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Luddite

: one of a group of early 19th century English workmen destroying laborsaving machinery as a protest; broadly : one who is opposed to especially technological change
Luddite adjective
Origin: perhaps from Ned Ludd, 18th century Leicestershire workman who destroyed a knitting frame.
First use: 1811

1

Subterranean

: located or living under the surface of the ground
: existing or working in secret
Synonyms: subsurface, belowground, underground
Antonyms: aboveground, surface

2

Radical

: very new and different from what is traditional or ordinary
: very basic and important
: having extreme political or social views that are not shared by most people

3

Prefigure

: to show or suggest (something that will happen or exist at a future time)

4

Egalitarian

: aiming for equal wealth, status, etc., for all people
Full Definition
: asserting, promoting, or marked by egalitarianism
egalitarian noun
Origin: French égalitaire, from égalité equality, from Latin aequalitat-, aequalitas, from aequalis equal.
First use: 1885

5

Whimsy

: a playful or amusing quality : a sense of humor or playfulness
Full Definition
1 : whim, caprice
2 : the quality or state of being whimsical or fanciful s latest whimsy is that she has acting talent
Variants: also whim·sey \ˈhwim-zē, ˈwim-\
Origin: irregular from whim-wham.
First use: 1605
Synonyms: bee, caprice, crank, fancy, freak, humor, kink, maggot, megrim, notion, vagary, vagrancy, whim (also whimsey)

6

Insular

: separated from other people or cultures : not knowing or interested in new or different ideas
Full Definition
1 a : of, relating to, or constituting an island
b : dwelling or situated on an island
2 : characteristic of an isolated people; especially : being, having, or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint
3 : of or relating to an island of cells or tissue
in·su·lar·ism \-lə-ˌri-zəm\ noun
in·su·lar·i·ty \ˌin(t)-su̇-ˈla-rə-tē, -syu̇-, ˌin-shə-ˈla-\ noun
in·su·lar·ly \ˈin(t)-su̇-lər-lē, -syu̇-, ˈin-shə-\ adverb
Examples
an insular community that is not receptive of new ideas, especially from outsiders
Origin: Late Latin insularis, from Latin insula island.
First use: 1611
Synonyms: illiberal, narrow, Lilliputian, little, narrow-minded, parochial, petty, picayune, provincial, sectarian, small, small-minded
Antonyms: broad-minded, catholic, cosmopolitan, liberal, open, open-minded, receptive, tolerant

7

Dichotomy

di·chot·o·my\dī-ˈkä-tə-mē also də-\
noun
: a difference between two opposite things : a division into two opposite groups
Full Definition
1 : a division into two especially mutually exclusive or contradictory groups or entities ; also : the process or practice of making such a division
2 : the phase of the moon or an inferior planet in which half its disk appears illuminated
3 a : bifurcation; especially : repeated bifurcation (as of a plant's stem)
b : a system of branching in which the main axis forks repeatedly into two branches
c : branching of an ancestral line into two equal diverging branches
4 : something with seemingly contradictory qualities
Other forms: plural di·chot·o·mies
Examples
her outfit is a sartorial dichotomy: an elegant gown and ratty old tennis shoes
Origin: Greek dichotomia, from dichotomos (see dichotomous ).
First use: 1610
Synonyms: contradiction, incongruity, paradox

8

Sartorial

: of or relating to clothes
Full Definition
: of or relating to a tailor or tailored clothes; broadly : of or relating to clothes
sar·to·ri·al·ly \-ē-ə-lē\ adverb
Origin: Medieval Latin sartor.
First use: 1823

9

Punitive

: intended to punish someone or something
: extremely or unfairly severe or high
Full Definition
: inflicting, involving, or aiming at punishment
pu·ni·tive·ly adverb
pu·ni·tive·ness noun
Examples
any misbehavior was immediately met with a punitive response
the company had to pay a million dollars in punitive damages
Origin: French punitif, from Medieval Latin punitivus, from Latin punitus, past participle of punire.
First use: 1624
Synonyms: castigating, chastening, chastising, correcting, correctional, corrective, disciplinary, disciplining, penal, penalizing

