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Flashcards in Flashcards - 3 Deck (100):


: a rise or fall in the sound of a person's voice : a change in the pitch or tone of a person's voice
grammar : a change in the form of a word that occurs when it has a particular use
: a form of a word that occurs when it has a particular use : an inflected form
Full Definition
1 : the act or result of curving or bending : bend
2 : change in pitch or loudness of the voice
3 a : the change of form that words undergo to mark such distinctions as those of case, gender, number, tense, person, mood, or voice
b : a form, suffix, or element involved in such variation
c : accidence
4 a : change in curvature of an arc or curve from concave to convex or conversely
b : inflection point
the inflection of the river is even more obvious when viewed from the summit of the nearby mountain
First use: 1531
Synonyms: angle, arc, arch, bow, crook, curvature, curve, bend, turn, wind



: to express (something) in an indirect way : to suggest (something) without saying or showing it plainly
: to include or involve (something) as a natural or necessary part or result
Full Definition
1 obsolete : enfold, entwine
2 : to involve or indicate by inference, association, or necessary consequence rather than by direct statement
3 : to contain potentially
4 : to express indirectly
synonyms see suggest
usage see infer
Other forms: im·plied; im·ply·ing
they may have implied that they'd help, but they didn't actually say so
Origin: Middle English emplien, from Anglo-French emplier to entangle — more at employ.



: a belief or idea that is very important to a group
Full Definition
: a principle, belief, or doctrine generally held to be true; especially : one held in common by members of an organization, movement, or profession
Origin: Latin, he holds, from tenēre to hold.
First use: circa 1600


Stave off

1 : to fend off
2 : to ward off (as something adverse) : forestall
managed to stave off the invaders
the quartermaster staved off a shortage by requisitioning more than enough supplies
First use: 1611



transitive verb
: to pay out (money) from a fund that has been created for a special purpose
Full Definition
1 a : to pay out : expend especially from a fund
b : to make a payment in settlement of
2 : distribute
Other forms: dis·bursed; dis·burs·ing
dis·burs·er noun
the foundation disburses money to many worthy causes
Origin: Middle French desbourser, from Old French desborser, from des- dis- + borse purse, from Medieval Latin bursa.
First use: 1530



transitive verb
1 archaic : to speak ill of
2 archaic : to take away
3 : divert
intransitive verb
: to diminish the importance, value, or effectiveness of something — often used with from
de·trac·tor \-ˈtrak-tər\ noun
numerous typos in the text detract the reader's attention from the novel's intricate plot
Origin: Middle English, from Latin detractus, past participle of detrahere to pull down, disparage, from de- + trahere to draw.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: abstract, call off, distract, divert, throw off



: something (such as a disease) that causes pain or suffering
: the state of being affected by something that causes suffering
Full Definition
1 : the state of being afflicted
2 : the cause of persistent pain or distress
3 : great suffering
she listened with deep affliction as her daughter told her about the latest trouble she was in
felt such great affliction over the destruction of the beautiful old home
alcohol has been his affliction ever since he took his first drink at the age of 12
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: distress, agony, anguish, excruciation, hurt, misery, pain, rack, strait(s), torment, torture, travail, tribulation, woe
Antonyms: blessedness, bliss, blissfulness, cheer, cheerfulness, cheeriness, delight, ecstasy, elatedness, elation, euphoria, exhilaration, exuberance, exultation, felicity, gladness, gladsomeness, glee, gleefulness, happiness, joy, joyfulness, joyousness, jubilation, pleasure, rapture, rapturousness





1 : marked by poor or inadequate adaptation
2 : not conducive to adaptation



dour\ˈdu̇r, ˈdau̇(-ə)r\
: serious and unfriendly : silent and gloomy
Full Definition
1 : stern, harsh
2 : obstinate, unyielding
3 : gloomy, sullen
dour·ly adverb
dour·ness noun
a dour politician
a dour manner
She had a dour expression on her face.
Origin: Middle English, from Latin durus hard — more at during.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: austere, grim, fierce, flinty, forbidding, gruff, intimidating, lowering (also louring), rough, rugged, severe, stark, steely, stern, ungentle
Antonyms: benign, benignant, gentle, mild, nonintimidating, tender





con·cierge\kōⁿ-ˈsyerzh, ˌkän-sē-ˈerzh\
: a person in an apartment building especially in France who takes care of the building and checks the people who enter and leave
: an employee at a hotel whose job is to provide help and information to the people staying at the hotel
Full Definition
1 : a resident in an apartment building especially in France who serves as doorkeeper, landlord's representative, and janitor
2 : a usually multilingual hotel staff member who handles luggage and mail, makes reservations, and arranges tours; broadly : a person employed (as by a business) to make arrangements or run errands
Other forms: plural con·cierges \-ˈsyerzh, -ˈsyer-zhəz; -sē-ˈer-zhəz\
Origin: French, from Old French, probably from Vulgar Latin *conservius, alteration of Latin conservus fellow slave, from com- + servus slave.
First use: circa 1697



: a science that deals with the methods used by farmers to raise crops and care for the soil
Full Definition
: a branch of agriculture dealing with field-crop production and soil management
ag·ro·nom·ic \ˌa-grə-ˈnä-mik\ adjective
ag·ro·nom·i·cal·ly \-mi-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
agron·o·mist \ə-ˈgrä-nə-mist\ noun
Origin: probably from French agronomie, from agro- + -nomie -nomy.



