subject to being forfeited (as for a crime, offense, or neglect of duty) : penalty
2 : forfeiture especially of civil rights
3 a : something deposited (as for making a mistake in a game) and then redeemed on payment of a fine
b plural : a game in which forfeits are exacted
Origin: Middle English forfait, from Anglo-French, from past participle of forfaire, forsfaire to commit a crime, forfeit, from fors outside (from Latin foris) + faire to do, from Latin facere — more at forum, do.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: damages, fine, forfeiture, mulct, penalty
2forfeit
transitive verb
: to lose or give up (something) as a punishment or because of a rule or law
Full Definition
1 : to lose or lose the right to especially by some error, offense, or crime
2 : to subject to confiscation as a forfeit; also : abandon, give up
for·feit·able \-fə-tə-bəl\ adjective
for·feit·er noun
Examples
The judge declared the property a forfeit.
They were required to pay a forfeit.
We won the game by forfeit.
First use: 14th century
3forfeit
adjective
: given up or taken away as a punishment or because of a rule or law
Full Definition
: forfeited or subject to forfeiture
Examples
If the money is not claimed within six months, it will be forfeit to the town.

1

Forage

: grasses and other plants that are eaten by animals (such as cows)
Full Definition
1 : food for animals especially when taken by browsing or grazing
2 [2forage] : the act of foraging : search for provisions
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from fuerre, foer fodder, straw, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German fuotar food, fodder — more at food.
First use: 14th century
2forage
of an animal : to eat growing grass or other plants
: to search forsomething (such as food or supplies)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to strip of provisions : collect forage from
2 : to secure by foraging
intransitive verb
1 : to wander in search of forage or food
2 : to secure forage (as for horses) by stripping the country
3 : ravage, raid
4 : to make a search : rummage
Other forms: for·aged; for·ag·ing
for·ag·er noun
Examples
The grass serves as forage for livestock.
a good forage crop
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: browse, 1graze, pasture, rustle

2

Schism

3

Deflect


: to cause (something that is moving) to change direction
: to hit something and suddenly change direction
: to keep (something, such as a question) from affecting or being directed at a person or thing
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to turn aside especially from a straight course or fixed directionintransitive verb
: to turn aside : deviate
de·flect·able \-ˈflek-tə-bəl\ adjective
de·flec·tive \-tiv\ adjective
de·flec·tor \-tər\ noun
Examples
the wind deflected the Frisbee just as I was about to lunge for it
Origin: Latin deflectere to bend down, turn aside, from de- + flectere to bend.
First use: circa 1555
Synonyms: turn, divert, redirect, swing, veer, wheel, whip

4

Self-righteous

self–righ·teous\-ˈrī-chəs\
adjective
: having or showing a strong belief that your own actions, opinions, etc., are right and other people's are wrong
Full Definition
: convinced of one's own righteousness especially in contrast with the actions and beliefs of others : narrow-mindedly moralistic
self–righ·teous·ly adverb
self–righ·teous·ness noun
First use: circa 1680

5

Brandish

: to wave or swing (something, such as a weapon) in a threatening or excited manner
Full Definition
1 : to shake or wave (as a weapon) menacingly
2 : to exhibit in an ostentatious or aggressive manner
synonyms see swing
Origin: Middle English braundisshen, from Anglo-French brandiss-, stem of brandir, from brant, braund sword, of Germanic origin; akin to Old English brand.
First use: 14th century
2brandish
noun
: an act or instance of brandishing
First use: 1599

6

Menace

: a dangerous or possibly harmful person or thing
: someone who causes trouble or annoyance
: a dangerous or threatening quality
Full Definition
1 : a show of intention to inflict harm : threat
2 a : one that represents a threat : danger
b : an annoying person
Origin: Middle English manace, from Anglo-French manace, menace, from Latin minacia, from minac-, minax threatening, from minari to threaten — more at mount.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: hazard, imminence, danger, peril, pitfall, risk, threat, trouble
2menace
: to threaten harm to (someone or something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to make a show of intention to harm
2 : to represent or pose a threat to : endanger
intransitive verb
: to act in a threatening manner
Other forms: men·aced; men·ac·ing
men·ac·ing·ly \-nə-siŋ-lē\ adverb
Examples
She was menaced by a man with a knife.
a country menaced by war
He gave her a menacing look.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: adventure, compromise, gamble (with), hazard, imperil, jeopard, jeopardize, endanger, peril, risk, venture

7

Flout


: to break or ignore (a law, rule, etc.) without hiding what you are doing or showing fear or shame
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to treat with contemptuous disregard : scorn
intransitive verb
: to indulge in scornful behavior
synonyms see scoff
usage see flaunt
flout·er noun
Origin: probably from Middle English flouten to play the flute, from floute flute.
First use: 1551
Synonyms: despise, disregard, scorn

8

Cynicism

cyn·i·cism\ˈsi-nə-ˌsi-zəm\
noun
: cynical beliefs : beliefs that people are generally selfish and dishonest
Full Definition
1 capitalized : the doctrine of the Cynics
2 : cynical attitude or quality; also : a cynical comment or act
First use: 1663

9

Strategic

10

Posthumous

post·hu·mous\ˈpäs-chə-məs also -tə-, -tyə-, -thə-; päst-ˈhyü-məs, ˈpōst-, -ˈyü-\
adjective
: happening, done, or published after someone's death
Full Definition
1 : born after the death of the father
2 : published after the death of the author
3 : following or occurring after death
post·hu·mous·ly adverb
post·hu·mous·ness noun
Examples
the soldier was awarded a posthumous medal for valor
Origin: Latin posthumus, alteration of postumus late-born, posthumous, from superl. of posterus coming after — more at posterior.
First use: 1619
Synonyms: postmortem
Antonyms: antemortem

11

Terse

12

Antedate

: a date assigned to an event or document earlier than the actual date of the event or document
First use: 15th century
2an·te·date\ˈan-ti-ˌdāt, ˌan-ti-ˈ\
transitive verb
: to give an earlier date rather than the actual date to (something)
: to be earlier or older than (something)
Full Definition
1 a : to date as of a time prior to that of execution
b : to assign to a date prior to that of actual occurrence
2 archaic : anticipate
3 : to precede in time
First use: 1572

13

Cloak

14

Notoriety

: the condition of being famous or well-known especially for something bad : the state of being notorious
Full Definition
1 : the quality or state of being notorious
2 : a notorious person
Other forms: plural no·to·ri·e·ties
Examples
a television show featuring a rogues' gallery of notorieties from 20 years of overhyped scandals
a lawyer of notoriety for the huge awards he's won in medical malpractice cases
Origin: Middle French or Medieval Latin; Middle French notorieté, from Medieval Latin notorietat-, notorietas, from notorius.
First use: circa 1650
Synonyms: big name, cause célèbre (also cause celebre), celeb, figure, icon (also ikon), light, luminary, megastar, name, notability, notable, celebrity, personage, personality, somebody, standout, star, superstar, VIP