10

Acumen

acu·men\ə-ˈkyü-mən, ˈa-kyə-mən\
noun
: the ability to think clearly and make good decisions
Full Definition
: keenness and depth of perception, discernment, or discrimination especially in practical matters
synonyms see discernment
Examples
had the business acumen to know that the market for sportswear was becoming oversaturated
Origin: Latin acumin-, acumen, literally, point, from acuere.
First use: circa 1579
Synonyms: astuteness, caginess (also cageyness), canniness, clear-sightedness, foxiness, hardheadedness, intelligence, keenness, knowingness, sharpness, shrewdness, wit

11

Unfettered

: not controlled or restricted
Full Definition
: free, unrestrained
First use: 1601

12

Capitalism

: a way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government
Full Definition
: an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market

13

Inordinate

: going beyond what is usual, normal, or proper
Full Definition
1 archaic : disorderly, unregulated
2 : exceeding reasonable limits : immoderate
synonyms see excessive
in·or·di·nate·ly adverb
in·or·di·nate·ness noun
Examples
an inordinate number of complaints about the slow pace of snow removal around the city
Origin: Middle English inordinat, from Latin inordinatus, from in- + ordinatus, past participle of ordinare to arrange — more at ordain.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: baroque, devilish, exorbitant, extravagant, extreme, fancy, immoderate, excessive, insane, intolerable, lavish, overdue, overextravagant, overmuch, overweening, plethoric, steep, stiff, towering, unconscionable, undue, unmerciful

14

Labyrinthine


adjective
1 : of, relating to, or resembling a labyrinth : intricate, involved
2 : of, relating to, affecting, or originating in the internal ear
Examples
the labyrinthine politics of Central Europe left us totally befuddled
First use: 1632
Synonyms: baroque, byzantine, complicate, complicated, convoluted, daedal, elaborate, intricate, involute, involved, knotty, labyrinthian, complex, sophisticated, tangled

15

Behemoth

: something very big and powerful
Synonyms: giant, blockbuster, colossus, dinosaur, dreadnought, elephant, Goliath, jumbo, leviathan, mammoth, mastodon, monster, titan, whale, whopper

16

Protem

"for the time being"

17

Vituperative

transitive verb
: to abuse or censure severely or abusively : berate
intransitive verb
: to use harsh condemnatory language
synonyms see scold

18

Manifest

: able to be seen : clearly shown or visible
: easy to understand or recognize
Full Definition
1 : readily perceived by the senses and especially by the sense of sight
2 : easily understood or recognized by the mind : obvious
synonyms see evident
man·i·fest·ly adverb
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French or Latin; Anglo-French manifeste, from Latin manifestus caught in the act, flagrant, obvious, perhaps from manus + -festus (akin to Latin infestus hostile).
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: apparent, bald, bald-faced, barefaced, bright-line, broad, clear-cut, crystal clear, decided, distinct, evident, lucid, luculent, luminous, clear, nonambiguous, obvious, open-and-shut, palpable, patent, pellucid, perspicuous, plain, ringing, straightforward, transparent, unambiguous, unambivalent, unequivocal, unmistakable

19

Deadpan

: showing no feeling or emotion
Synonyms: catatonic, blank, empty, expressionless, impassive, inexpressive, numb, stolid, vacant

20

Depilation

: the removal of hair, wool, or bristles by chemical or mechanical methods

21

Arrogate

: to take or claim (something, such as a right or a privilege) in a way that is not fair or legal

22

Disdain

: a feeling of strong dislike or disapproval of someone or something you think does not deserve respect
Synonyms: contemptuousness, despisement, despite, despitefulness, contempt, misprision, scorn

