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0

Quell

: to end or stop (something) usually by using force
: to calm or reduce (something, such as fear or worry)

1

Swathes

: to wrap or cover (someone or something)

2

Virulence

: the quality or state of being virulent: as
a : extreme bitterness or malignity of temper : rancor
b : malignancy, venomousness
c : the relative capacity of a pathogen to overcome body defenses
Examples
I was surprised by the virulence of the criticism

3

Entente

1 : an international understanding providing for a common course of action
2 [French entente cordiale] : a coalition of parties to an entente

4

Apparatus

: a tool or piece of equipment used for specific activities
: the organization or system used for doing or operating something

5

Provenance

: the origin or source of something
Full Definition
1 : origin, source
2 : the history of ownership of a valued object or work of art or literature

6

Quip

: a clever remark
Full Definition
1 a : a clever usually taunting remark : gibe
b : a witty or funny observation or response usually made on the spur of the moment
2 : quibble, equivocation
3 : something strange, droll, curious, or eccentric : oddity
Examples
witty/amusing quips
They traded quips over a beer.

7

Outpost

: a large military camp that is in another country or that is far from a country's center of activity
: a small town in a place that is far away from other towns or cities

8

Squeamish

: afraid to deal with or do things that might hurt or offend people
: having an unpleasantly nervous or doubtful feeling
: easily shocked, offended, or disgusted by unpleasant things
Examples
the rolling of the ship made her squeamish
Synonyms: ill, nauseated, qualmish, queasy (also queazy), queer, queerish, sick, sickish, nauseous

9

warts–and–all

adjective
: showing defects or imperfections frankly : not idealized

10

Latitude

: an imaginary line that circles the Earth at a particular latitude and that is parallel to the equator
: freedom to choose how to act or what to do
Examples
the regulations regarding the pasteurization of dairy products don't allow for much latitude
the new laws gave the police more latitude in dealing with suspected criminals
Synonyms: slack, leeway, space, wiggle room

11

Magna Carta

1 : a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215 at Runnymede
2 : a document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges

12

Incongruous

: strange because of not agreeing with what is usual or expected
Examples
there's an incongruous modernism to the actor's performance in this period piece
incongruous theories about the origins of matter
Synonyms: amiss, graceless, improper, inapposite, inapt, inappropriate, incorrect, indecorous, inept, infelicitous, malapropos, perverse, unapt, unbecoming, unfit, unhappy, unseemly, unsuitable, untoward, wrong

13

Disseminate

: to cause (something, such as information) to go to many people
Examples
missionaries sent by their church to disseminate their faith

14

Ink

: to put ink on (something)
: to sign (a document) to show that you accept or agree with what is written on it
: to hire (someone) to do something by having that person sign a contract

15

Blight


: to damage (plants) with a disease
: to damage (a thing or place)
Examples
The apple trees were blighted by fungus.
Builders blighted the land with malls and parking lots.
blighted areas of the city

16

Piqued

: to cause (curiosity or interest)
: to make (someone) annoyed or angry
The package piqued my curiosity.
Brightly colored objects pique a baby's interest.
I was piqued by his rudeness.

17

Verdant

: green with growing plants
unripe in experience or judgment
Synonyms: green, grown, leafy, luxuriant, overgrown, lush, inexperience

18

Explicate

: to explain or analyze (something, such as an idea or work of literature)
Examples
the physicist did his best to explicate the wave theory of light for the audience of laymen

19

Abridge

: to shorten (a book, a play, etc.) by leaving out some parts
: to lessen the strength or effect of (something, such as a right)
Examples
abridge a dictionary by omitting rare/uncommon words
unlawful attempts to abridge freedom of speech
an abridged dictionary

20

Prodigy

: a young person who is unusually talented in some way
Full Definition
1 a : a portentous event : omen
b : something extraordinary or inexplicable
2 a : an extraordinary, marvelous, or unusual accomplishment, deed, or event
b : a highly talented child or youth
Other forms: plural prod·i·gies
Examples
a new drug that is being hailed as the latest prodigy of the medical world

21

Exogenous

Factors outside the system

22

Intramural

: existing or occurring within a particular group or organization (such as a school)
Full Definition
1 a : being or occurring within the limits usually of a community, organization, or institution
b : competed only within the student body
2 : situated or occurring within the substance of the walls of an organ

23

Varsity

: the main team of a college, school, or club in a particular sport

24

Quandary

: a situation in which you are confused about what to do
Full Definition
: a state of perplexity or doubt
Other forms: plural quan·da·ries
Examples
I'm in a quandary about whether I should try to repair my stereo or buy a new one, even though I don't have the money to do either

25

Freight

: goods that are carried by ships, trains, trucks, or airplanes
: the system by which goods are carried from one place to another
: the amount of money paid for carrying goods
trains that carry both passengers and freight
The freight arrived by steamboat.
The order was shipped by freight.
Synonyms: burden, cargo, draft, load, haul, lading, loading, payload, weight

26

Ham-handed

: awkward or clumsy
Full Definition
: lacking dexterity or grace : heavy-handed

27

Fritter


transitive verb
1 : to spend or waste bit by bit, on trifles, or without commensurate return — usually used with away
2 : to break into small fragmentsintransitive verb
: dissipate, dwindle
frit·ter·er \-tər-ər\ noun
Examples
He frittered the afternoon away.
He frittered away his fortune on gambling.