: a person who is in charge of the things in a museum, zoo, etc.
Full Definition
: one who has the care and superintendence of something; especially : one in charge of a museum, zoo, or other place of exhibit
cu·ra·to·ri·al \ˌkyu̇r-ə-ˈtȯr-ē-əl\ adjective
cu·ra·tor·ship \ˈkyu̇r-ˌā-tər-ˌship, kyu̇-ˈrā-, ˈkyu̇r-ə-\ noun
Origin: Latin, from curare to care, from cura care.





1 a : muscular power or development
b : strength, vitality
2 : muscle, sinew — usually used in plural
a prizefighter of unparalleled thew in the boxing world
Origin: Middle English, personal quality, virtue, from Old English thēaw; akin to Old High German thau custom.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: beef, brawn, main, muscle





: beyond what is needed : not necessary
Full Definition
1a : exceeding what is sufficient or necessary : extra
b : not needed : unnecessary
2 obsolete : marked by wastefulness : extravagant
su·per·flu·ous·ly adverb
su·per·flu·ous·ness noun
cleared off all the superfluous stuff on his desk to make room for the new computer
Origin: Middle English, from Latin superfluus, literally, running over, from superfluere to overflow, from super- + fluere to flow — more at fluid.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: excess, extra, redundant, supererogatory, spare, supernumerary, surplus



: using air pressure to move or work
: filled with air
of a woman : having a body with full, pleasing curves
Full Definition
1 : of, relating to, or using gas (as air or wind):
a : moved or worked by air pressure
b (1) : adapted for holding or inflated with compressed air (2) : having air-filled cavities
2 : of or relating to the pneuma : spiritual
3 : having a well-proportioned feminine figure; especially : having a full bust
pneu·mat·i·cal·ly \-ti-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
pneu·ma·tic·i·ty \ˌnü-mə-ˈti-sə-tē, ˌnyü-\ noun
a movie star who is remembered mainly as a pneumatic sex symbol of the 1950s
Origin: Latin pneumaticus, from Greek pneumatikos, from pneumat-, pneuma air, breath, spirit, from pnein to breathe — more at sneeze.
First use: 1659
Synonyms: curvy, curvaceous, shapely





: to demand and get (something, such as payment or revenge) especially by using force or threats
—used in phrases like and to say that something has caused a lot of suffering, loss, etc.
Full Definition
1 : to call for forcibly or urgently and obtain
2 : to call for as necessary or desirable
synonyms see demand
ex·act·able \-ˈzak-tə-bəl\ adjective
ex·ac·tor also ex·act·er \-ˈzak-tər\ noun
the exact time
an exact copy/duplicate/replica/reproduction
Those were his exact words.
Origin: Middle English, to require as payment, from Latin exactus, past participle of exigere to drive out, demand, measure, from ex- + agere to drive — more at agent.
First use: 1564
: fully and completely correct or accurate
: very careful and accurate
Full Definition
1 : exhibiting or marked by strict, particular, and complete accordance with fact or a standard
2 : marked by thorough consideration or minute measurement of small factual details
synonyms see correct
ex·act·ness \-ˈzak(t)-nəs\ noun
They would not rest until they had exacted revenge.
He was able to exact a promise from them.
The war has exacted a terrible toll.
Origin: Latin exactus.
First use: 1533
Synonyms: accurate, bang on [chiefly British], dead-on, correct, good, on-target, precise, proper, right, so, spot-on, true, veracious





: to publicly disagree with an official opinion, decision, or set of beliefs
Full Definition
1 : to withhold assent
2 : to differ in opinion
Origin: Middle English, from Latin dissentire, from dis- + sentire to feel — more at sense.
First use: 15th century
: public disagreement with an official opinion, decision, or set of beliefs
law : a statement by a judge giving reasons why the judge does not agree with the decision made by the other judges in a court case
Full Definition
: difference of opinion : as
a : religious nonconformity
b : a justice's nonconcurrence with a decision of the majority —called also dissenting opinion
c : political opposition to a government or its policies
Church leaders permitted no dissent from church teachings.
He did everything in his power to suppress political dissent.
These dissents come from prominent scientists and should not be ignored.
First use: 1585
Synonyms: conflict, disaccord, discordance, discordancy, disharmony, dissension (also dissention), discord, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, friction, infighting, inharmony, schism, strife, variance, war, warfare
Antonyms: accord, agreement, concord, concordance, harmony, peace



transitive verb
: to cut off or out : excise
Origin: Latin exscindere, from ex- + scindere to cut, tear — more at shed.
First use: 1662



: to show (something) clearly
Full Definition
1 : to constitute outward evidence of
2 : to display clearly : reveal
synonyms see show
Other forms: evinced; evinc·ing
evinc·ible \-ˈvin(t)-sə-bəl\ adjective
She evinced an interest in art at an early age.
the teenager caught shoplifting seemed to evince no remorse
Origin: Latin evincere to vanquish, win a point, from e- + vincere to conquer — more at victor.