15

Acquisitive

ac·quis·i·tive\ə-ˈkwi-zə-tiv\
adjective
: having a strong desire to own or acquire more things
Full Definition
: strongly desirous of acquiring and possessing
synonyms see covetous
ac·quis·i·tive·ly adverb
ac·quis·i·tive·ness noun
Examples
acquisitive developers are trying to tear down the historic home and build a shopping mall
First use: 1835
Synonyms: greedy, avaricious, avid, coveting, covetous, grabby, grasping, mercenary, moneygrubbing, rapacious

16

Tendentious/ tendencious

ten·den·tious\ten-ˈden(t)-shəs\
adjective
: strongly favoring a particular point of view in a way that may cause argument : expressing a strong opinion
Full Definition
: marked by a tendency in favor of a particular point of view : biased
ten·den·tious·ly adverb
ten·den·tious·ness noun
First use: 1900

17

Phylogeny

1 : the evolutionary history of a kind of organism
2 : the evolution of a genetically related group of organisms as distinguished from the development of the individual organism
3 : the history or course of the development of something (as a word or custom)
Other forms: plural phy·log·e·nies
Origin: International Scientific Vocabulary.
First use: circa 1872

18

Profundity

pro·fun·di·ty\prə-ˈfən-də-tē\
noun
1 a : intellectual depth
b : something profound or abstruse
2 : the quality or state of being profound or deep
Other forms: plural pro·fun·di·ties
Examples
a philosopher who is widely respected for the profundity of her thinking
Origin: Middle English profundite, from Latin profunditat-, profunditas depth, from profundus.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: deepness, profoundness, depth

19

Populous

: having a large population
Full Definition
1 a : densely populated
b : having a large population
2 a : numerous
b : filled to capacity
pop·u·lous·ly adverb
pop·u·lous·ness noun
Origin: Middle English, from Latin populosus, from populus people.
First use: 15th century

20

Delinquency

de·lin·quen·cy\di-ˈliŋ-kwən-sē, -ˈlin-\
noun
: crimes or other morally wrong acts : illegal or immoral behavior especially by young people
: the condition of someone who owes money and is not making payments at the required or expected time
Full Definition
1 a : a delinquent act
b : conduct that is out of accord with accepted behavior or the law; especially : juvenile delinquency
2 : a debt on which payment is overdue
Other forms: plural de·lin·quen·cies
Examples
we received a notice in the mail informing us of our delinquency in paying our utility bill
delinquency of our mortgage payment meant that we would have to pay a surcharge
First use: 1625
Synonyms: default, failure, dereliction, misprision, neglect, negligence, nonfeasance, oversight
Antonyms: earliness, prematureness, prematurity

21

Befall


of something bad or unpleasant : to happen to (someone or something)
Full Definition
intransitive verb
: to happen especially as if by fatetransitive verb
: to happen to
Other forms: be·fell\-ˈfel\; be·fall·en\-ˈfȯ-lən\
Examples
whatever befalls, we'll make the best of it and carry on
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: be, happen, betide, chance, come, come about, come down, come off, cook, do, go down [slang], go on, hap, occur, pass, transpire

22

Mendacity

: lack of honesty : the condition of being mendacious
Full Definition
1 : the quality or state of being mendacious
2 : lie
Other forms: plural men·dac·i·ties
Examples
highly fictionalized “memoirs” in which the facts were few and the mendacities many
you need to overcome this deplorable mendacity, or no one will ever believe anything you say
First use: 1646
Synonyms: fable, fabrication, fairy tale, falsehood, falsity, fib, lie, prevarication, story, tale, taradiddle (or tarradiddle), untruth, whopper

23

Devout

24

Penitent

: feeling or showing sorrow and regret because you have done something wrong
Full Definition
: feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses : repentant
pen·i·tent·ly adverb
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French & Latin; Middle French penitent, from Latin paenitent-, paenitens, from present participle of paenitēre to cause regret, feel regret, perhaps from paene almost.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: apologetic, compunctious, contrite, regretful, remorseful, repentant, rueful, sorry
Antonyms: impenitent, remorseless, unapologetic, unrepentant
2penitent
noun
: a person who is sorry for doing something wrong and asks for forgiveness : a penitent person
Full Definition
1 : a person who repents of sin
2 : a person under church censure but admitted to penance or reconciliation especially under the direction of a confessor
Examples
penitents seeking God's forgiveness

25

Desultory

26

Polemic

: a strong written or spoken attack against someone else's opinions, beliefs, practices, etc.
: the art or practice of using language to defend or harshly criticize something or someone
Full Definition
1 a : an aggressive attack on or refutation of the opinions or principles of another
b : the art or practice of disputation or controversy — usually used in plural but singular or plural in construction
2 : an aggressive controversialist : disputant
po·lem·i·cist \-ˈle-mə-sist\ noun
Origin: French polémique, from Middle French, from polemique controversial, from Greek polemikos warlike, hostile, from polemos war; perhaps akin to Greek pelemizein to shake, Old English ealfelo baleful.

27

Pugnacious

pug·na·cious\ˌpəg-ˈnā-shəs\
adjective
: showing a readiness or desire to fight or argue
Full Definition
: having a quarrelsome or combative nature : truculent
synonyms see belligerent
pug·na·cious·ly adverb
pug·na·cious·ness noun
pug·nac·i·ty \-ˈna-sə-tē\ noun
Examples
a movie reviewer who is spirited, even pugnacious, when defending her opinions
Origin: Latin pugnac-, pugnax, from pugnare to fight — more at pungent.
First use: 1642
Synonyms: aggressive, agonistic, argumentative, assaultive, bellicose, brawly, chippy, combative, confrontational, contentious, discordant, disputatious, feisty, gladiatorial, militant, belligerent, quarrelsome, scrappy, truculent, warlike
Antonyms: nonaggressive, nonbelligerent, pacific, peaceable, peaceful, unbelligerent, uncombative, uncontentious

28

Skulk

: to move or hide in a secret way especially because you are planning to do something bad
Full Definition
1 : to move in a stealthy or furtive manner
2 a : to hide or conceal something (as oneself) often out of cowardice or fear or with sinister intent
b chiefly British : malinger
synonyms see lurk
skulk·er noun
Origin: Middle English, of Scandinavian origin; akin to Norwegian dialect skulka to lie in wait, lurk.
First use: 13th century
2skulk
noun
1 : one that skulks
2 : a group of foxes
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: lurker, sneak, skulker, slyboots, sneaker

29

Whimsical

whim·si·cal\ˈhwim-zi-kəl, ˈwim-\
adjective
: unusual in a playful or amusing way : not serious
Full Definition
1 : full of, actuated by, or exhibiting whims (see whim ))
2 a : resulting from or characterized by whim or caprice; especially : lightly fanciful
b : subject to erratic behavior or unpredictable change
whim·si·cal·i·ty \ˌhwim-zə-ˈka-lə-tē, ˌwim-\ noun
whim·si·cal·ly \ˈhwim-zi-k(ə-)lē, ˈwim-\ adverb
whim·si·cal·ness \-kəl-nəs\ noun
Examples
it's hard to make plans with such a whimsical best friend
Origin: whimsy.
First use: 1653
Synonyms: capricious, freakish, impulsive

