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Anatomy > Forearm and Hand > Flashcards

Flashcards in Forearm and Hand Deck (129):
1

Proximal Row of Carpal Bones (lat-med)

Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform

2

Distal Row of Carpal Bones (lat-med)

Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

3

3 Parts of Metacarpal

Base, body, head

4

3 Phalanges

Proximal, middle, distal

5

Extensor Retinaculum (2)

Transverse ligament on posterior surface of wrist that holds tendons down
Has 6 tendon compartments w/ synovial sheaths

6

Transverse carpal ligament

Ligament on anterior surface of wrist that forms the carpal tunnel that tendons + median nerve run through

7

3 Phalangeal Joints

Metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal

8

4 Muscles of the Superficial Group of Flexor Forearm (lat-med)

Pronator teres
Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris

9

Origin of Superficial Flexor Forearm Muscles

Common tendon at the medial epicondyle

10

Palmar Aponeurosis

Thickening on palm

11

Middle Group Muscle of Flexor Forearm

Flexor digitorum superficialis

12

3 Muscles of Deep Group of Flexor Forearm (lat-med)

Flexor pollicis longus
Flexor digitorum profundus
Pronator quadratus muscles

13

Origin of Deep Group of Flexor Forearm (2)

Ulna and interosseus membrane

14

Innervation of Flexors of the Forearm (3)

By the median n.
Exceptions: flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus (ulnar nerve)
Superficial and middle group innervated directly by median n., deep by anterior interosseous branch of median n.

15

5 Branchings of Radial Artery

Radial recurrent artery
Muscular branch - superficial extensors
Palmar carpal branch
Superficial palmar branch
Deep palmar arch

16

Radial Pulse

Can feel pulse from radial a. as it dives deep on lateral side to go to deep palmar arch

17

Common interosseous artery

Comes off ulnar a., splits around interosseous membrane to form anterior and posterior interosseous arteries. Supplies deep part of flexor and all of extensor region (via posterior interosseous)

18

6 Branchings of Ulnar Artery

Ulnar recurrent arteries (ant. and post.)
Common interosseous a.
Muscular Branches - superficial flexors
Dorsal and Palmar Carpal Branches
Superficial Palmar Arch
Deep Palmar Arch

19

Posterior Interosseous Artery (3)

Comes off common interosseous artery, supplies deep extensors, and gives off interosseous recurrent artery

20

Anterior Interosseous Artery (3)

Comes off common interosseous artery, has post. and ant. branch, and supplies deep flexors

21

Median Artery

Anomalous a. that sometimes comes off brachial or radial a. and follows median nerve down

22

6 Muscles of Superficial Group of Extensor Forearm (lat-med)

Brachioradialis
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor digitorum
Extensor digiti minimi
Extensor carpi ulnaris

23

Origin of Superficial Group of Extensor Forearm

Common tendon at lateral epicondyle

24

5 Muscles of Deep Group of Extensor Forearm (lat-med)

Supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indicis muscles

25

3 Structures of the Phalangeal Insertions (& descriptions)

Extensor expansion - tendons going into the phallanges
Extensor hood - sheath covering these tendons
Intertendinous connections - connections between tendons of adjacent digits that impede individual movement

26

Innervation of Extensor Forearm (4)

Radial nerve innervates all extensor forearm muscles
Superficial nerve - cutaneous
Deep nerve - muscular
Posterior interosseous nerve - muscular

27

Radial Artery Supplies and Branches in Hand (4)

Superficial extensor muscles
Dorsal carpal artery
1st dorsal metacarpal artery
Deep palmer arch

28

Radial Artery Activities in Hand (3)

Gives off dorsal carpal arch that gives off dorsal metacarpal arteries (supplying digits) and dives through to form deep palmar arch

29

3 Thenar Compartment Muscles

Lateral: abductor pollicis brevis
Medial: flexor pollicis brevis
Deep: Opponens pollicis

30

Innervation of Thenar Compartment Muscles

Recurrent branch of median nerve

31

5 Items of the Central Compartment

Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Superficialis/Profundus
Vincula longa and brevia
Lumbrical muscles
Adductor pollicis muscle
Interosseous muscle

32

Palmar interosseous muscles

Unipenate adductors on 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits

33

Dorsal interosseous muscles

Bipenate abductors for 2nd, 3rd (2), and 4th digits

34

3 Muscles of Hypothenar Compartment

Abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti minimi

35

Cutaneous Innervation of Hand - Median Nerve (3)

Radial half of palm to radial side of 4th digit
Overlaps digits to nailbeds on dorsal hand
Palmar cutaneous branch innervates thenar eminence

36

4 Muscular Innervations of Median Nerve in Hand

Lateral lumbrical muscles
Thenar muscles - opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis

37

Cutaneous Innervation of Hand - Ulnar Nerve - (2)

All of 5th digit and medial half of 4th digit
On both palmar and dorsal hand

38

6 Muscular Innervations of Ulnar Nerve in Hand

Medial lumbrical muscles
Hypothenar muscles - abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti minimi
Adductor pollicis muscle
7 Interosseous Muscles

39

Ulnar Artery Blood Supply to the Hand (5)

Has palmar and dorsal carpal branches. and a deep palmar branch. The rest mainly forms the superficial palmar arch, which gives rise to the common palmar digital arteries going to the digits which split into the proper palmar digital arteries lining the digits

40

Radial Artery Blood Supply to the Hand (6)

Has a palmar carpal branch, and a superficial palmar branch that anastomoses with superficial palmar arch from the ulnar artery. Mainly forms the deep palmar arch which gives rise to the palmar metacarpal arteries. Also has two specialized branches: princeps pollicis artery and radialis indicis artery.