1 : crying for mercy : cowardly
2 : unfaithful to duty or allegiance
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from present participle of (se) recreire to give up, yield, from Medieval Latin (se) recredere to resign oneself (to a judgment), from Latin re- + credere to believe — more at creed.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: chicken, chickenhearted, chicken-livered, craven, dastardly, gutless, lily-livered, milk-livered [archaic], poltroon, pusillanimous, cowardly, spineless, unheroic, yellow
Antonyms: brave, courageous, daring, dauntless, doughty, fearless, gallant, greathearted, gutsy, hardy, heroic (also heroical), intrepid, lionhearted, stalwart, stout, stouthearted, valiant, valorous
1 : coward
2 : apostate, deserter
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: apostate, defector, deserter, renegade







: to trick or deceive (someone)
: to attract or interest someone
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to lead by deception
2 : hoodwink
3 : to while away especially by some agreeable occupation; also : divert 2
4 : to engage the interest of by or as if by guileintransitive verb
: to deceive by wiles
synonyms see deceive
Other forms: be·guiled; be·guil·ing
be·guile·ment \-ˈgī(-ə)l-mənt\ noun
be·guil·er \-ˈgī-lər\ noun
be·guil·ing·ly \-ˈgī-liŋ-lē\ adverb
the magician effortlessly beguiled and amazed the children
beguiled her into believing that yet another worthless item would enhance her life
was beguiled by the promise of easy money as a drug dealer
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: allure, charm, bewitch, captivate, enchant, fascinate, kill, magnetize, wile, witch [archaic]





: the quality of seeming real
Full Definition
1 : the quality or state of being verisimilar
2 : something verisimilar
veri·si·mil·i·tu·di·nous \-ˌmi-lə-ˈtüd-nəs, -ˈtyüd-; -ˈtü-də-nəs, -ˈtyü-\ adjective
the novel's degree of verisimilitude is compromised by 18th-century characters who speak in very 21st-century English
Origin: Latin verisimilitudo, from verisimilis verisimilar, from veri similis like the truth.
First use: circa 1576
Synonyms: literalism, naturalism, realism, representationalism, verismo



: relating to cows
: looking or acting like a cow
Full Definition
1 : of, relating to, or resembling bovines and especially the ox or cow
2 : having qualities (as placidity or dullness) characteristic of oxen or cows
bo·vine·ly adverb
bo·vin·i·ty \bō-ˈvi-nə-tē\ noun
Origin: Late Latin bovinus, from Latin bov-, bos ox, cow — more at cow.
First use: 1776
: any of a subfamily (Bovinae) of bovids including oxen, bison, buffalo, and their close relatives
First use: 1852



: of, relating to, or resembling mephitis : foul-smelling



: a secretly plotted and suddenly executed attempt to overthrow a government





: of or relating to the language family that includes Hebrew and Arabic
: of or relating to the Semites
Full Definition
1 : of, relating to, or constituting a subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic language family that includes Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, and Amharic
2 : of, relating to, or characteristic of the Semites
3 : jewish
Origin: German semitisch, from Semit, Semite Semite, probably from New Latin Semita, from Late Latin Sem Shem.
First use: 1813
: any or all of the Semitic languages



: the period of European history between the 14th and 17th centuries when there was a new interest in science and in ancient art and literature especially in Italy
: a situation or period of time when there is a new interest in something that has not been popular in a long time
: a period of new growth or activity
Full Definition
Usage: often attributive
1 capitalized
a : the transitional movement in Europe between medieval and modern times beginning in the 14th century in Italy, lasting into the 17th century, and marked by a humanistic revival of classical influence expressed in a flowering of the arts and literature and by the beginnings of modern science
b : the period of the Renaissance
c : the neoclassic style of architecture prevailing during the Renaissance
2 often capitalized : a movement or period of vigorous artistic and intellectual activity
3 : rebirth, revival
the 19th-century literary renaissance that prompted people to refer to Boston as the Athens of America
Origin: French, from Middle French, rebirth, from Old French renaistre to be born again, from Latin renasci, from re- + nasci to be born — more at nation.
First use: 1845
Synonyms: golden age, belle epoque



: a word or phrase that has negative connotations or that is intended to disparage or belittle : a pejorative word or phrase
Origin: (see 2pejorative ).
First use: 1882
2pe·jo·ra·tive\pi-ˈjȯr-ə-tiv, -ˈjär- also ˈpe-jə-rə-tiv or ˈpē- or -ˌrā- or ˈpej-rə- or ˈpēj-\
: insulting to someone or something : expressing criticism
Full Definition
: having negative connotations; especially : tending to disparage or belittle : depreciatory
pe·jo·ra·tive·ly adverb
Origin: Late Latin pejoratus, past participle of pejorare to make or become worse, from Latin pejor worse; akin to Sanskrit padyate he falls, Latin ped-, pes foot — more at foot.
First use: circa 1888
Synonyms: belittling, contemptuous, decrying, degrading, demeaning, denigrative, denigratory, deprecatory, depreciative, depreciatory, derisory, derogative, detractive, disdainful, disparaging, derogatory, scornful, slighting, uncomplimentary
Antonyms: commendatory, complimentary, laudative, laudatory



: a science that was used in the Middle Ages with the goal of changing ordinary metals into gold
: a power or process that changes or transforms something in a mysterious or impressive way
Full Definition
1 : a medieval chemical science and speculative philosophy aiming to achieve the transmutation of the base metals into gold, the discovery of a universal cure for disease, and the discovery of a means of indefinitely prolonging life
2 : a power or process of transforming something common into something special
3 : an inexplicable or mysterious transmuting
al·chem·i·cal \-mi-kəl\ also al·chem·ic \al-ˈke-mik\ adjective
al·chem·i·cal·ly \-mi-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
Origin: Middle English alkamie, alquemie, from Middle French or Medieval Latin; Middle French alkimie, from Medieval Latin alchymia, from Arabic al-kīmiyā', from al the + kīmiyā' alchemy, from Late Greek chēmeia.
First use: 14th century