23

Megalithic

: a very large stone used in ancient cultures as a monument or part of a building

24

Torrid

: very hot and usually dry
: showing or expressing very strong feelings especially of sexual or romantic desire
: very difficult, uncomfortable, or unpleasant

25

Muggy

: unpleasantly warm and humid
Synonyms: damp, humid, sticky, sultry

26

Quaint

: having an old-fashioned or unusual quality or appearance that is usually attractive or appealing
Synonyms: bizarre, bizarro, cranky, crazy, curious, eccentric, erratic, far-out, funky, funny, kinky, kooky (also kookie), offbeat, off-kilter, off-the-wall, outlandish, out-of-the-way, outré, peculiar, odd, queer, queerish, quirky, remarkable, rum [chiefly British], screwy, spaced-out, strange, wacky (also whacky), way-out, weird, weirdo, wild

27

Calligraphy

: the art of making beautiful handwriting
Full Definition
1 a : artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering
b : the art of producing such writing
2 : penmanship
3 : an ornamental line in drawing or painting
cal·li·graph·ic \ˌka-lə-ˈgra-fik\ adjective
cal·li·graph·i·cal·ly \-fi-k(ə-)lē\ adverb
Examples
she specializes in scrollwork with beautiful calligraphy
Origin: French or Greek; French calligraphie, from Greek kalligraphia, from kalli- beautiful (from kallos beauty) + -graphia -graphy.
First use: 1604
Synonyms: handwriting, longhand, manuscript, penmanship, script

28

Artifact

: a simple object (such as a tool or weapon) that was made by people in the past
: an accidental effect that causes incorrect results

29

Insulae

In Roman architecture, an insula (Latin for "island," plural insulae) was a kind of apartment building that housed most of the urban citizen population of ancient Rome, including ordinary people of lower- or middle-class status (the plebs) and all but the wealthiest from the upper-middle class (the equites).

30

Harbinger

: something that shows what is coming
Synonyms: angel, foregoer, forerunner, herald, outrider, precursor
: to be a harbinger of : presage

31

Precursor

: something that comes before something else and that often leads to or influences its development
Synonyms: angel, foregoer, harbinger, herald, outrider, forerunner

32

Deluge

: a large amount of rain that suddenly falls in an area
: a situation in which a large area of land becomes completely covered with water
: a large amount of things that come at the same time
Synonyms: alluvion, bath, cataclysm, cataract, flood, flood tide, inundation, Niagara, overflow, spate, torrent

33

Decry

: to say publicly and forcefully that you regard (something) as bad, wrong, etc.

34

Churlish

: not polite
Synonyms: boorish, clownish, classless, cloddish, loutish, uncouth, surly, vulgar, intractable

35

Bilious

: having or causing a sick feeling in the stomach : feeling or causing nausea
: angry or bad-tempered
: very unpleasant to look at
Synonyms: acid, bearish, ill–tempered, bloody-minded [chiefly British], cantankerous, disagreeable, dyspeptic, ill-humored, ill-natured, ornery, splenetic, surly

36

Hail

1 : an exclamation of greeting or acclamation
2 : a calling to attract attention
3 : hearing distance

37

Bamboozle

: to trick or confuse (someone)
Dupe, hoodwink

38

Rattle


1 : to make a rapid succession of short sharp noises
2 : to chatter incessantly and aimlessly
3 : to move with a clatter or rattle; also : to be or move about in a place or station too large or grand
: a series of short, loud sounds
: a baby's toy that makes a series of short sounds when it is shaken
: the group of hard, loose pieces (called scales) that cover the end of a rattlesnake's tail

Synonyms: babel, blare, bluster, bowwow, brawl, bruit [archaic], cacophony, chatter, clamor, clangor, decibel(s), din, discordance, katzenjammer, racket, noise, roar

39

Defiance

: a refusal to obey something or someone : the act of defying someone or something