28

Veer


intransitive verb
1 : to change direction or course
2 of the wind : to shift in a clockwise direction — compare back
3 of a ship : to change course by turning the stern to the windtransitive verb
: to direct to a different course; specifically : wear 7
synonyms see swerve
India's polity is veering powerfully towards the youth and fresh faces.

29

Beleaguered

: to cause constant or repeated trouble for (a person, business, etc.)
Full Definition
1 : besiege
2 : trouble, harass

30

Sardonic

31

Invective

: of, relating to, or characterized by insult or abuse

32

Paranoia

medical : a serious mental illness that causes you to falsely believe that other people are trying to harm you
: an unreasonable feeling that people are trying to harm you, do not like you, etc.

33

Mysticism

: a religious practice based on the belief that knowledge of spiritual truth can be gained by praying or thinking deeply

34

Allegory

: a story in which the characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation

35

Occult

: to shut off from view or exposure : cover, eclipse
oc·cult·er noun

36

Sedulous

37

Stipulate


: to demand or require (something) as part of an agreement
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 : to make an agreement or covenant to do or forbear something : contract
2 : to demand an express term in an agreement — used with for

38

Notwithstanding

In spite of

39

cohort

: a friend or companion
: a group of people used in a study who have something (such as age or social class) in common

40

Euphemistically

: to express or describe euphemistically

41

Gore

Gruesome. Bloodshed

42

Espionage

: the things that are done to find out secrets from enemies or competitors : the activity of spying

43

Concerted

: done in a planned and deliberate way usually by several or many people

44

Probate

: the process of proving in court that the will of a person who has died is valid
Full Definition
1 a : the action or process of proving before a competent judicial authority that a document offered for official recognition and registration as the last will and testament of a deceased person is genuine
b : the judicial determination of the validity of a will
2 : the officially authenticated copy of a probated will
Origin: Middle English probat, from Latin probatum, neuter of probatus, past participle of probare.
First use: 15th century
2pro·bate\-ˌbāt\
transitive verb
law : to prove that (a will) is valid before a probate court
Full Definition
1 : to establish (a will) by probate as genuine and valid
2 : to put (a convicted offender) on probation
Other forms: pro·bat·ed; pro·bat·ing
Examples
The court will probate the will.
The will was probated.
First use: 1570

45

Bellicose

: having or showing a tendency to argue or fight

46

Amputee

: a person who has had an arm or leg amputated

47

Lobby

: to try to influence government officials to make decisions for or against something
: to try to get something you want by talking to the people who make decisions

48

Bootleg

: an illegal copy of a video, CD, etc., or an illegal recording of a live performance
: alcohol that is made or sold illegally

49

Repeal

: to officially make (a law) no longer valid
Full Definition
1 : to rescind or annul by authoritative act; especially : to revoke or abrogate by legislative enactment
2 : abandon, renounce
3 obsolete : to summon to return : recall

50

Pummel

: to repeatedly hit or punch (someone or something) very hard
Full Definition
: pound, beat

51

Legions

: very many or numerous
Synonyms: beaucoup [slang], many, multifold, multiple, multiplex, multitudinous, numerous

: a large group of soldiers in ancient Rome
: a large group of soldiers
: a national organization for former soldiers
Synonyms: array, battalion, host, army

52

Splice

1 a : to unite (as two ropes) by interweaving the strands
b : to unite (as lengths of magnetic tape) by overlapping and securing together two ends
2 : to unite, link, or insert as if by splicing
3 : to combine or insert (as genes) by genetic engineering

53

Bipartisan

: relating to or involving members of two political parties

54

Embezzle

: to steal money that you have been trusted with
Full Definition
: to appropriate (as property entrusted to one's care) fraudulently to one's own use

55

Marginalizing

: to put or keep (someone) in a powerless or unimportant position within a society or group
Full Definition
: to relegate to an unimportant or powerless position within a society or group
Other forms: mar·gin·al·ized; mar·gin·al·iz·ing
mar·gin·al·i·za·tion \ˌmärj-nə-lə-ˈzā-shən, ˌmär-jə-nəl-ə-\ noun
First use: 1970