1 a : the food of the Greek and Roman gods
b : the ointment or perfume of the gods
2 : something extremely pleasing to taste or smell
3 : a dessert made of oranges and shredded coconut
am·bro·sial \-zh(ē-)əl\ adjective
am·bro·sial·ly \-zh(ē-)ə-lē\ adverb
Origin: Latin, from Greek, literally, immortality, from ambrotos immortal, from a- + -mbrotos (akin to brotos mortal) — more at murder.





grammar : a word or phrase that is represented by another word (such as a pronoun)
: something that came before something else and may have influenced or caused it
: the people in a family who lived in past times
Full Definition
1 : a substantive word, phrase, or clause whose denotation is referred to by a pronoun (as John in “Mary saw John and called to him”); broadly : a word or phrase replaced by a substitute
2 : the conditional element in a proposition (as if A in “if A, then B”)
3 : the first term of a mathematical ratio
4 a : a preceding event, condition, or cause
b plural : the significant events, conditions, and traits of one's earlier life
5 a : predecessor; especially : a model or stimulus for later developments
b plural : ancestors, parents
Origin: Middle English, from Medieval Latin & Latin; Medieval Latin antecedent-, antecedens, from Latin, what precedes, from neuter of antecedent-, antecedens, present participle of antecedere to go before, from ante- + cedere to go.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: cause, causality, causation, occasion, reason
Antonyms: aftereffect, aftermath, consequence, corollary, development, effect, fate, fruit, issue, outcome, outgrowth, product, result, resultant, sequel, sequence, upshot



: a short, pithy, and instructive saying or formulation : aphorism
ap·o·theg·mat·ic \ˌa-pə-theg-ˈma-tik\ adjective
her mother endlessly repeated the apothegm “cleanliness is next to godliness”
Origin: Greek apophthegmat-, apophthegma, from apophthengesthai to speak out, from apo- + phthengesthai to utter.
First use: circa 1587
Synonyms: adage, aphorism, saying, byword, epigram, maxim, proverb, saw, sententia, word



transitive verb
: to give information to (someone)
Full Definition
: to give notice to : tell
synonyms see inform
Other forms: ap·prised; ap·pris·ing
let me apprise you of the current situation
Origin: French appris, past participle of apprendre to learn, teach, from Old French aprendre.
First use: 1694



: to get or save (money) for a specific use or purpose
: to take or use (something) especially in a way that is illegal, unfair, etc.
Full Definition
1 : to take exclusive possession of : annex
2 : to set apart for or assign to a particular purpose or use
3 : to take or make use of without authority or right
Other forms: ap·pro·pri·at·ed; ap·pro·pri·at·ing
ap·pro·pri·a·ble \-prē-ə-bəl\ adjective
ap·pro·pri·a·tor \-prē-ˌā-tər\ noun
Origin: Middle English, from Late Latin appropriatus, past participle of appropriare, from Latin ad- + proprius own.
First use: 15th century



1 : at an opportune time : seasonably
2 : by way of interjection or further comment : with regard to the present topic
Origin: French à propos, literally, to the purpose.
First use: 1668
Synonyms: en passant, incidentally, by the by (or by the bye), by the way, in passing
2ap·ro·pos\ˌa-prə-ˈpō, ˈa-prə-ˌ\
: suitable or appropriate
Full Definition
: being both relevant and opportune
synonyms see relevant
Apropos the proposed changes, I think more information is needed.
makes a number of telling observations apropos the current political situation
Origin: (see 1apropos ).
First use: 1686
Synonyms: applicable, apposite, pertinent, germane, material, pointed, relative, relevant
Antonyms: extraneous, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelative, irrelevant, pointless
3ap·ro·pos\ˌa-prə-ˈpō, ˈa-prə-ˌ\
: with regard to (something)
Full Definition
: apropos of
Origin: (see 1apropos ).
First use: 1879
Synonyms: about, apropos of, as far as, as for, as regards (also as respects), as to, concerning, of, on, regarding, respecting, touching, toward (or towards)



: of, relating to, or being in the style of arabesque or an arabesque
Origin: French, from Italian arabesco Arabian in fashion, from arabo Arab, from Latin Arabus.
First use: circa 1656
: a complicated decorative design made with many lines that curve and cross each other
: a ballet position in which the dancer stands on one foot and holds one arm forward while the other arm and leg are held out behind
Full Definition
1 : an ornament or style that employs flower, foliage, or fruit and sometimes animal and figural outlines to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines
2 : a posture (as in ballet) in which the body is bent forward from the hip on one leg with one arm extended forward and the other arm and leg backward
3 : an elaborate or intricate pattern



: a science that deals with past human life and activities by studying the bones, tools, etc., of ancient people
Full Definition
1 : the scientific study of material remains (as fossil relics, artifacts, and monuments) of past human life and activities
2 : remains of the culture of a people : antiquities
ar·chae·o·log·i·cal \ˌär-kē-ə-ˈlä-ji-kəl\ adjective
ar·chae·o·log·i·cal·ly \-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
ar·chae·ol·o·gist \ˌär-kē-ˈä-lə-jist\ noun
Variants: or ar·che·ol·o·gy \ˌär-kē-ˈä-lə-jē\
Origin: French archéologie, from Late Latin archaeologia antiquarian lore, from Greek archaiologia, from archaio- + -logia -logy.