40

Permutation

: one of the many different ways or forms in which something exists or can be arranged

41

Immensity

: extremely great size
Synonyms: enormity, enormousness, giantism, gigantism, hugeness, immenseness, magnitude, massiveness, prodigiousness, vastitude, vastness

42

Enormity

: a shocking, evil, or immoral act
: great evil or wickedness
: great size
Synonyms: atrociousness, atrocity, badness, depravedness, depravity, diabolicalness, evilness, heinousness, hideousness, monstrosity, sinfulness, vileness, wickedness

43

Lexicon

: the words used in a language or by a person or group of people

44

Coddle

: to treat (someone) with too much care or kindness
Pamper

45

Indulge

: to allow (yourself) to have or do something as a special pleasure
: to allow (someone) to have or do something even though it may not be proper, healthy, appropriate, etc.
: to patiently allow (someone) to do or say something (pamper)

46

Debilitating (enfeebled)

: to make (someone or something) weak : to reduce the strength of (someone or something)

47

Callow

—used to describe a young person who does not have much experience and does not know how to behave the way adults behave
Synonyms: adolescent, green, immature, inexperienced, juvenile, puerile, raw, unfledged, unformed, unripe, unripened, wet behind the ears

48

Epistemology

: the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity

49

Redemption

: the act of making something better or more acceptable
: the act of exchanging something for money, an award, etc.
Christianity : the act of saving people from sin and evil : the fact of being saved from sin or evil

50

Refrain

: a phrase or verse that is repeated regularly in a poem or song
: a comment or statement that is often repeated (chorus)

: to stop yourself from doing something that you want to do (restrain)

51

As nauseam

: to a sickening or excessive degree

52

Collegial

1 : collegiate 2
2 a : marked by power or authority vested equally in each of a number of colleagues
b : characterized by equal sharing of authority especially by Roman Catholic bishops
3 : marked by camaraderie among colleagues
col·le·gial·ly adverb
Examples
company luncheons that are designed to instill a collegial spirit among coworkers
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: amicable, bonhomous, buddy-buddy, chummy, friendly, companionable, comradely, cordial, genial, hail-fellow, hail-fellow-well-met, hearty, matey [chiefly British], neighborly, palsy, palsy-walsy [slang], warm, warmhearted

53

Rake

a machine for gathering hay
1 : to gather, loosen, or smooth with or as if with a rake
2 : to gain rapidly or in abundance — usually used with in
3 a : to touch in passing over lightly
b : scratch, scrape
4 : to censure severely
5 : to search through : ransack
6 : to sweep the length of especially with gunfire : enfilade
7 : to glance over rapidly
8. 2 : inclination from the horizontal : slope
9. : a dissolute person : libertine

54

Dissolute

—used to describe someone (such as a person who often gets drunk) whose way of living is considered morally wrong
Synonyms: debased, debauched, decadent, degenerate, degraded, demoralized, depraved, dissipated, corrupt, jackleg, libertine, loose, perverse, perverted, rakehell (or rakehelly), rakish, reprobate, sick, unclean, unwholesome, warped

55

Harrow

1 : to cultivate with a harrow
2 : torment, vex

56

Debase

: to lower the value or reputation of (someone or something) : to make (someone or something) less respected

57

Nonplus

: to cause to be at a loss as to what to say, think, or do : perplex
synonyms see puzzle

58

Buoyed

: an object that floats on water in a lake, bay, river, etc., to show areas that are safe or dangerous for boats

59

Conceit

: too much pride in your own worth or goodness
: an idea that shows imagination

60

Boisterous

: very noisy and active in a lively way
Synonyms: hell-raising, knockabout, rambunctious, raucous, robustious, roisterous, rollicking, rowdy, rumbustious [chiefly British], wild and woolly