56

Genesis

gen·e·sis\ˈje-nə-səs\
noun
: the beginning of something
Full Definition
: the origin or coming into being of something
Other forms: plural gen·e·ses\-ˌsēz\
Examples
was present at the meeting which was later considered the genesis of the new political movement
Origin: Latin, from Greek, from gignesthai to be born — more at kin.
First use: circa 1604
Synonyms: alpha, baseline, birth, commencement, dawn, day one, beginning, get-go (also git-go), inception, incipience, incipiency, kickoff, launch, morning, nascence, nascency, onset, outset, start, threshold
Antonyms: close, conclusion, end, ending, omega

57

Immure

im·mure\i-ˈmyu̇r\
transitive verb
1 a : to enclose within or as if within walls
b : imprison
2 : to build into a wall; especially : to entomb in a wall
Other forms: im·mured; im·mur·ing
im·mure·ment \-ˈmyu̇r-mənt\ noun
Examples
scientists at the research station in Alaska are immured by the frozen wastelands that surround them
immured by a controlling, possessive mother, the young woman had no outside social life
Origin: Medieval Latin immurare, from Latin in- + murus wall — more at munition.
First use: 1583

58

Anecdote

an·ec·dote\ˈa-nik-ˌdōt\
noun
: a short story about an interesting or funny event or occurrence
Full Definition
: a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident
Other forms: plural anecdotes also an·ec·dota \ˌa-nik-ˈdō-tə\
Examples
told us once again that anecdote about the dog and the bike
Origin: French, from Greek anekdota unpublished items, from neuter plural of anekdotos unpublished, from a- + ekdidonai to publish, from ex out + didonai to give — more at ex-, date.
First use: circa 1721
Synonyms: story, tale, yarn

59

Efface

: to cause (something) to fade or disappear
Full Definition
1 : to eliminate or make indistinct by or as if by wearing away a surface ; also : to cause to vanish
2 : to make (oneself) modestly or shyly inconspicuous
Other forms: ef·faced; ef·fac·ing
ef·face·able \-ˈfā-sə-bəl\ adjective
ef·face·ment \-ˈfās-mənt\ noun
ef·fac·er noun
Examples
when the supply ship finally arrived, it discovered that virtually all evidence of the colony at Roanoke had been effaced
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French esfacer, effacer, from e- + face face.

60

Anomaly

: something that is unusual or unexpected : something anomalous
Full Definition
1 : the angular distance of a planet from its perihelion as seen from the sun
2 : deviation from the common rule : irregularity
3 : something anomalous : something different, abnormal, peculiar, or not easily classified
Other forms: plural anom·a·lies
Examples
her C grade is an anomaly, as she's never made anything except A's and B's before
snow in July is an anomaly in most of the northern hemisphere
Origin: (see anomalous ).
First use: 1603
Synonyms: aberration, abnormality, exception, oddity, oddment, rarity
Antonyms: average, norm, normal, par, standard

61

Overture

: a piece of music played at the start of an opera, a musical play, etc.
: something that is offered or suggested with the hope that it will start a relationship, lead to an agreement, etc.
: the first part of an event : the beginning of something
Full Definition
1 a : an initiative toward agreement or action : proposal
b : something introductory : prelude
2 a : the orchestral introduction to a musical dramatic work
b : an orchestral concert piece written especially as a single movement in sonata form
Origin: Middle English, literally, opening, from Anglo-French, from Vulgar Latin *opertura, alteration of Latin apertura — more at aperture.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: curtain-raiser, prelude, preamble, preliminary, prologue (also prolog), warm-up
2overture
transitive verb
1 : to put forward as an overture
2 : to make or present an overture to
Other forms: overtured; overtur·ing

62

Fortitude

for·ti·tude\ˈfȯr-tə-ˌtüd, -ˌtyüd\
noun
: mental strength and courage that allows someone to face danger, pain, etc.
Full Definition
1 : strength of mind that enables a person to encounter danger or bear pain or adversity with courage
2 obsolete : strength
Examples
it was only with the greatest fortitude that the Pilgrims were able to survive their first winter in Plymouth
Origin: Middle English, from Latin fortitudin-, fortitudo, from fortis.
First use: 12th century
Synonyms: backbone, constancy, fiber, grit, grittiness, guts, intestinal fortitude, pluck, spunk
Antonyms: spinelessness

63

Fortuitous

: happening by chance
: having or showing good luck
Full Definition
1 : occurring by chance
2 a : fortunate, lucky
b : coming or happening by a lucky chance
synonyms see accidental
for·tu·itous·ly adverb
for·tu·itous·ness noun
Examples
your arrival just before the thunderstorm was fortuitous
firmly believes that the creation of the universe was something other than just the fortuitous coming together of particles of matter
Origin: Latin fortuitus; akin to Latin fort-, fors chance — more at fortune.
First use: 1653
Synonyms: fluky (also flukey), fortunate, happy, heaven-sent, lucky, providential
Antonyms: hapless, ill-fated, ill-starred, luckless, star-crossed, unfortunate, unhappy, unlucky
Usage: Sense 2a has been influenced in meaning by fortunate. It has been in standard if not elevated use for some 70 years, but is still disdained by some critics. Sense 2b, a blend of 1 and 2a, is virtually unnoticed by the critics. Sense 1 is the only sense commonly used in negative constructions.