: any one of the 12 men chosen by Jesus Christ to spread the Christian religion
: someone who believes in or supports an idea, cause, etc.
Full Definition
1 : one sent on a mission: as
a : one of an authoritative New Testament group sent out to preach the gospel and made up especially of Christ's 12 original disciples and Paul
b : the first prominent Christian missionary to a region or group
2 a : a person who initiates a great moral reform or who first advocates an important belief or system
b : an ardent supporter : adherent
3 : the highest ecclesiastical official in some church organizations
4 : one of a Mormon administrative council of 12 men
apos·tle·ship \-ˌship\ noun
a fervent apostle of universal health care
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French & Old English; Anglo-French apostle & Old English apostol, both from Late Latin apostolus, from Greek apostolos, from apostellein to send away, from apo- + stellein to send.
First use: before 12th century
Synonyms: advocate, advocator, exponent, backer, booster, champion, expounder, espouser, friend, gospeler (or gospeller), herald, hierophant, high priest, paladin, promoter, proponent, protagonist, supporter, true believer, tub-thumper, white knight



transitive verb
: to describe or regard (something, such as a characteristic or group of people) in a way that shows strong disapproval
Full Definition
1 a archaic : brand
b : to describe or identify in opprobrious terms
2 : to mark with stigmata
Other forms: stig·ma·tized; stig·ma·tiz·ing
stig·ma·ti·za·tion \ˌstig-mə-tə-ˈzā-shən\ noun
First use: 1585



: a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about something
botany : the top part in the center of a flower which receives the pollen
Full Definition
1 a archaic : a scar left by a hot iron : brand
b : a mark of shame or discredit : stain
c : an identifying mark or characteristic; specifically : a specific diagnostic sign of a disease
2 a stigmata plural : bodily marks or pains resembling the wounds of the crucified Jesus and sometimes accompanying religious ecstasy
b : petechia
3 a : a small spot, scar, or opening on a plant or animal
b : the usually apical part of the pistil of a flower which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate — see flower illustration
Other forms: plural stig·ma·ta \stig-ˈmä-tə, ˈstig-mə-tə\ or stig·mas
stig·mal \ˈstig-məl\ adjective
the stigma of slavery remained long after it had been abolished
Origin: Latin stigmat-, stigma mark, brand, from Greek, from stizein to tattoo — more at stick.
First use: circa 1593
Synonyms: blot, brand, onus, slur, smirch, smudge, spot, stain, taint



mar·gin·al·ize\ˈmärj-nə-ˌlīz, ˈmär-jə-nəl-ˌīz\
transitive verb
: to put or keep (someone) in a powerless or unimportant position within a society or group
Full Definition
: to relegate to an unimportant or powerless position within a society or group
Other forms: mar·gin·al·ized; mar·gin·al·iz·ing
mar·gin·al·i·za·tion \ˌmärj-nə-lə-ˈzā-shən, ˌmär-jə-nəl-ə-\ noun
First use: 1970



: to rise above or go beyond the normal limits of (something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to rise above or go beyond the limits of
b : to triumph over the negative or restrictive aspects of : overcome
c : to be prior to, beyond, and above (the universe or material existence)
2 : to outstrip or outdo in some attribute, quality, or powerintransitive verb
: to rise above or extend notably beyond ordinary limits
synonyms see exceed
a man whose practical knowledge of botany transcends that of his more educated colleagues
a person who believes that any true understanding of God transcends human intelligence
Origin: Middle English, from Latin transcendere to climb across, transcend, from trans- + scandere to climb — more at scan.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: beat, better, eclipse, exceed, excel, outclass, outdistance, outdo, outgun, outmatch, outshine, outstrip, overtop, top, tower (over), surpass



: the part of a scene or picture that is nearest to and in front of the viewer
: an important position
Full Definition
1 : the part of a scene or representation that is nearest to and in front of the spectator
2 : a position of prominence : forefront
3 : a level of computer processing at which the processor responds immediately to input to a designated high-priority task — compare background
First use: 1695
transitive verb
: to make (something) more important
Full Definition
: to bring to the foreground; especially : to give prominence or emphasis to



: something that you must do because of a law, rule, promise, etc.
: something that you must do because it is morally right
Full Definition
1 : the action of obligating oneself to a course of action (as by a promise or vow)
2 a : something (as a formal contract, a promise, or the demands of conscience or custom) that obligates one to a course of action
b : a debt security (as a mortgage or corporate bond)
c : a commitment (as by a government) to pay a particular sum of money; also : an amount owed under such an obligation
3 a : a condition or feeling of being obligated
b : a debt of gratitude
4 : something one is bound to do : duty, responsibility
their financial obligations keep them from giving to charities as much as they would like
I have to pay off my current obligations before I can buy a new car
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: burden, charge, commitment, devoir, do [archaic], duty, imperative, incumbency, need, office, responsibility



1 a : of, relating to, or consisting of anecdotes
b : anecdotic 2
2 : based on or consisting of reports or observations of usually unscientific observers
3 : of, relating to, or being the depiction of a scene suggesting a story
an·ec·dot·al·ly \-təl-ē\ adverb



: the history of the family members in a person's or animal's past especially when it is good or impressive
: the origin and history of something especially when it is good or impressive
Full Definition
1 : a register recording a line of ancestors
2 a : an ancestral line : lineage
b : the origin and the history of something; broadly : background, history
3 a : a distinguished ancestry
b : the recorded purity of breed of an individual or strain
ped·i·greed \-ˌgrēd\ or pedigree adjective
a woman of good pedigree
Origin: Middle English pedegru, from Anglo-French pé de grue, literally, crane's foot; from the shape made by the lines of a genealogical chart.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: birth, blood, bloodline, breeding, descent, extraction, family tree, genealogy, line, lineage, origin, parentage, ancestry, stock, strain
Antonyms: issue, posterity, progeny, seed