30

Oblivious

obliv·i·ous\ə-ˈbli-vē-əs\
adjective
: not conscious or aware of someone or something
Full Definition
1 : lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention
2 : lacking active conscious knowledge or awareness — usually used with of or to
obliv·i·ous·ly adverb
obliv·i·ous·ness noun
Examples
the out-of-state motorist claimed to be oblivious of the local speed limit, even though the signs must have been hard to miss
Origin: (see oblivion ).
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: clueless, incognizant, innocent, insensible, nescient, ignorant, unacquainted, unaware, unconscious, uninformed, unknowing, unmindful, unwitting
Antonyms: acquainted, aware, cognizant, conscious, conversant, grounded, informed, knowing, mindful, witting

31

Impotent

: lacking power or strength
of a man : unable to have sex : unable to get or keep an erection
Full Definition
1 a : not potent : lacking in power, strength, or vigor : helpless
b : unable to engage in sexual intercourse because of inability to have and maintain an erection; broadly : sterile
2 obsolete : incapable of self-restraint : ungovernable
impotent noun
im·po·tent·ly adverb
Examples
most mules are impotent
an impotent ruler who was just a figurehead
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French & Latin; Anglo-French, from Latin impotent-, impotens, from in- + potent-, potens potent.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: barren, fruitless, sterile, infertile, unfruitful
Antonyms: fat, fertile, fruitful

32

Gullible

: easily fooled or cheated ; especially : quick to believe something that is not true
Full Definition
: easily duped or cheated
gull·ibil·i·ty \ˌgə-lə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
gull·ibly \ˈgə-lə-blē\ adverb
Examples
he thought his grandmother was gullible simply because she was elderly, but she was sharper than he was in many ways
Variants: also gull·able \ˈgə-lə-bəl\
First use: 1818
Synonyms: dewy-eyed, exploitable, easy (also gullable), naive (or naïve), susceptible, trusting, unwary, wide-eyed

33

Foster

—used to describe a situation in which for a period of time a child lives with and is cared for by people who are not the child's parents
Full Definition
: affording, receiving, or sharing nurture or parental care though not related by blood or legal ties
Origin: Middle English, from Old English fōstor-, from fōstor food, feeding; akin to Old English fōda food.
First use: before 12th century
2foster
transitive verb
: to help (something) grow or develop
: to provide the care that a parent usually gives to a child : to be or become the foster parent of a child
Full Definition
1 : to give parental care to : nurture
2 : to promote the growth or development of : encourage
Other forms: fos·tered; fos·ter·ing \-t(ə-)riŋ\
fos·ter·er \-tər-ər\ noun
Examples
They are foster parents to three foster children.
She's in foster care. = She's in a foster home.

34

Paramount

35

Reclamation

: the act or process of reclaiming: as
a : reformation, rehabilitation
b : restoration to use : recovery
Examples
pumped water out of the field as part of the land reclamation program designed to provide farmers with more farmland
Origin: French réclamation, from Latin reclamation-, reclamatio, from reclamare.
First use: 1633
Synonyms: recapture, recovery, recoupment, repossession, retrieval

36

Coup


verb
chiefly Scottish
: overturn, upset
Origin: Middle English, to strike, from Anglo-French couper — more at cope.
First use: circa 1572
2coup\ˈkü\
noun
: an impressive victory or achievement that usually is difficult or unexpected
Full Definition
1 : a brilliant, sudden, and usually highly successful stroke or act
2 : coup d'état
Other forms: plural coups \ˈküz\
Origin: French, blow, stroke — more at cope.
First use: 1791
Synonyms: achievement, acquirement, attainment, baby, accomplishment, success, triumph

37

Paltry

38

Poignant

39

Circumspect

cir·cum·spect\ˈsər-kəm-ˌspekt\
adjective
: thinking carefully about possible risks before doing or saying something
Full Definition
: careful to consider all circumstances and possible consequences : prudent
synonyms see cautious
cir·cum·spec·tion \ˌsər-kəm-ˈspek-shən\ noun
cir·cum·spect·ly \ˈsər-kəm-ˌspek(t)-lē\ adverb
Examples
she has a reputation for being quiet and circumspect in investigating charges of child abuse
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French or Latin; Middle French circonspect, from Latin circumspectus, from past participle of circumspicere to look around, be cautious, from circum- + specere to look — more at spy.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: alert, cautious, chary, careful, conservative, considerate, gingerly, guarded, heedful, safe, wary
Antonyms: careless, heedless, incautious, unguarded, unmindful, unsafe, unwary

40

Calorific

1 : a supposed form of matter formerly held responsible for the phenomena of heat and combustion
2 archaic : heat
Origin: French calorique, from Latin calor.
First use: 1792
2caloric
adjective
1 : of or relating to heat
2 : of, relating to, or containing calories
ca·lo·ri·cal·ly \kə-ˈlȯr-i-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
First use: circa 1828

41

Panorama

42

Contrive


: to form or think of (a plan, method, etc.)
: to form or make (something) in a skillful or clever way
: to make (something) happen in a clever way or with difficulty
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : devise, plan
b : to form or create in an artistic or ingenious manner
2 : to bring about by stratagem or with difficulty : manage
intransitive verb
: to make schemes
Other forms: con·trived; con·triv·ing
con·triv·er noun
Examples
contrived abstract metal sculptures using old household utensils
the mischievous boys were always contriving and trying to pull the prank that would be the talk of the school
contrived a way of helping the needy family without their knowing it
Origin: Middle English controven, contreven, from Anglo-French controver, contrever, from Medieval Latin contropare to compare, from Latin com- + Vulgar Latin *tropare to compose, find — more at troubadour.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: concoct, construct, invent, cook (up), devise, drum up, excogitate, fabricate, make up, manufacture, think (up), trump up, vamp (up)

43

Consecrate

: dedicated to a sacred purpose
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: blessed (also blest), holy, consecrated, hallowed, sacral, sacred, sacrosanct, sanctified
Antonyms: deconsecrated, desacralized, unconsecrated, unhallowed
2consecrate
transitive verb
: to officially make (something, such as a place or building) holy through a special religious ceremony
: to officially make (someone) a priest, bishop, etc., through a special religious ceremony
Full Definition
1 : to induct (a person) into a permanent office with a religious rite; especially : to ordain to the office of bishop
2 a : to make or declare sacred; especially : to devote irrevocably to the worship of God by a solemn ceremony
b : to effect the liturgical transubstantiation of (eucharistic bread and wine)
c : to devote to a purpose with or as if with deep solemnity or dedication
3 : to make inviolable or venerable
synonyms see devote
Other forms: consecrat·ed; consecrat·ing
con·se·cra·tive \-ˌkrā-tiv\ adjective
con·se·cra·tor \-ˌkrā-tər\ noun
con·se·cra·to·ry \ˈkän(t)-si-krə-ˌtȯr-ē, -ˌkrā-tə-rē\ adjective
Origin: Middle English, from Latin consecratus, past participle of consecrare, from com- + sacrare to consecrate — more at sacred.
First use: 14th century