64

Found

2found
adjective
1 : having all usual, standard, or reasonably expected equipment
2 : presented as or incorporated into an artistic work essentially as found
First use: 1793
3found
noun
: free food and lodging in addition to wages
First use: 1830
4found
transitive verb
1 : to take the first steps in building
2 : to set or ground on something solid : base
3 : to establish (as an institution) often with provision for future maintenance
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French funder, fonder, from Latin fundare, from fundus bottom — more at bottom.
First use: 13th century
5found
transitive verb
: to melt (as metal) and pour into a mold
Origin: Middle French fondre to pour, melt, from Latin fundere; akin to Old English gēotan to pour, Greek chein.

65

Confederacy

: a group of people, countries, organizations, etc., that are joined together in some activity or effort
: the group of 11 southern states that separated themselves from the U.S. during the American Civil War
Full Definition
1 : a league or compact for mutual support or common action : alliance
2 : a combination of persons for unlawful purposes : conspiracy
3 : the body formed by persons, states, or nations united by a league; specifically capitalized : the 11 southern states seceding from the United States in 1860 and 1861
Other forms: plural con·fed·er·a·cies
Examples
a confederacy of several small nations who had promised to come to one another's aid if any were attacked
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: alliance, axis, bloc, block, coalition, combination, combine, confederation, federation, league, union

66

Relativism

: the belief that different things are true, right, etc., for different people or at different times
Full Definition
1 a : a theory that knowledge is relative to the limited nature of the mind and the conditions of knowing
b : a view that ethical truths depend on the individuals and groups holding them
2 : relativity
rel·a·tiv·ist \-vist\ noun
First use: 1865

67

Facsimile

: an exact copy
Full Definition
1 : an exact copy
2 : a system of transmitting and reproducing graphic matter (as printing or still pictures) by means of signals sent over telephone lines
synonyms see reproduction
Examples
the family resemblance is so strong that the boy is virtually a pint-size facsimile of his father
this is not an antique copy of the Declaration of Independence but a modern facsimile
Origin: Latin fac simile make similar.
First use: 1691
Synonyms: alter ego, carbon, carbon copy, clone, counterpart, doppelgänger (or doppelganger), double, duplicate, duplication, image, fetch, likeness, look-alike, match, mirror image, picture, replica, ringer, spit, spitting image, twin

68

Embodiment

: someone or something that is a perfect representative or example of a quality, idea, etc.
Full Definition
1 : one that embodies something
2 : the act of embodying : the state of being embodied
Examples
Mother Theresa was often regarded as the embodiment of selfless devotion to others
First use: 1828
Synonyms: abstract, avatar, embodier, epitome, externalization, genius, icon (also ikon), image, incarnation, incorporation, instantiation, manifestation, objectification, personification, personifier

69

Conversant

: able to talk in a foreign language
Full Definition
1 archaic : having frequent or familiar association
2 archaic : concerned, occupied
3 : having knowledge or experience — used with with
Examples
a world traveler who is highly conversant with the customs of foreign cultures
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: abreast, acquainted, au courant, familiar, informed, knowledgeable, up, up-to-date, versed, well-informed
Antonyms: ignorant, unacquainted, unfamiliar, uninformed, unknowledgeable

70

Loan

: an amount of money that is given to someone for a period of time with a promise that it will be paid back : an amount of money that is borrowed
: permission to use something for a period of time
Full Definition
1 a : money lent at interest
b : something lent usually for the borrower's temporary use
2 a : the grant of temporary use
b : the temporary duty of a person transferred to another job for a limited time
3 : loanword
Examples
He took out a loan (from the bank) to pay for the car.
He got a car loan.
He'll need several more years to pay off/back the rest of the loan.
Origin: Middle English lon, from Old Norse lān; akin to Old English lǣn loan, lēon to lend, Latin linquere to leave, Greek leipein.
First use: 12th century
2loan
transitive verb
: to give (something) to (someone) for a period of time
: to give (money) to (someone) who agrees to pay it back in the future
Full Definition
: lend
loan·able \ˈlō-nə-bəl\ adjective
Examples
He loaned his car to me. = He loaned me his car.
The National Gallery has been kind enough to loan this painting to our museum.
The National Gallery loaned out the painting to another museum.
First use: 13th century
Usage: The verb loan is one of the words English settlers brought to America and continued to use after it had died out in Britain. Its use was soon noticed by British visitors and somewhat later by the New England literati, who considered it a bit provincial. It was flatly declared wrong in 1870 by a popular commentator, who based his objection on etymology. A later scholar showed that the commentator was ignorant of Old English and thus unsound in his objection, but by then it was too late, as the condemnation had been picked up by many other commentators. Although a surprising number of critics still voice objections, loan is entirely standard as a verb. You should note that it is used only literally; lend is the verb used for figurative expressions, such as “lending a hand” or “lending enchantment.”