1 a : a seal used especially as a mark of official approval
b : an indication of approval carrying great prestige
2 a : a characteristic feature or quality conferring prestige
b : prestige
3 : a medicinal preparation for swallowing consisting of a case usually of rice-flour paste enclosing a medicine
4 a : a design or inscription on an envelope to commemorate a postal or philatelic event
b : an advertisement forming part of a postage meter impression
c : a motto or slogan included in a postal cancellation







: to work with others secretly especially in order to do something illegal or dishonest
Full Definition
: conspire, plot
Other forms: col·lud·ed; col·lud·ing
accused of colluding to block the sale of the vacant land
Origin: Latin colludere, from com- + ludere to play, from ludus game — more at ludicrous.



: to cause the beginning of (something) : to start or begin (something)
: to formally accept (someone) as a member of a group or organization usually in a special ceremony
: to teach (someone) the basic facts or ideas about something
Full Definition
1 : to cause or facilitate the beginning of : set going
2 : to induct into membership by or as if by special rites
3 : to instruct in the rudiments or principles of something : introduce
synonyms see begin
Other forms: ini·ti·at·ed; ini·ti·at·ing
ini·ti·a·tor \-ˌā-tər\ noun
Origin: Late Latin initiatus, past participle of initiare, from Latin, to induct, from initium.
First use: 1533
1 a : initiated or properly admitted (as to membership or an office)
b : instructed in some secret knowledge
2 obsolete : relating to an initiate
First use: 1537
: a person who is being formally accepted or who has been formally accepted as a member of a group or organization
Full Definition
1 : a person who is undergoing or has undergone an initiation
2 : a person who is instructed or adept in some special field
First use: 1811



: to take or carry (someone or something) from one place to another
: to make (something) known to someone
law : to change the ownership of (property) from one person to another
Full Definition
1 obsolete : lead, conduct
2 a : to bear from one place to another; especially : to move in a continuous stream or mass
b : to impart or communicate by statement, suggestion, gesture, or appearance
c (1) archaic : steal (2) obsolete : to carry away secretly
d : to transfer or deliver (as property) to another especially by a sealed writing
e : to cause to pass from one place or person to another
Other forms: con·veyed; con·vey·ing
intends to personally convey the message to the governor
conveying a package to his relatives
upon her death, the house will be conveyed to a predesignated charity
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French conveer to accompany, escort, from Vulgar Latin *conviare, from Latin com- + via way — more at way.



: able to live through difficult conditions (such as a cold winter or a drought)
: strong and able to accept difficult or unpleasant conditions
Full Definition
1 : bold, brave
2 : audacious, brazen
3 a : inured to fatigue or hardships : robust
b : capable of withstanding adverse conditions
Other forms: har·di·er; har·di·est
har·di·ly \ˈhär-dəl-ē\ adverb
har·di·ness \ˈhär-dē-nəs\ noun
chrysanthemums are hardy enough to survive a light frost
the settlers of the Old West were a hardy lot
hardy souls who pioneered new paths into outer space
Origin: Middle English hardi, from Anglo-French, from Old French *hardir to make hard, of Germanic origin; akin to Old English heard hard.
First use: 13th century
Synonyms: cast-iron, hard, hard-bitten, hardened, inured, rugged, stout, strong, sturdy, tough, toughened, vigorous
Antonyms: delicate, nonhardy, soft, tender, weak





transitive verb
: to baptize (someone)
: to name (someone) at baptism
: to officially give (something, such as a ship) a name in a ceremony that often involves breaking a bottle of champagne
Full Definition
1 a : baptize 1
b : to name at baptism
2 : to name or dedicate (as a ship) by a ceremony suggestive of baptism
3 : name 1
4 : to use for the first time
Other forms: chris·tened; chris·ten·ing \ˈkris-niŋ, ˈkri-sə-niŋ\
christened the new baby “Ophelia”
Origin: Middle English cristnen, from Old English cristnian, from cristen Christian, from Latin christianus.
First use: before 12th century



ab·solve\əb-ˈzälv, -ˈsälv, -ˈzȯlv, -ˈsȯlv also without l\
transitive verb
: to make (someone) free from guilt, responsibility, etc.
: to give forgiveness to (someone who has sinned) or for (a sin)
Full Definition
1 : to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt
2 : to remit (a sin) by absolution
synonyms see exculpate
Other forms: ab·solved; ab·solv·ing
ab·solv·er noun
no amount of remorse will absolve shoplifters who are caught, and all cases will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law
Origin: Middle English, from Latin absolvere, from ab- + solvere to loosen — more at solve.
First use: 15th century



: to do something good as a way to show that you are sorry about doing something bad
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 obsolete : reconcile
2 : to supply satisfaction for : expiate
intransitive verb
: to make amends
Other forms: atoned; aton·ing
He says that he volunteers at the homeless shelter as a way to atone for the sins of his youth.
atonement for his sins
Origin: Middle English, to become reconciled, from at on in harmony, from at + on one.



: to remove (something) completely
Full Definition
1 : to strike out, obliterate, or mark for deletion
2 : to efface completely : destroy
3 : to eliminate (as a memory) from one's consciousness
Other forms: ex·punged; ex·pung·ing
ex·pung·er noun
time and the weather have expunged any evidence that a thriving community once existed here
Origin: Latin expungere to mark for deletion by dots, from ex- + pungere to prick — more at pungent.