44

Spurn


: to refuse to accept (someone or something that you do not think deserves your respect, attention, affection, etc.)
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 obsolete
a : stumble
b : kick 1a
2 archaic : to reject something disdainfullytransitive verb
1 : to tread sharply or heavily upon : trample
2 : to reject with disdain or contempt : scorn
synonyms see decline
spurn·er noun
Origin: Middle English, from Old English spurnan; akin to Old High German spurnan to kick, Latin spernere to spurn, Greek spairein to quiver.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: balk (at), deselect, disapprove, negative, nix, pass, pass up, refuse, reject, reprobate, repudiate, decline, throw out, throw over, turn down
Antonyms: accept, agree (to), approve
2spurn
noun
1 a : kick 1a
b obsolete : stumble
2 a : disdainful rejection
b : contemptuous treatment
First use: 14th century

45

Levy

: an amount of money that must be paid and that is collected by a government or other authority
Full Definition
1 a : the imposition or collection of an assessment
b : an amount levied
2 a : the enlistment or conscription of men for military service
b : troops raised by levy
Other forms: plural lev·ies
Examples
The government imposed a levy on gasoline.
the legislators approved a new levy on imported cattle to help protect American ranchers
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French levé, literally, raising, from lever to raise — more at lever.
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: assessment, duty, imposition, impost, tax
2levy
: to use legal authority to demand and collect (a fine, a tax, etc.)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to impose or collect by legal authority
b : to require by authority
2 : to enlist or conscript for military service
3 : to carry on (war) : wage
intransitive verb
: to seize property
Other forms: lev·ied; levy·ing
levi·er noun
Examples
They levied a tax on imports.
The government will levy a fine on the company.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: conscribe, conscript, draft

46

Recalcitrant

: stubbornly refusing to obey rules or orders
Full Definition
1 : obstinately defiant of authority or restraint
2 a : difficult to manage or operate
b : not responsive to treatment
c : resistant
synonyms see unruly
recalcitrant noun
Examples
the manager worried that the recalcitrant employee would try to undermine his authority
a heart-to-heart talk with the recalcitrant youth revealed that he had a troubled life at home
Origin: Late Latin recalcitrant-, recalcitrans, present participle of recalcitrare to be stubbornly disobedient, from Latin, to kick back, from re- + calcitrare to kick, from calc-, calx heel.
First use: 1843
Synonyms: balky, contrary, contumacious, defiant, froward, incompliant, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, rebel, rebellious, disobedient, recusant, refractory, restive, ungovernable, unruly, untoward, wayward, willful (or wilful)
Antonyms: amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable

47

Invert

: to turn (something) upside down
: to change the position, order, or relationship of things so that they are the opposite of what they had been
Full Definition
1 a : to reverse in position, order, or relationship
b : to subject to inversion
2 a : to turn inside out or upside down
b : to turn inward
3 : to find the mathematical reciprocal of
synonyms see reverse
Origin: Latin invertere, from in- + vertere to turn — more at worth.
First use: 1533
2in·vert\ˈin-ˌvərt\
noun
: one characterized by inversion; especially : homosexual
First use: 1838

48

Capitalize


: to use a capital letter to write, print, or type (a letter of the alphabet)
: to begin (a word or name) with a capital letter
: to provide the money that is needed to start or develop (a business)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to write or print with an initial capital or in capitals
2 a : to convert into capital
Other forms: cap·i·tal·ized; cap·i·tal·iz·ing
Examples
several investors agreed to capitalize the new venture
First use: 1764
Synonyms: bankroll, finance, endow, fund, stake, subsidize, underwrite

49

Leverage

: influence or power used to achieve a desired result
: the increase in force gained by using a lever
Full Definition
1 : the action of a lever or the mechanical advantage gained by it
2 : power, effectiveness
3 : the use of credit to enhance one's speculative capacity
First use: 1830
Synonyms: authority, clout, credit, heft, in, juice [slang], influence, pull, sway, weight

50

Froward

1 : habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition
2 archaic : adverse
fro·ward·ly adverb
fro·ward·ness noun
Examples
their froward pranks are not appropriate in the workplace
froward students sent to the office for chronic disciplinary problems
acting like a froward preschooler is not going to get you what you want
Origin: Middle English, turned away, froward, from fro from + -ward -ward.
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: bad, contrary, errant, naughty, misbehaving, mischievous
Antonyms: behaved, behaving, nice, orderly

51

Delude

de·lude\di-ˈlüd, dē-\
transitive verb
: to cause (someone) to believe something that is not true
Full Definition
1 : to mislead the mind or judgment of : deceive, trick
2 obsolete
a : frustrate, disappoint
b : evade, elude
synonyms see deceive
Other forms: de·lud·ed; de·lud·ing
de·lud·er noun
Examples
we deluded ourselves into thinking that the ice cream wouldn't affect our diet
Origin: Middle English, from Latin deludere, from de- + ludere to play — more at ludicrous.
First use: 15th century

52

Salutary

: having a good or helpful result especially after something unpleasant has happened
Full Definition
1 : producing a beneficial effect : remedial
2 : promoting health : curative
synonyms see healthful
sal·u·tar·i·ly \ˌsal-yə-ˈter-ə-lē\ adverb
sal·u·tar·i·ness \ˈsal-yə-ˌter-ē-nəs\ noun
Examples
the low interest rates should have a salutary effect on business
increasing scientific evidence that a glass of wine a day is quite salutary
Origin: Middle French salutaire, from Latin salutaris, from salut-, salus health.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: advantageous, benefic, beneficent, benignant, favorable, friendly, good, helpful, kindly, profitable, beneficial
Antonyms: bad, disadvantageous, unfavorable, unfriendly, unhelpful, unprofitable

53

Aficionados

: a person who likes and knows a lot about something
Full Definition
: a person who likes, knows about, and appreciates a usually fervently pursued interest or activity : devotee
Other forms: plural afi·cio·na·dos
Examples
an aficionado of the sci-fi series who has seen all the movies several times
Variants: also af·fi·cio·na·do \ə-ˌfi-sh(ē-)ə-ˈnä-(ˌ)dō, -fē-, -sē-ə-\
Origin: Spanish, from past participle of aficionar to inspire affection, from afición affection, from Latin affection-, affectio — more at affection.
First use: 1802
Synonyms: addict, fan (also afficionado), buff, bug, devotee, enthusiast, fanatic, fancier, fiend, fool, freak, habitué (also habitue), head, hound, junkie (also junky), lover, maniac, maven (also mavin), nut, sucker

54

Consummate

55

Anticlimax / anticlimactic

an·ti·cli·max\-ˈklī-ˌmaks\
noun
: something that is much less exciting or dramatic than it was expected to be : a dull or disappointing ending or result
Full Definition
1 : the usually sudden transition in discourse from a significant idea to a trivial or ludicrous idea; also : an instance of this transition
2 : an event, period, or outcome that is strikingly less important or dramatic than expected
First use: 1696

56

Gadfly

gad·fly\ˈgad-ˌflī\
noun
: someone who annoys people by being very critical
Full Definition
1 : any of various flies (as a horsefly, botfly, or warble fly) that bite or annoy livestock
2 : a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism
Examples
a loud sports commentator who was a tactless gadfly during post-game interviews with the losing team
Origin: 1gad.
First use: 1593
Synonyms: annoyance, annoyer, bother, nuisance, gnawer, nudnik (also nudnick), pain, persecutor, pest, tease, teaser