71

Relinquish

: to give up (something) : to give (something, such as power, control, or possession) to another person or group
Full Definition
1 : to withdraw or retreat from : leave behind
2 : give up
3 a : to stop holding physically : release
b : to give over possession or control of : yield
re·lin·quish·ment \-mənt\ noun
Examples
the boy reluctantly relinquished the illegal fireworks to the police officer
the retiring CEO relinquished his position to the company's vice president with very mixed feelings
Origin: Middle English relinquisshen, from Anglo-French relinquiss-, stem of relinquir, from Latin relinquere to leave behind, from re- + linquere to leave — more at loan.
First use: 15th century
Synonym discussion: relinquish yield resign surrender abandon waive mean to give up completely. relinquish usually does not imply strong feeling but may suggest some regret, reluctance, or weakness . yield implies concession or compliance or submission to force . resign emphasizes voluntary relinquishment or sacrifice without struggle . surrender implies a giving up after a struggle to retain or resist . abandon stresses finality and completeness in giving up . waive implies conceding or forgoing with little or no compulsion .

72

Auspice

1 : observation by an augur especially of the flight and feeding of birds to discover omens
2 plural : kindly patronage and guidance
3 : a prophetic sign; especially : a favorable sign
Other forms: plural aus·pic·es \-pə-səz, -ˌsēz\
Examples
a program for inner-city youths that is under the auspices of a national corporation
interpreted the teacher's smile as an auspice that he would get an A on his presentation
Origin: Latin auspicium, from auspic-, auspex diviner by birds, from avis bird + specere to look, look at — more at aviary, spy.
First use: 1533
Synonyms: aegis (also egis), backing, patronage, sponsorship

73

Rejoinder

re·join·der\ri-ˈjȯin-dər\
noun
: a usually rude or angry reply to something written or said
Full Definition
1 : the defendant's answer to the plaintiff's replication
2 : reply; specifically : an answer to a reply
synonyms see answer
Examples
he always has a smart-aleck rejoinder to everything
Origin: Middle English rejoiner, from Anglo-French rejoinder, from rejoinder, verb.
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: comeback, answer, replication, reply, response, retort, return
Antonyms: inquiry, query, question

74

Salvage

: the act of saving something (such as a building, a ship, or cargo) that is in danger of being completely destroyed
: something (such as cargo) that is saved from a wreck, fire, etc.
Full Definition
1 a : compensation paid for saving a ship or its cargo from the perils of the sea or for the lives and property rescued in a wreck
b : the act of saving or rescuing a ship or its cargo
c : the act of saving or rescuing property in danger (as from fire)
2 a : property saved from destruction in a calamity (as a wreck or fire)
b : something extracted (as from rubbish) as valuable or useful
Origin: French, from Middle French, from salver to save — more at save.
First use: 1645
2salvage
transitive verb
: to remove (something) from a place so that it will not be damaged, destroyed, or lost
: to save (something valuable or important) : to prevent the loss of (something)
Full Definition
: to rescue or save especially from wreckage or ruin
Other forms: sal·vaged; sal·vag·ing
sal·vage·abil·i·ty \ˌsal-vi-jə-ˈbi-lə-tē\ noun
sal·vage·able \ˈsal-vi-jə-bəl\ adjective
sal·vag·er noun
Examples
Divers salvaged some of the sunken ship's cargo.
Few of their possessions were salvaged from the fire.
He is trying to salvage his marriage/reputation.

75

Confound

76

Embark


: to begin a journey especially on a ship or airplane
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 : to go on board a vehicle for transportation
2 : to make a start
transitive verb
1 : to cause to go on board (as a boat or airplane)
2 : to engage, enlist, or invest in an enterprise
em·bar·ka·tion \ˌem-ˌbär-ˈkā-shən, -bər-\ noun
em·bark·ment \im-ˈbärk-mənt\ noun
Origin: Middle French embarquer, from Old Occitan embarcar, from em- (from Latin in-) + barca bark.