61

Overweening

: too confident or proud
: too great : excessive and unpleasant

62

Peccadillo

: a small mistake or fault that is not regarded as very bad or serious

63

Preen


1 of a bird : to groom with the bill especially by rearranging the barbs and barbules of the feathers and by distributing oil from the uropygial gland
2 : to dress or smooth (oneself) up : primp
3 : to pride or congratulate (oneself) on an achievementintransitive verb
1 : to make oneself sleek
2 : to behave or speak with obvious pride or self-satisfaction

64

Prophylactic

medical : designed to prevent disease

65

Coquettish

: a woman who likes to win the attention or admiration of men but does not have serious feelings for them

66

Pedestrian (quotidian

: not interesting or unusual
: relating to or designed for people who are walking

67

Eccentricity

: the quality of being strange or unusual in behavior
: an act or habit that is strange or unusual
Synonyms: crotchet, curiosity, idiosyncrasy, erraticism, individualism, kink, mannerism, oddity, peculiarity, quiddity, quip, quirk, singularity, tic, trick, twist

68

Banter


1 : to speak to or address in a witty and teasing manner

69

Pacific

: of, relating to, bordering on, or near the Pacific Ocean
: calm and peaceful
: loving peace : not wanting war or conflict
Synonyms: appeasing, conciliating, conciliatory, disarming, mollifying, pacifying, peacemaking, placating, placatory, propitiatory

70

Brusque

: talking or behaving in a very direct, brief, and unfriendly way
Synonyms: abrupt, bluff, blunt (also brusk), crusty, curt, downright, short, short-spoken, snippy, unceremonious

71

Berserk

1 : an ancient Scandinavian warrior frenzied in battle and held to be invulnerable
2 : one whose actions are recklessly defiant
: crazy and violent especially because of anger

72

Metastasize

: to spread or grow by or as if by metastasis
Metastasis means:
1 a : change of position, state, or form
b : the spread of a disease-producing agency (as cancer cells) from the initial or primary site of disease to another part of the body; also : the process by which such spreading occurs
2 : a secondary malignant tumor resulting from metastasis

73

Parlous

: full of danger or risk
Synonyms: grave, grievous, hazardous, jeopardizing, menacing, dangerous, perilous, risky, serious, threatening, unhealthy, unsafe, venturesome
Antonyms: harmless, innocent, innocuous, nonhazardous, nonthreatening, safe, unthreatening

74

Semiotic

: the study of signs and symbols and how they are used

75

Careen

to go forward quickly without control
Synonyms: rock, lurch, pitch, roll, seesaw, sway, toss, wobble (also wabble)

76

Trundled

: to roll (something) on wheels slowly and noisily
: to move noisily on wheels
: to walk slowly and heavily

77

Tarry

: to be slow in going : to stay somewhere

78

Transmute


: to completely change the form, appearance, or nature of (someone or something)
Synonyms: alchemize, make over, metamorphose, transfigure, transform, convert, transpose, transubstantiate

79

Fascist

: a way of organizing a society in which a government ruled by a dictator controls the lives of the people and in which people are not allowed to disagree with the government
: very harsh control or authority

80

Vainglorious

: having or showing too much pride in your abilities or achievements
Synonyms: assured, biggety (or biggity) [Southern&Midland], bigheaded, complacent, consequential, egoistic (also egoistical), egotistic (or egotistical), important, overweening, pompous, prideful, proud, self-conceited, self-important, self-opinionated, self-satisfied, smug, stuck-up, swellheaded, vain, conceited

81

Apposed

1 archaic : to put before : apply (one thing) to another
2 : to place in juxtaposition or proximity

82

Irascible

: becoming angry very easily : having a bad temper

83

Eremitic

: hermit; especially : a religious recluse
Synonyms: anchorite, recluse, hermit, isolate, solitary

84

Besmirch

: to cause harm or damage to (the reputation of someone or something)

85

Bleated

: to make the sound that a sheep or goat makes
: to speak or complain in an annoying way
Synonyms: beef, bellyache, bitch, complain, carp, caterwaul, crab, croak, fuss, gripe, grizzle, grouch, grouse, growl, grumble, grump, holler, inveigh, keen, kick, kvetch, maunder [chiefly British], moan, murmur, mutter, nag, repine, scream, squawk, squeal, wail, whimper, whine, whinge [British], yammer, yawp (or yaup), yowl

86

Postulate

: to suggest (something, such as an idea or theory) especially in order to start a discussion
: a statement that is accepted as being true and that is used as the basis of a theory, argument, etc.