57

Puritan

: a member of a Protestant group in England and New England in the 16th and 17th centuries that opposed many customs of the Church of England
: a person who follows strict moral rules and who believes that pleasure is wrong
Full Definition
1 capitalized : a member of a 16th and 17th century Protestant group in England and New England opposing as unscriptural the ceremonial worship and the prelacy of the Church of England
2 : one who practices or preaches a more rigorous or professedly purer moral code than that which prevails
Origin: probably from Late Latin puritas purity.
First use: circa 1567
Synonyms: bluenose, moralist, Mrs. Grundy, nice nelly, prude, wowser [chiefly Australian]
Antonyms: immoralist
2puritan
adjective
Usage: often capitalized
: of or relating to puritans, the Puritans, or puritanism

58

Wanton

: showing no thought or care for the rights, feelings, or safety of others
: not limited or controlled
of a woman : having sex with many men
Full Definition
1 a archaic : hard to control : undisciplined, unruly
b : playfully mean or cruel : mischievous
2 a : lewd, bawdy
b : causing sexual excitement : lustful, sensual
3 a : merciless, inhumane
b : having no just foundation or provocation : malicious

4 : being without check or limitation: as
a : luxuriantly rank
b : unduly lavish : extravagant
wan·ton·ly adverb
wan·ton·ness \-tən-nəs\ noun
Origin: Middle English, from wan- deficient, wrong, mis- (from Old English, from wan deficient) + towen, past participle of teen to draw, train, discipline, from Old English tēon — more at tow.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: bawdy, blue, coarse, crude, dirty, filthy, foul, gross, gutter, impure, indecent, lascivious, lewd, locker-room, nasty, pornographic, porny, profane, raunchy, ribald, smutty, stag, trashy, unprintable, vulgar, obscene, X-rated
Antonyms: clean, decent, G-rated, nonobscene, wholesome
2wan·ton\ˈwȯn-tən, ˈwän-\
noun
1 a : one given to self-indulgent flirtation or trifling — used especially in the phrase play the wanton
b : a lewd or lascivious person
2 : a pampered person or animal : pet; especially : a spoiled child
3 : a frolicsome child or animal
Origin: (see 1wanton ).
First use: 1509
Synonyms: flirter, flirt
3wan·ton\ˈwȯn-tən, ˈwän-\
intransitive verb
: to be wanton or act wantonly (see 1wanton )
transitive verb
: to pass or waste wantonly or in wantonness
wan·ton·er noun

59

Peevish

60

Execrable

: very bad
Full Definition
1 : deserving to be execrated : detestable
2 : very bad : wretched
ex·e·cra·ble·ness noun
ex·e·cra·bly \-blē\ adverb
Examples
her execrable singing finally brought a complaint from the neighbors
another souvenir shop selling execrable knickknacks manufactured in some foreign sweatshop
a sordid murder case that was covered with execrable excess by the newspaper tabloids and cable news outlets
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: atrocious, awful, dismal, wretched, horrible, lousy, punk, rotten, sucky [slang], terrible
Antonyms: bitchin' [slang], great, marvelous (or marvellous), wonderful

61

Cogitation


: to think carefully and seriously about something
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to ponder or meditate on usually intentlyintransitive verb
: to meditate deeply or intently
synonyms see think
Other forms: cog·i·tat·ed; cog·i·tat·ing
Examples
by the time he finishes cogitating what to do with his life, it'll be almost over
Origin: Latin cogitatus, past participle of cogitare to think, think about, from co- + agitare to drive, agitate.
First use: 1582
Synonyms: chew over, ponder, consider, contemplate, debate, deliberate, entertain, eye, kick around, meditate, mull (over), perpend, pore (over), question, revolve, ruminate, study, think (about or over), turn, weigh, wrestle (with)

62

Preponderance

: a greater amount or number of something
Full Definition
1 : a superiority in weight, power, importance, or strength
2 a : a superiority or excess in number or quantity
b : majority
Examples
not since Rome in its glory days had a nation enjoyed such overwhelming military preponderance
a preponderance of the evidence points to the guilt of the defendant
First use: 1681
Synonyms: distinction, dominance, noteworthiness, paramountcy, preeminence, eminence, preponderancy, prepotency, prestigiousness, primacy, superiority, supremacy, transcendence
Antonyms: minority

63

Declamation


: to say (something) in usually a loud and formal way
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 : to speak rhetorically; specifically : to recite something as an exercise in elocution
2 : to speak pompously or bombastically : harangue
transitive verb
: to deliver rhetorically ; specifically : to recite in elocution
de·claim·er noun
dec·la·ma·tion \ˌde-klə-ˈmā-shən\ noun
Examples
over the last two centuries some of the most illustrious personages of their times have declaimed in the town's historic lyceum
he declaimed at some length about the nation's obligation to spread democratic values around the world
Origin: Middle English declamen, from Latin declamare, from de- + clamare to cry out; akin to Latin calare to call — more at low.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: talk, descant, discourse, expatiate, harangue, lecture, orate, speak

64

Palaver

: talk that is not important or meaningful
: excitement and activity caused by something that is not important
Full Definition
1 a : a long parley usually between persons of different cultures or levels of sophistication
b : conference, discussion
2 a : idle talk
b : misleading or beguiling speech
Origin: Portuguese palavra word, speech, from Late Latin parabola parable, speech.
First use: 1735
Synonyms: argument, argumentation, argy-bargy [chiefly British], back-and-forth, colloquy, confab, confabulation, conference, consult, consultation, council, counsel, debate, deliberation, dialogue (also dialog), give-and-take, discussion, parley, talk
2palaver
intransitive verb
1 : to talk profusely or idly
2 : parley
transitive verb
: to use palaver to : cajole
Other forms: pa·lav·ered; pa·lav·er·ing \pə-ˈla-və-riŋ, -ˈlä-; -ˈlav-riŋ, -ˈläv-\
First use: 1773
Synonyms: babble, blab, cackle, chaffer [British], chatter, chin [slang], converse, gab, gabble, gas, jabber, jaw, kibitz (also kibbitz), natter, chat, patter, prate, prattle, rap, rattle, run on, schmooze (or shmooze), talk, twitter, visit

65

Blather

: to talk foolishly at length — often used with on
Other forms: blath·ered; blath·er·ing \-th(ə-)riŋ\
blath·er·er \-thər-ər\ noun
Origin: Old Norse blathra; akin to Middle High German blōdern to chatter.
First use: 1524
2blather
noun
: foolish or dull talk or writing that continues for a long time
Full Definition
1 : voluble nonsensical or inconsequential talk or writing
2 : stir, commotion
First use: 1719
Synonyms: ado, alarums and excursions, ballyhoo, commotion, bluster, bobbery, bother, bustle, clatter, clutter [chiefly dialect], coil, corroboree [Australian], disturbance, do [chiefly dialect], foofaraw, fun, furor, furore, fuss, helter-skelter, hoo-ha (also hoo-hah), hoopla, hubble-bubble, hubbub, hullabaloo, hurly, hurly-burly, hurricane, hurry, hurry-scurry (or hurry-skurry), kerfuffle [chiefly British], moil, pandemonium, pother, row, ruckus, ruction, rumpus, shindy, splore [Scottish], squall, stew, stir, storm, to-do, tumult, turmoil, uproar, welter, whirl, williwaw, zoo

66

Disconcert

: to make (someone) upset or embarrassed
Full Definition
1 : to throw into confusion
2 : to disturb the composure of
synonyms see embarrass
dis·con·cert·ing adjective
dis·con·cert·ing·ly \-tiŋ-lē\ adverb
dis·con·cert·ment \-mənt\ noun
Examples
we were disconcerted by the unexpected changes to the program
Origin: obsolete French disconcerter, alteration of Middle French desconcerter, from des- dis- + concerter to concert.