77

Effect

: a change that results when something is done or happens : an event, condition, or state of affairs that is produced by a cause
: a particular feeling or mood created by something
: an image or a sound that is created in television, radio, or movies to imitate something real
Full Definition
1 a : purport, intent
b : basic meaning : essence
2 : something that inevitably follows an antecedent (as a cause or agent)
3 : an outward sign : appearance
4 : accomplishment, fulfillment
5 : power to bring about a result : influence
6 plural : movable property : goods
7 a : a distinctive impression
b : the creation of a desired impression
c (1) : something designed to produce a distinctive or desired impression — usually used in plural (2) plural : special effects
8 : the quality or state of being operative : operation
in effect : in substance : virtually
to the effect : with the meaning
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French & Latin; Anglo-French, from Latin effectus, from efficere to bring about, from ex- + facere to make, do — more at do.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: aftereffect, aftermath, backwash, child, conclusion, consequence, corollary, development, fate, fruit, issue, outcome, outgrowth, precipitate, product, result, resultant, sequel, sequence, upshot, matter of course
Antonyms: antecedent, causation, cause, occasion, reason
2ef·fect\i-ˈfekt, e-, ē-, ə-\
transitive verb
: to cause (something) : to make (something) happen
: to cause (something) to produce the desired result
Full Definition
1 : to cause to come into being
2 a : to bring about often by surmounting obstacles : accomplish
b : to put into operation
synonyms see perform
Examples
The president could not effect a change in policy.
They are trying to effect a settlement of the dispute.
The duty of the legislature is to effect the will of the people.
Origin: (see 1effect ).
First use: 1533
Usage: Effect and affect are often confused because of their similar spelling and pronunciation. The verb 2affect usually has to do with pretense . The more common 3affect denotes having an effect or influence .

78

Acute

: very serious or dangerous : requiring serious attention or action
: having or showing an ability to think clearly and to understand what is not obvious or simple about something
: very strong and sensitive : highly developed
Full Definition
1 a (1) : characterized by sharpness or severity (2) : having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course (3) : being, providing, or requiring short-term medical care (as for serious illness or traumatic injury)
b : lasting a short time
2 : ending in a sharp point: as
a : being or forming an angle measuring less than 90 degrees
b : composed of acute angles
3 a of an accent mark : having the form ´
b : marked with an acute accent
c : of the variety indicated by an acute accent
4 a : marked by keen discernment or intellectual perception especially of subtle distinctions
b : responsive to slight impressions or stimuli
5 : felt, perceived, or experienced intensely
6 : demanding urgent attention
Other forms: acut·er; acut·est
acute·ly adverb
acute·ness noun
Examples
an acute fuel shortage
an acute crisis
the acute phase of the struggle for independence
Origin: Middle English, from Latin acutus, past participle of acuere to sharpen, from acus needle; akin to Latin acer sharp — more at edge.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: delicate, fine, keen, perceptive, quick, sensitive, sharp
Antonyms: noncritical, nonurgent
Synonym discussion: acute critical crucial mean of uncertain outcome. acute stresses intensification of conditions leading to a culmination or breaking point . critical adds to acute implications of imminent change, of attendant suspense, and of decisiveness in the outcome . crucial suggests a dividing of the ways and often a test or trial involving the determination of a future course or direction
.

79

Patronize

: to give money or support to (someone or something)
: to talk to (someone) in a way that shows that you believe you are more intelligent or better than other people
: to be a frequent or regular customer or user of (a place)
Full Definition
1 : to act as patron of : provide aid or support for
2 : to adopt an air of condescension toward : treat haughtily or coolly
3 : to be a frequent or regular customer or client of
Other forms: pa·tron·ized; pa·tron·iz·ing
pa·tron·i·za·tion \ˌpā-trə-nə-ˈzā-shən, ˌpa-\ noun
pa·tron·iz·ing·ly \ˈpā-trə-ˌnī-ziŋ-lē, ˈpa-\ adverb
Examples
a director with an unpleasant habit of patronizing even his most gifted actors
a company that loyally patronizes the arts

80

Lurid

lu·rid\ˈlu̇r-əd\
adjective
: causing shock or disgust : involving sex or violence in a way that is meant to be shocking
: shining or glowing with a bright and unpleasant color
Full Definition
1 a : causing horror or revulsion : gruesome
b : melodramatic, sensational; also : shocking
2 a : wan and ghastly pale in appearance
b : of any of several light or medium grayish colors ranging in hue from yellow to orange
3 : shining with the red glow of fire seen through smoke or cloud
synonyms see ghastly
lu·rid·ly adverb
lu·rid·ness noun
Examples
we quickly drove past the lurid scene of the crash
the doctor was alarmed by the patient's lurid complexion
the lurid news reports about the romance between the two Hollywood stars
Origin: Latin luridus pale yellow, sallow.
First use: 1603
Synonyms: appalling, atrocious, awful, dreadful, frightful, ghastly, grisly, gruesome (also grewsome), hideous, horrendous, horrid, horrific, horrifying, horrible, macabre, monstrous, nightmare, nightmarish, shocking, terrible, terrific
Antonyms: blooming, florid, flush, full-blooded, glowing, red, rosy, rubicund, ruddy, sanguine

81

Repellent

82

Intriguing

in·trigu·ing\in-ˈtrē-giŋ\
adjective
: extremely interesting
Full Definition
: engaging the interest to a marked degree : fascinating
Examples
an intriguing concept that should engender much debate among climatologists
Origin: (see 1intrigue ).
First use: 1752
Synonyms: absorbing, arresting, consuming, engaging, engrossing, enthralling, fascinating, gripping, immersing, interesting, involving, riveting
Antonyms: boring, drab, dry, dull, heavy, monotonous, tedious, uninteresting