Synonyms: given, hypothetical, if, assumption, premise (also premiss), presumption, presupposition, supposition

87

Oligarchy

: a country, business, etc., that is controlled by a small group of people
: the people that control a country, business, etc.
: government or control by a small group of people

88

Bemoan

: to say that you are unhappy about (something) : to complain about (something)

89

Rectitude

: the quality of being honest and morally correct

Synonyms: character, decency, goodness, honesty, integrity, probity, morality, righteousness, rightness, uprightness, virtue, virtuousness

90

Scruple

: to be unwilling to dosomething because you think it is improper, morally wrong, etc.
Full Definition
1 : to have scruples
2 : to show reluctance on grounds of conscience : hesitate
3.minute part or quantity : iota

91

Turpitude

: a very evil quality or way of behaving
tur·pi·tude\ˈtər-pə-ˌtüd, -ˌtyüd\
noun
: a very evil quality or way of behaving
Full Definition
: inherent baseness : depravity ; also : a base act
Examples
pictorial advertisements for chic clothing and fragrances in which drug addiction and other forms of moral turpitude are depicted as alternative fashion statements
Origin: Middle French, from Latin turpitudo, from turpis vile, base.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: abjection, corruptness, debasement, debauchery, decadence, decadency, degeneracy, degenerateness, degeneration, degradation, demoralization, depravity, dissipatedness, dissipation, dissoluteness, libertinage, libertinism, perversion, pervertedness, rakishness, corruption

92

Stopgap

: someone or something that is intended to be used for a short time and then replaced by someone or something better : a temporary substitute
Synonyms: expedient, makeshift

93

Consecrate

: dedicated to a sacred purpose
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: blessed (also blest), holy, consecrated, hallowed, sacral, sacred, sacrosanct, sanctified

94

Tumultuous

: loud, excited, and emotional
: involving a lot of violence, confusion, or disorder

95

Natty

: very neat and clean
Synonyms: dapper, smart, sharp, snappy, spruce

96

Tremulous

: shaking slightly especially because of nervousness, weakness, or illness
: feeling or showing a lack of confidence or courage
Synonyms: fainthearted, fearful, fearsome, mousy (or mousey), scary, skittish, timid, timorous, shy

97

Openhanded

: having or showing the quality of being very generous
: done with the hand held open
Synonyms: bighearted, bounteous, bountiful, charitable, free, freehanded, freehearted, fulsome, liberal, munificent, open, generous, unselfish, unsparing, unstinting

98

Ulterior

: kept hidden in order to get a particular result

99

Buttress

: a structure built against a wall in order to support or strengthen it

transitive verb
: to support, strengthen, or defend (something)
Full Definition
: to furnish or shore up with a buttress; also : support, strengthen

100

Blithe

: showing a lack of proper thought or care : not caring or worrying
: happy and without worry
Synonyms: cheerful, blithesome, bright, buoyant, canty [British dialect], cheery, chipper, eupeptic, gay, gladsome, lightsome, sunny, upbeat, winsome

101

Chasten

: to cause (someone) to feel sad or embarrassed about something that has happened
Full Definition
1 : to correct by punishment or suffering : discipline; also : purify
2 a : to prune (as a work or style of art) of excess, pretense, or falsity : refine
b : to cause to be more humble or restrained : subdue
synonyms see punish