67

Sententious

: having or expessing strong opinions about what people should and should not do
Full Definition
1 a : given to or abounding in aphoristic expression
b : given to or abounding in excessive moralizing
2 : terse, aphoristic, or moralistic in expression : pithy, epigrammatic
sen·ten·tious·ly adverb
sen·ten·tious·ness noun
Examples
a sententious crank who has written countless letters to the editor about the decline in family values
memoirs that are filled with sententious observations on love, marriage, and happiness
Origin: Middle English, full of meaning, from Latin sententiosus, from sententia sentence, maxim.
First use: 1509
Synonyms: didactic, homiletic (or homiletical), moralistic, moralizing, preachy, sermonic
Antonyms: circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, long-winded, prolix, rambling, verbose, windy, wordy

68

Despoliation

de·spoil\di-ˈspȯi(-ə)l\
transitive verb
: to severely damage or ruin (a place)
: to forcefully take what is valuable from (a place)
Full Definition
: to strip of belongings, possessions, or value : pillage
synonyms see ravage
de·spoil·er noun
de·spoil·ment \-mənt\ noun
Examples
the burglars despoiled the art museum in search of treasures they thought they could sell to a fence
Origin: Middle English despoylen, from Anglo-French despoiller, from Latin despoliare, from de- + spoliare to strip, rob — more at spoil.
First use: 14th century

69

Flub


: to fail to do (something) correctly
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to make a mess of : botch
intransitive verb
: blunder
Other forms: flubbed; flub·bing
Origin: origin unknown.
First use: 1904
Synonyms: blow, bobble, boggle, bollix (up), boot, bugger (up), bumble, bungle, butcher, dub, botch, fluff, foozle, foul up, fumble, goof (up), louse up, mangle, mess (up), muck up, muff, murder, screw up
2flub
noun
: an act or instance of flubbing : blunder
First use: 1900
Synonyms: blunder, bobble, boob [British], boo-boo, brick, clanger [British], clinker, fault, error, fluff, fumble, gaff, gaffe, goof, inaccuracy, lapse, miscue, misstep, mistake, oversight, screwup, slip, slipup, stumble, trip

70

Rapture

: a state or feeling of great happiness, pleasure, or love
Full Definition
1 : an expression or manifestation of ecstasy or passion
2 a : a state or experience of being carried away by overwhelming emotion
b : a mystical experience in which the spirit is exalted to a knowledge of divine things
3 often capitalized : the final assumption of Christians into heaven during the end-time according to Christian theology
synonyms see ecstasy
rap·tur·ous \ˈrap-chə-rəs, ˈrap-shrəs\ adjective
rap·tur·ous·ly adverb
rap·tur·ous·ness noun
Origin: Latin raptus.
First use: 1594
Synonyms: cloud nine, elatedness, elation, euphoria, exhilaration, heaven, high, intoxication, paradise, ecstasy, rhapsody, seventh heaven, swoon, transport
Antonyms: depression
2rapture
transitive verb
: enrapture
Other forms: rap·tured; rap·tur·ing
First use: 1637

71

Incertitude

: uncertainty:
a : absence of assurance or confidence : doubt
b : the quality or state of being unstable or insecure
Examples
a growing incertitude about the honesty of the housekeeper they had just hired
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French, from Late Latin incertitudo, from Latin in- + Late Latin certitudo certitude.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: distrust, distrustfulness, dubiety, dubitation [archaic], doubt, misdoubt, misgiving, mistrust, mistrustfulness, query, reservation, skepticism, suspicion, uncertainty
Antonyms: assurance, belief, certainty, certitude, confidence, conviction, sureness, surety, trust

72

Enrapture

: to fill (someone) with delight
Full Definition
: to fill with delight
Other forms: en·rap·tured; en·rap·tur·ing \-ˈrap-chə-riŋ, -ˈrap-shriŋ\
Examples
enraptured upon learning that he would be attending college on a full sports scholarship
this classic ballet of the Christmas season never fails to enrapture audiences young and old

73

Mortify


: to cause (someone) to feel very embarrassed and foolish
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 obsolete : to destroy the strength, vitality, or functioning of
2 : to subdue or deaden (as the body or bodily appetites) especially by abstinence or self-inflicted pain or discomfort
3 : to subject to severe and vexing embarrassment : shame
intransitive verb
1 : to practice mortification
2 : to become necrotic or gangrenous
Other forms: mor·ti·fied; mor·ti·fy·ing
Examples
was mortified by her children's atrocious manners
Origin: Middle English mortifien, from Anglo-French mortifier, from Late Latin mortificare, from Latin mort-, mors.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, embarrass, nonplus, rattle

74

Insouciance

: a relaxed and calm state : a feeling of not worrying about anything
Full Definition
: lighthearted unconcern : nonchalance
in·sou·ci·ant \in-ˈsü-sē-ənt, aⁿ-süs-yäⁿ\ adjective
in·sou·ci·ant·ly \in-ˈsü-sē-ənt-lē\ adverb
Examples
wandered into the meeting with complete insouciance to the fact that she was late
Origin: French, from in- + soucier to trouble, disturb, from Old French, from Latin sollicitare — more at solicit.
First use: 1799
Synonyms: apathy, casualness, complacence, disinterestedness, disregard, incuriosity, incuriousness, indifference, nonchalance, torpor, unconcern

75

Vitriolic

: harsh and angry words
Full Definition
1 a : a sulfate of any of various metals (as copper, iron, or zinc); especially : a glassy hydrate of such a sulfate
b : oil of vitriol
2 : something felt to resemble vitriol especially in caustic quality; especially : virulence of feeling or of speech
vit·ri·ol·ic \ˌvi-trē-ˈä-lik\ adjective
Examples
a film critic noted for the vitriol and sometimes outright cruelty of his pronouncements
the review was more than just unfavorable—it was loaded with vitriol
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French vitriole, from Medieval Latin vitriolum, alteration of Late Latin vitreolum, neuter of vitreolus glassy, from Latin vitreus vitreous.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: acidity, acidness, acridity, acridness, asperity, bile, bitterness, cattiness, corrosiveness, mordancy, tartness, virulence, virulency, acrimony

76

Utopia

: an imaginary place in which the government, laws, and social conditions are perfect
Full Definition
1 : an imaginary and indefinitely remote place
2 often capitalized : a place of ideal perfection especially in laws, government, and social conditions
3 : an impractical scheme for social improvement
Examples
dreamed of one day retiring to a tropical utopia
Origin: Utopia, imaginary and ideal country in Utopia (1516) by Sir Thomas More, from Greek ou not, no + topos place.
First use: 1597
Synonyms: Camelot, Cockaigne, Eden, Elysium, empyrean, fantasyland, heaven, lotusland, never-never land, New Jerusalem, nirvana, promised land, Shangri-la, paradise, Zion (also Sion)

77

Vilipended

1 : to hold or treat as of little worth or account : contemn
2 : to express a low opinion of : disparage
Examples
one of those elitists who regularly vilipends popular culture
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French vilipender, from Medieval Latin vilipendere, from Latin vilis + pendere to weigh, estimate.