83

Wearisome

wea·ri·some\ˈwir-ē-səm\
adjective
: causing you to feel bored, annoyed, or impatient
Full Definition
: causing weariness : tiresome
wea·ri·some·ly adverb
wea·ri·some·ness noun
Examples
a wearisome lecture on civic responsibility
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: arid, colorless, drab, dreary, drudging, dry, dull, dusty, flat, heavy, ho-hum, humdrum, jading, jejune, leaden, mind-numbing, monochromatic, monotonous, numbing, old, pedestrian, ponderous, slow, stale, stodgy, stuffy, stupid, tame, tedious, tiresome, tiring, uninteresting, boring, weary, wearying
Antonyms: absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting

84

Colonize


: to create a colony in or on (a place) : to take control of (an area) and send people to live there
: to move into and live in (a place) as a new type of plant or animal
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 a : to establish a colony in or on or of
b : to establish in a colony
2 : to send illegal or irregularly qualified voters into
3 : to infiltrate with usually subversive militants for propaganda and strategy reasons
intransitive verb
: to make or establish a colony : settle
Other forms: col·o·nized; col·o·niz·ing
col·o·niz·er noun
Examples
citizens who were sent abroad to colonize the conquered lands
First use: 1622
Synonyms: settle, people, populate
Antonyms: depopulate, unpeople

85

Crustacean

: a type of animal (such as a crab or lobster) that has several pairs of legs and a body made up of sections that are covered in a hard outer shell

86

Quarry

1 obsolete : a heap of the game killed in a hunt
2 : game; specifically : game hunted with hawks
3 : one that is sought or pursued : prey
Other forms: plural quarries
Origin: Middle English quirre, querre entrails of game given to the hounds, from Anglo-French cureie, quereie, from quir, cuir skin, hide (on which the entrails were placed), from Latin corium — more at cuirass.
First use: 14th century
2quarry
noun
1 : an open excavation usually for obtaining building stone, slate, or limestone
2 : a rich source
Other forms: plural quarries
Origin: Middle English quarey, alteration of quarrere, from Anglo-French, from Vulgar Latin *quadraria, from Late Latin quadrus hewn (literally, squared) stone, from Latin quadrum square.
First use: 14th century
3quarry
: to dig or take (stone or other materials) from a quarry
: to make a quarry in (a place)
Full Definition
transitive verb
1 : to dig or take from or as if from a quarry
2 : to make a quarry in
intransitive verb
: to delve in or as if in a quarry
Other forms: quar·ried; quar·ry·ing
Examples
Limestone is quarried in this area.
The stone used for these buildings was quarried from a nearby site.
an area where workers are quarrying for limestone
First use: 1774
4quarry
noun
: a diamond-shaped pane of glass, stone, or tile

87

Rabbis

rab·bi\ˈra-ˌbī\
noun
: a person who is trained to make decisions about what is lawful in Judaism, to perform Jewish ceremonies, or to lead a Jewish congregation
Full Definition
1 : master, teacher — used by Jews as a term of address
2 : a Jew qualified to expound and apply the halacha and other Jewish law
3 : a Jew trained and ordained for professional religious leadership; specifically : the official leader of a Jewish congregation
Origin: Middle English, from Old English, from Late Latin, from Greek rhabbi, from Hebrew rabbī my master, from rabh master + -ī my.
First use: before 12th century

88

Discreet

: not likely to be seen or noticed by many people
Full Definition
1 : having or showing discernment or good judgment in conduct and especially in speech : prudent; especially : capable of preserving prudent silence
2 : unpretentious, modest
3 : unobtrusive, unnoticeable
dis·creet·ly adverb
dis·creet·ness noun
Examples
he was very discreet, only saying what was necessary
with a discreet gesture, she signalled to her husband that she was ready to leave the party
Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French discret, from Medieval Latin discretus, from Latin, past participle of discernere to separate, distinguish between — more at discern.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: intelligent, judgmatic (or judgmatical), judicious, prudent
Antonyms: imprudent, indiscreet, injudicious

89

Discrete

90

Procreate


: to produce children or offspring
Full Definition
transitive verb
: to beget or bring forth (offspring) : propagate
intransitive verb
: to beget or bring forth offspring : reproduce
Other forms: pro·cre·at·ed; pro·cre·at·ing
pro·cre·ation \ˌprō-krē-ˈā-shən\ noun
pro·cre·ative \ˈprō-krē-ˌā-tiv\ adjective
pro·cre·ator \-ˌā-tər\ noun
Examples
the common perception that our Puritan forebears procreated more out of a sense of duty than from desire
Origin: Latin procreatus, past participle of procreare, from pro- forth + creare to create — more at pro-, create.