: of or relating to a government minister
Full Definition
1 : of, relating to, or characteristic of a minister or the ministry
2 a : being or having the characteristics of an act or duty prescribed by law as part of the duties of an administrative office
b : relating to or being an act done after ascertaining the existence of a specified state of facts in obedience to a legal order without exercise of personal judgment or discretion
3 : acting or active as an agent
min·is·te·ri·al·ly \-ē-ə-lē\ adverb
a priest conscientiously tending to his ministerial duties
First use: 1561
Synonyms: clerkly, clerical, pastoral, priestly, sacerdotal
Antonyms: lay, nonclerical, secular, temporal



com·mu·nal\kə-ˈmyü-nəl, ˈkäm-yə-nəl\
: shared or used by members of a group or community
: relating to or involving members of a commune (sense 1)
: relating to a situation in which you are doing something with other people
Full Definition
1 : of or relating to one or more communes
2 : of or relating to a community
3 a : characterized by collective ownership and use of property
b : participated in, shared, or used in common by members of a group or community
4 : of, relating to, or based on racial or cultural groups
com·mu·nal·ize \kə-ˈmyü-nə-ˌlīz, ˈkäm-yə-\ transitive verb
com·mu·nal·ly adverb
the swimming pool is part of the communal property of the condo complex
Origin: French, from Late Latin communalis, from Latin communis.
First use: 1800
Synonyms: collaborative, combined, common, collective, concerted, conjoint, conjunct, cooperative, joint, multiple, mutual, pooled, public, shared, united
Antonyms: exclusive, individual, one-man, one-sided, one-way, single, sole, solitary, unilateral



: a rope or chain that is used to tie an animal to a post, wall, etc., so that it will stay in a particular area
Full Definition
1 : something (as a rope or chain) by which an animal is fastened so that it can range only within a set radius
2 : the limit of one's strength or resources
Origin: Middle English tethir, teder, probably of Scandinavian origin; akin to Old Norse tjōthr tether; akin to Old High German zeotar pole of a wagon.
First use: 14th century
transitive verb
: to use a rope or chain to tie (an animal) to something in order to keep it in a particular area
Full Definition
: to fasten or restrain by or as if by a tether
Other forms: teth·ered; teth·er·ing \-th(ə-)riŋ\
They tethered the horses in the shade.
The dog was tethered to the fence.
She can't stand being tethered to her desk all day.



1 a : trumpet
b chiefly Scottish : jew's harp
2 : a sound of or as if of trumpeting
Origin: Middle English trompe, from Anglo-French trumpe, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German trumba, trumpa trumpet.
First use: 14th century
1 a : a card of a suit any of whose cards will win over a card that is not of this suit —called also trump card
b : the suit whose cards are trumps for a particular hand — often used in plural
2 : a decisive overriding factor or final resource —called also trump card
3 : a dependable and exemplary person
She trumped my ace to win the trick.
Their offer for the house was trumped by a higher bid.
The need for blood donors trumps all other concerns.
Origin: alteration of 1triumph.
First use: 1529
: to beat (another card) by playing a card from the suit that beats the other suits : to play a trump card to beat (another card)
: to do better than (someone or something) in a contest, competition, etc.
: to be more important than (something)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to get the better of : override
2 : to play a trump on (a card or trick) when another suit was led
intransitive verb
: to play a trump when another suit was led



medical : a serious disease that causes a person who has been cut or injured to keep bleeding for a very long time
Full Definition
: a sex-linked hereditary blood defect that occurs almost exclusively in males and is characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and consequent difficulty in controlling hemorrhage even after minor injuries







: including many, most, or all things
: of or relating to a comprehensive school
Full Definition
1 : covering completely or broadly : inclusive
2 : having or exhibiting wide mental grasp
com·pre·hen·sive·ly adverb
com·pre·hen·sive·ness noun
a comprehensive overview of European history since the French Revolution
a comprehensive listing of all the paintings generally attributed to the Dutch artist Rembrandt
comprehensive plans for covering just about any conceivable terrorist attack
Origin: (see comprehension ).
First use: 1614
Synonyms: all-embracing, all-in [chiefly British], all-inclusive, broad-gauge (or broad-gauged), compendious, complete, encyclopedic, cover-all, cyclopedic, embracive, exhaustive, full, global, inclusive, in-depth, omnibus, panoramic, thorough, universal
Antonyms: imperfect, incomplete, partial


Hearken back or hark back

1 : to turn back to an earlier topic or circumstance
2 : to go back to something as an origin or source



: an area that is surrounded by a fence and that is used for holding animals (such as cows and horses) on a farm or ranch
Full Definition
1 : a pen or enclosure for confining or capturing livestock
2 : an enclosure made with wagons for defense of an encampment
Origin: Spanish, from Vulgar Latin *currale enclosure for vehicles, from Latin currus cart, from currere to run — more at car.
First use: 1582
Synonyms: coop, cage, hutch, pen, pound
transitive verb
: to gather and put (cows, horses, etc.) into a corral
Full Definition
1 : to enclose in a corral
2 : to arrange (wagons) so as to form a corral
3 : collect, gather
Other forms: cor·ralled; cor·ral·ling
corralling cattle
He corralled us all into his office for a quick meeting.
corralling votes for next month's election