78

Disavow

: to say that you are not responsible for (something) : to deny that you know about or are involved in (something)
Full Definition
1 : to deny responsibility for : repudiate
2 : to refuse to acknowledge or accept : disclaim
dis·avow·able \-ə-bəl\ adjective
dis·avow·al \-ˈvau̇(-ə)l\ noun
Examples
disavowed the testimony that she had given earlier in the trial
the government will disavow any knowledge of your mission
Origin: Middle English desavowen, from Anglo-French desavouer, from des- dis- + avouer to avow.

79

Asinine

: very stupid and silly
Full Definition
1 : extremely or utterly foolish
2 : of, relating to, or resembling an ass
synonyms see simple
as·i·nine·ly adverb
as·i·nin·i·ty \ˌa-sə-ˈni-nə-tē\ noun
Examples
it was asinine to run into the street like that
Origin: Latin asininus, from asinus ass.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: absurd, foolish, balmy, brainless, bubbleheaded, cockeyed, crackpot, crazy, cuckoo, daffy, daft, dippy, dotty, fatuous, featherheaded, fool, half-baked, harebrained, half-witted, inept, insane, jerky, kooky (also kookie), loony (also looney), lunatic, lunkheaded, mad, nonsensical, nutty, preposterous, sappy, screwball, senseless, silly, simpleminded, stupid, tomfool, unwise, wacky (also whacky), weak-minded, witless, zany

80

Perspicuous

81

Militant

82

Thwart

: to prevent (someone) from doing something or to stop (something) from happening
Full Definition
1 a : to run counter to so as to effectively oppose or baffle : contravene
b : to oppose successfully : defeat the hopes or aspirations of
2 : to pass through or across
synonyms see frustrate
thwart·er noun
Origin: Middle English thwerten, from thwert, adverb.
First use: 13th century
2thwart\ˈthwȯrt, nautical often ˈthȯrt\
adverb
: athwart
Origin: Middle English thwert, from Old Norse thvert, from neuter of thverr transverse, oblique; akin to Old High German dwerah transverse, oblique.
First use: 14th century
3thwart
adjective
: situated or placed across something else : transverse
thwart·ly adverb
First use: 14th century
4thwart
noun
: a seat extending athwart a boat
Origin: alteration of obsolete thought, thoft, from Middle English thoft, from Old English thofte; akin to Old High German dofta rower's seat.

83

Annihilate


: to destroy (something or someone) completely
: to defeat (someone) completely
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to cause to be of no effect : nullify
b : to destroy the substance or force of
2 : to regard as of no consequence
3 : to cause to cease to exist; especially : kill
4 a : to destroy a considerable part of
b : to vanquish completely : rout
5 : to cause (a particle and its antiparticle) to vanish by annihilating
intransitive verb
of a particle and its antiparticle : to vanish or cease to exist by coming together and changing into other forms of energy (as photons)
Other forms: an·ni·hi·lat·ed; an·ni·hi·lat·ing
an·ni·hi·la·tion \-ˌnī-ə-ˈlā-shən\ noun
an·ni·hi·la·tor \-ˌlā-tər\ noun
an·ni·hi·la·to·ry \-ˈnī-ə-lə-ˌtȯr-ē\ adjective
Examples
the family's attempts to annihilate the roach population in their apartment had met with little success
the tornado simply annihilated the family's home
we didn't just win; we absolutely annihilated them!
Origin: Late Latin annihilatus, past participle of annihilare to reduce to nothing, from Latin ad- + nihil nothing — more at nil.
First use: 1525
Synonyms: abolish, black out, blot out, cancel, clean (up), efface, eradicate, erase, expunge, exterminate, extirpate, liquidate, obliterate, root (out), rub out, snuff (out), stamp (out), sweep (away), wipe out

84

Stymied

: to stop (someone) from doing something or to stop (something) from happening
Full Definition
: to present an obstacle to : stand in the way of
Other forms: sty·mied; sty·mie·ing
Examples
the raging blizzard stymied the rescuers' attempts to find the stranded mountain climbers
Origin: Scots stimie, stymie to obstruct a golf shot by interposition of the opponent's ball.
First use: 1902

85

Low

Scottish
: flame, blaze
Other forms: lowed; low·ing
Variants: or lowe
First use: 14th century

86

Abet

: to help, encourage, or support someone in a criminal act
Full Definition
1 : to actively second and encourage (as an activity or plan)
2 : to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose
synonyms see incite
Other forms: abet·ted; abet·ting
abet·ment \-mənt\ noun
abet·tor also abet·ter \ə-ˈbe-tər\ noun
Examples
She abetted the thief in his getaway.
Did he abet the commission of a crime?
Their actions were shown to abet terrorism.
Origin: Middle English abetten, from Anglo-French abeter, from a- (from Latin ad-) + beter to bait, of Germanic origin; akin to Old English bǣtan to bait.

87

Jurisprudence

: the study of law
Full Definition
1 : the science or philosophy of law
2 a : a system or body of law
b : the course of court decisions
3 : a department of law
ju·ris·pru·den·tial \-prü-ˈden(t)-shəl\ adjective
ju·ris·pru·den·tial·ly \-ˈden(t)-sh(ə-)lē\ adverb
First use: 1654

88

Premeditated

: done or made according to a plan : planned in advance
Full Definition
: characterized by fully conscious willful intent and a measure of forethought and planning
pre·med·i·tat·ed·ly adverb

89

Animated

: full of life and energy
: produced by the creation of a series of drawings, pictures, etc., that are shown quickly one after another : produced through the process of animation
Full Definition
1 a : endowed with life or the qualities of life : alive
b : full of movement and activity
c : full of vigor and spirit : lively
2 : having the appearance of something alive
3 : made in the form of an animated cartoon
synonyms see lively
an·i·mat·ed·ly adverb
Examples
an animated group of girls loudly running down the hall
an animated marketplace full of vendors and holiday shoppers
First use: 1534
Synonyms: active, airy, animate, lively, bouncing, brisk, energetic, frisky, gay, jaunty, jazzy, kinetic, mettlesome, peppy, perky, pert, pizzazzy (or pizazzy), racy, snappy, spanking, sparky, spirited, sprightly, springy, vital, vivacious, zippy
Antonyms: dead, inactive, inanimate, lackadaisical, languid, languishing, languorous, leaden, lifeless, limp, listless, spiritless, vapid