91

Subsist


: to exist or continue to exist
Full Definition
intransitive verb
1 a : to have existence : be
b : persist, continue
2 : to have or acquire the necessities of life (as food and clothing); especially : to nourish oneself
3 a : to hold true
b : to be logically conceivable as the subject of true statementstransitive verb
: to support with provisions
Examples
a love that was as great as any that ever did subsist
Origin: Late Latin subsistere to exist, from Latin, to come to a halt, remain, from sub- + sistere to come to a stand; akin to Latin stare to stand — more at stand.
First use: 1549
Synonyms: breathe, exist, live, be
Antonyms: depart, die, expire, pass away, perish, succumb

92

Bypass

: a road that goes around a blocked or very crowded area
medical : a procedure done to allow blood to flow past a blocked blood vessel to reach the heart
Full Definition
1 : a passage to one side; especially : a deflected route usually around a town
2 a : a channel carrying a fluid around a part and back to the main stream
b (1) : shunt 1b (2) : shunt 1c; also : a surgical procedure for the establishment of a shunt
First use: 1848
2bypass
transitive verb
: to go around or avoid (a place or area)
: to avoid or ignore (someone or something) especially to get something done quicker
Full Definition
1 a : to avoid by means of a bypass
b : to cause to follow a bypass
2 a : to neglect or ignore usually intentionally
b : circumvent
Examples
To bypass the city, take the highway that circles it.
Is there a way to bypass the bridge construction?
He bypassed the manager and talked directly to the owner.

93

Notch

: a small cut that is shaped like a V and that is made on an edge or a surface
: a narrow passage between mountains
: a slightly higher or lower level in a series of levels that measure something
Full Definition
1 a : a V-shaped indentation
b : a slit made to serve as a record
c : a rounded indentation cut into the pages of a book on the edge opposite the spine
2 : a deep close pass : gap
3 : degree, step
notched \ˈnächt\ adjective
Examples
Cut small notches at the corners of the fabric.
The tool has a notch for prying out nails.
The town is on the other side of the notch.
Origin: perhaps alteration (from misdivision of an otch) of *otch, from Middle French oche.
First use: 1577
Synonyms: chip, hack, indent, indentation, indenture, kerf, nick
2notch
transitive verb
: to make a small cut in (something, such as wood) : to make a notch in (something)
: to achieve or get (something)
Full Definition
1 : to cut or make a notch in
2 a : to mark or record by a notch
b : score, achieve — sometimes used with up
Examples
Notch the ends so that they fit together.
He notched his fifth victory this year.
The team notched up another win in yesterday's game.

94

Crenelated

95

Preside

: to be in charge of something (such as a trial)
Full Definition
1 : to exercise guidance, direction, or control
2 a : to occupy the place of authority : act as president, chairman, or moderator
b : to occupy a position similar to that of a president or chairman
3 : to occupy a position of featured instrumental performer — usually used with at
Other forms: pre·sid·ed; pre·sid·ing
pre·sid·er noun
Origin: Latin praesidēre to guard, preside over, from prae- + sedēre to sit — more at sit.

96

Rein

: a strap that is fastened to a device (called a bridle) placed on the head of an animal (such as a horse) and that is used to guide and control the animal
: the ability to limit or control something
: the power to guide or control someone or something
Full Definition
1 : a strap fastened to a bit by which a rider or driver controls an animal — usually used in plural
2 a : a restraining influence : check
b : controlling or guiding power — usually used in plural
3 : opportunity for unhampered activity or use
Examples
The rider pulled on the reins to stop his horse.
We need to keep a rein on our spending.
He has people working for him, but he has/keeps a tight rein on every part of the process.
Origin: Middle English reine, from Anglo-French resne, reine, from Vulgar Latin *retina, from Latin retinēre to restrain — more at retain.
First use: 14th century
Synonyms: chair, driver's seat, headship, helm, rein(s)
Antonyms: impotence, impotency, powerlessness
2rein
transitive verb
1 : to control or direct with or as if with reins
2 : to check or stop by or as if by a pull at the reins s horse or oneself by or as if by pulling the reins
Examples
Congress must rein in spending.
You had better rein that kid in before she gets hurt.
The rider reined in his horse.

97

Barring

—used to say that something will happen unless something else happens
: other than (someone or something)
Full Definition
: excluding by exception : excepting
Examples
we'll be there, barring rain or some other unexpected problem
First use: 15th century
Synonyms: apart from, aside from, bar, except, beside, besides, but, except for, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside, outside of, save, saving

98

Consign

99

Recused

: to disqualify (oneself) as judge in a particular case; broadly : to remove (oneself) from participation to avoid a conflict of interest
Other forms: re·cused; re·cus·ing
re·cus·al \-ˈkyü-zəl\ noun
Origin: Middle English, to refuse, reject, from Anglo-French recuser, from Latin recusare.