: a person who makes or repairs wooden casks or barrels
Full Definition
: one that makes or repairs wooden casks or tubs
Origin: Middle English couper, cowper, from Middle Dutch cūper (from cūpe cask) or Middle Low German kūper, from kūpe cask; Middle Dutch cūpe & Middle Low German kūpe, from Latin cupa; akin to Greek kypellon cup — more at hive.
First use: 14th century
transitive verb
: to work as a cooper on
intransitive verb
: to work at or do coopering
Other forms: coo·pered; coo·per·ing \ˈkü-p(ə-)riŋ, ˈku̇-\
First use: 1720



: of, belonging to, or seeming to come from an early time in the very ancient past
: not having a written language, advanced technology, etc.
: very simple and basic : made or done in a way that is not modern and that does not show much skill
Full Definition
1 a : not derived : original, primary
b : assumed as a basis; especially : axiomatic
2 a : of or relating to the earliest age or period : primeval
b : closely approximating an early ancestral type : little evolved
c : belonging to or characteristic of an early stage of development : crude, rudimentary
d : of, relating to, or constituting the assumed parent speech of related languages
3 a : elemental, natural
b : of, relating to, or produced by a people or culture that is nonindustrial and often nonliterate and tribal
c : naive
d (1) : self-taught, untutored (2) : produced by a self-taught artist

prim·i·tive·ly adverb
prim·i·tive·ness noun
prim·i·tiv·i·ty \ˌpri-mə-ˈti-və-tē\ noun
Origin: Middle English primitif, from Latin primitivus first formed, from primitiae first fruits, from primus first — more at prime.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: crude, low, rude, rudimentary
Antonyms: advanced, developed, evolved, high, higher, late
: an artist who makes art in a simple style that is childlike ; also : the art made by such an artist
: someone who belongs to a primitive society
Full Definition
1 a : something primitive; specifically : a primitive idea, term, or proposition
b : a root word
2 a (1) : an artist of an early period of a culture or artistic movement (2) : a later imitator or follower of such an artist
b (1) : a self-taught artist (2) : an artist whose work is marked by directness and naïveté
c : a work of art produced by a primitive artist
d : a typically rough or simple usually handmade and antique home accessory or furnishing
3 a : a member of a primitive people
b : an unsophisticated person
The museum is known for its collection of American primitives.





: something that encourages a person to do something or to work harder
Full Definition
: something that incites or has a tendency to incite to determination or action
synonyms see motive
incentive adjective
the handsome reward for the missing dog was an incentive for me to start looking
Origin: Middle English, from Late Latin incentivum, from neuter of incentivus stimulating, from Latin, setting the tune, from incentus, past participle of incinere to play (a tune), from in- + canere to sing — more at chant.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: boost, encouragement, goad, impetus, impulse, incitation, incitement, instigation, momentum, motivation, provocation, spur, stimulant, stimulus, yeast



transitive verb
: to give information to (someone)
Full Definition
: to give notice to : tell
synonyms see inform
Other forms: ap·prised; ap·pris·ing
let me apprise you of the current situation
Origin: French appris, past participle of apprendre to learn, teach, from Old French aprendre.
First use: 1694



: to move or cause (someone) to move unsteadily from side to side
: to shock or surprise (someone) very much
: to arrange (things) in a series of different positions or times



: very peaceful, happy, and enjoyable
Full Definition
1 : pleasing or picturesque in natural simplicity
2 : of, relating to, or being an idyll
idyl·li·cal·ly \-ˈdi-li-k(ə-)lē\ adverb



: to repair and make improvements to (something, such as a building)
Full Definition
: to brighten or freshen up : renovate
re·fur·bish·er noun



: of or relating to the government of a city or town
Full Definition
1 : of or relating to the internal affairs of a major political unit (as a nation)
2 a : of, relating to, or characteristic of a municipality
b : having local self-government
3 : restricted to one locality
Origin: Latin municipalis of a municipality, from municip-, municeps inhabitant of a municipality, from munus duty, service + capere to take — more at mean, heave.
First use: circa 1540
: a security issued by a state or local government or by an authority set up by such a government — usually used in plural



: the power to give orders or make decisions : the power or right to direct or control someone or something
: the confident quality of someone who knows a lot about something or who is respected or obeyed by other people
: a quality that makes something seem true or real

Synonyms: ace, adept, artist, expert, cognoscente, connoisseur, crackerjack (also crackajack), dab [chiefly British], dab hand [chiefly British], fiend, geek, guru, hand, hotshot, maestro, master, maven (also mavin), meister, past master, proficient, scholar, shark, sharp, virtuoso, whiz, wizard



: someone who teaches or gives help and advice to a less experienced and often younger person



: a person who is skilled in making plans for achieving a goal : someone who is good at forming strategies



: something that is the result of an action, decision, etc.



: a kind of court that has authority in a specific area



: an official order given by someone who has power : an order that must be followed
Synonyms: bull, decree, diktat, directive, edict, rescript, ruling, ukase



: a category of products that are all made by a particular company and all have a particular name
: a particular kind or type ofsomething
: a mark that is burned into the skin of an animal (such as a cow) to show who owns the animal

Synonyms: trademark



: to bring (a memory, feeling, image, etc.) into the mind
: to cause (a particular reaction or response) to happen



: the highest adult male singing voice ; also : a singer who has such a voice
: the general or basic quality or meaning of something



: not important



: strange and mysterious
Synonyms: creepy, haunting, spookish, spooky, uncanny, unearthly, weird