90

Prudent

: careful good judgment that allows someone to avoid danger or risks
Full Definition
1 : the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason
2 : sagacity or shrewdness in the management of affairs
3 : skill and good judgment in the use of resources
4 : caution or circumspection as to danger or risk
Examples
advised to use some old-fashioned prudence when agreeing to meet face-to-face with an online acquaintance
prudence would call for a little more caution in such a delicate situation
in the long run, prudence will pay off more often than taking wild risks
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from Latin prudentia, alteration of providentia — more at providence.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: alertness, care, carefulness, cautiousness, chariness, circumspection, gingerliness, guardedness, heedfulness, caution, wariness
Antonyms: brashness, carelessness, heedlessness, incaution, incautiousness, recklessness, unwariness

91

Recidivism

: a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially : relapse into criminal behavior

92

Stigmatize

: to describe or regard (something, such as a characteristic or group of people) in a way that shows strong disapproval
Full Definition
1 a archaic : brand
b : to describe or identify in opprobrious terms
2 : to mark with stigmata
Other forms: stig·ma·tized; stig·ma·tiz·ing
stig·ma·ti·za·tion \ˌstig-mə-tə-ˈzā-shən\ noun
First use: 1585

93

Reconcile


: to find a way of making (two different ideas, facts, etc.) exist or be true at the same time
: to cause people or groups to become friendly again after an argument or disagreement
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to restore to friendship or harmony
b : settle, resolve
2 : to make consistent or congruous
3 : to cause to submit to or accept something unpleasant
4 a : to check (a financial account) against another for accuracy
b : to account for
intransitive verb
: to become reconciled
synonyms see adapt
Other forms: rec·on·ciled; rec·on·cil·ing
rec·on·cil·abil·i·ty \ˌre-kən-ˌsī-lə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
rec·on·cil·able \ˌre-kən-ˈsī-lə-bəl, ˈre-kən-ˌ\ adjective
rec·on·cile·ment \ˈre-kən-ˌsī(-ə)l-mənt\ noun
rec·on·cil·er noun
Examples
historians have never been able to reconcile the two eyewitness accounts of the battle
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French or Latin; Anglo-French reconciler, from Latin reconciliare, from re- + conciliare to conciliate.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: accommodate, attune, conciliate, conform, coordinate, key, harmonize

94

Fastidious

fas·tid·i·ous\fa-ˈsti-dē-əs, fə-\
adjective
: very careful about how you do something
: liking few things : hard to please
: wanting to always be clean, neat, etc.
Full Definition
1 archaic : scornful
2 a : having high and often capricious standards : difficult to please
b : showing or demanding excessive delicacy or care
c : reflecting a meticulous, sensitive, or demanding attitude
3 : having complex nutritional requirements
fas·tid·i·ous·ly adverb
fas·tid·i·ous·ness noun
Examples
he is very fastidious about how he arranges his music collection, and woe to anyone who dares to mess around with it
Origin: Middle English, from Latin fastidiosus, from fastidium disgust, probably from fastus arrogance (probably akin to Latin fastigium top) + taedium irksomeness — more at tedium.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: choosy (or choosey), dainty, delicate, demanding, exacting, finicky, finical, finicking, fussbudgety, fussy, nice, old-maidish, particular, pernickety [chiefly British], persnickety, picky
Antonyms: undemanding, unfastidious, unfussy

95

Immaculate

im·mac·u·late\i-ˈma-kyə-lət\
adjective
: perfectly clean
: having no flaw or error
Full Definition
1 : having no stain or blemish : pure
2 : containing no flaw or error
3 a : spotlessly clean
b : having no colored spots or marks
im·mac·u·late·ly adverb
Examples
an immaculate soul
somehow managed to keep the white carpet immaculate
a fussy groundskeeper who always manages to restore the football field to an immaculate expanse of healthy, well-manicured turf
Origin: Middle English immaculat, from Latin immaculatus, from in- + maculatus stained — more at maculate.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: clean, decent, G-rated, chaste, modest, pure, vestal, virgin, virginal
Antonyms: coarse, dirty, filthy, immodest, impure, indecent, obscene, smutty, unchaste, unclean, vulgar

96

Disarray

: a lack of order : a confused or messy condition
Full Definition
1 : a lack of order or sequence : confusion, disorder
2 : disorderly dress : dishabille
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: chance-medley, confusion, disarrangement, chaos, dishevelment, disorder, disorderedness, disorderliness, disorganization, free-for-all, havoc, heck, hell, jumble, mare's nest, mess, messiness, misorder, muddle, muss, shambles, snake pit, tumble, welter
Antonyms: order, orderliness
2disarray
transitive verb
1 : to throw into disorder
2 : undress
Origin: Middle English disarayen, from Anglo-French desaraier, from des- dis- + arraier to array.

97

Purge / purgation


: to remove people from an area, country, organization, etc., often in a violent and sudden way
: to cause something to leave the body
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to clear of guilt
b : to free from moral or ceremonial defilement
2 a : to cause evacuation from (as the bowels)
b (1) : to make free of something unwanted (2) : to free (as a boiler) of sediment or relieve (as a steam pipe) of trapped air by bleeding
c (1) : to rid (as a nation or party) by a purge (2) : to get rid of
intransitive verb
1 : to become purged
2 : to have or produce frequent evacuations
3 : to cause purgation
Other forms: purged; purg·ing
purg·er noun
Examples
purge a country of an ethnic group = purge an ethnic group from a country
High-ranking officials were purged from the company following the merger.
medicines that purge the body of toxins = medicines that purge toxins from the body
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French purger, from Latin purigare, purgare to purify, purge, from purus pure + -igare (akin to agere to drive, do) — more at act.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: cleanse, purify, sanctify
2purge
noun
: the often violent and sudden removal of people from an area, country, organization, etc.
Full Definition
1 : something that purges; especially : purgative
2 a : an act or instance of purging
b : the removal of elements or members regarded as undesirable and especially as treacherous or disloyal
Examples
Stalin's purges
brutal postwar purges

98

Quintessence


noun
1 : the fifth and highest element in ancient and medieval philosophy that permeates all nature and is the substance composing the celestial bodies
2 : the essence of a thing in its purest and most concentrated form
3 : the most typical example or representative
quin·tes·sen·tial \ˌkwin-tə-ˈsen(t)-shəl\ adjective
quin·tes·sen·tial·ly adverb
Examples
the Parthenon in Greece was considered the quintessence of the perfectly proportioned building
a selfless desire to help others is the quintessence of the virtue of charity
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French quinte essence, from Medieval Latin quinta essentia, literally, fifth essence.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: acme, apotheosis, beau ideal, byword, classic, epitome, exemplar, ideal, perfection

99

Ablution

: the act of washing yourself
Full Definition
1 a : the washing of one's body or part of it (as in a religious rite)
b plural : the act or action of bathing
2 plural British : a building housing bathing and toilet facilities on a military base
ab·lu·tion·ary \-shə-ˌner-ē, -ˌne-rē\ adjective
Origin: Middle English, from Middle French or Late Latin; Middle French, from Late Latin ablution-, ablutio, from Latin abluere to wash away, from ab- + lavere to wash — more at lye.