41

Pronator teres nerve

Median

42

Pronator teres origin

Medial epicondyle of humerus

43

Pronator teres insertion

Lateral surface of radius

44

Pronator teres action

Pronates forearm

45

Pronator quadratus nerve

Median - anterior interosseous nerve

46

Pronator quadratus origin

Medial, anterior, distal ulna

47

Pronator quadratus insertion

Lateral, anterior, distal radius

48

Pronator quadratus action

Primary pronator of forearm

49

Flexor carpi radialis nerve

Median

50

Flexor carpi radialis origin

Medial epicondyle of humerus

51

Flexor carpi radialis insertion

Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

52

Flexor carpi radialis action

Flexes wrist and abducts hand

53

Flexor carpi ulnaris nerve

Ulnar

54

Flexor carpi ulnaris origin (2)

Humeral head - medial epicondyle
Ulnar head - olecranon process and proximal posterior ulna

55

Flexor carpi ulnaris insertion (3)

Pisiform, hook of hamate, and base of 5th metacarpal

56

Flexor carpi ulnaris action

Flexes wrist and adducts hand

57

Palmaris longus nerve

Median

58

Palmaris longus origin

Medial epicondyle

59

Palmaris longus insertion

Flexor retinaculum/palmar aponeurosis

60

Palmaris longus actions

Tenses palmar fascia

61

Flexor digitorum superficialis nerve

Median

62

Flexor digitorum superficialis origin (2)

Humeral head: medial epicondyle and medial margin of coronoid process

63

Flexor digitorum superficialis insertion

4 tendons - 2 slips each which enter into sides of middle phalanges of digits 2-5

64

Flexor digitorum superficialis action

Flexes wrist and middle phalanges

65

Flexor digitorum profundus nerves

Ulnar and Median

66

Flexor digitorum profundus origin

Anterior, medial, proximal ulna and interosseous membrane

67

Flexor digitorum profundus insertion

Four tendons into anterior surface of digits 2-5

68

Flexor digitorum profundus actions

Flexes distal phalangeal joints and assists in wrist flexion

69

Flexor pollicis longus nerve

Median

70

Flexor pollicis longus origin (2)

Anterior surface of radius, interosseous membrane

71

Flexor pollicis longus insertion

Palmar surface of base of distal phalanx of thumb

72

Flexor pollicis longus action

Flexes thumb

73

Supinator nerve

Radial

74

Supinator origin

Lateral epicondyle, radial collateral and annular ligaments

75

Supinator insertion

Lateral upper radius

76

Supinator action

Supinates forearm

77

Extensor carpi radialis longus nerve

Radial

78

Extensor carpi radialis longus origin

Lateral epicondyle

79

Extensor carpi radialis longus insertion

Base of 2nd metacarpal

80

Extensor carpi radialis longus action (2)

Extends wrist and abducts hand

81

Extensor carpi radialis brevis nerve

Radial

82

Extensor carpi radialis brevis origin

Lateral epicondyle, radial collateral ligament

83

Extensor carpi radialis brevis insertion

Base of 3rd metacarpal

84

Extensor carpi radialis brevis action (2)

Extends wrist and abducts hand

85

Extensor carpi ulnaris nerve

Radial

86

Extensor carpi ulnaris origin

Lateral epicondyle and posterior sulface of the ulna

87

Extensor carpi ulnaris insertion

Base of 5th metacarpal

88

Extensor carpi ulnaris action (2)

Extends wrist and adducts hand

89

Extensor digitorum nerve

Radial

90

Extensor digitorum origin

Lateral epicondyle

91

Extensor digitorum insertion

Extensor expansions of digits 2-5

92

Extensor digitorum actions

Extends fingers and hands

93

Extensor indicis nerve

Radial

94

Extensor indicis origin

Post. surface of ulna and interosseous membrane

95

Extensor indicis insertion

Extensor expansion of index finger

96

Extensor indicis action

Extends middle finger at metacarpophalangeal joint

97

Extensor digiti minimi nerve

Radial

98

Extensor digiti minimi origin

Lateral epicondyle

99

Extensor digiti minimi insertion

Extensor expansion of small finger

100

Extensor digiti minimi action

Extends small finger

101

Abductor pollicis longus nerve

Radial

102

Abductor pollicis longus origin (2)

Interosseous membrane, middle post. surfaces of radius and ulna

103

Abductor pollicis longus insertion

Base of 1st metacarpal

104

Abductor pollicis longus action

Abducts thumb

105

Extensor pollicis brevis nerve

Radial

106

Extensor pollicis brevis origin (2)

Post. interosseous membrane and middle radius

107

Extensor pollicis brevis insertion

Base of proximal phalanx of thumb

108

Extensor pollicis brevis action

Extends proximal phalanx of thumb

109

Extensor pollicis longus nerve

Radial

110

Extensor pollicis longus origin (2)

Post. interosseous membrane and middle ulna

111

Extensor pollicis longus insertion

Base of distal phalanx of thumb

112

Extensor pollicis longus action

Extends distal phalanx of thumb

113

Brachioradialis nerve

Radial

114

Brachioradialis origin

Lateral supracondylar ridge

115

Brachioradialis insertion

Styloid process of radius

116

Brachioradialis action

Flexes forearm

117

Abductor pollicis brevis nerve

Recurrent branch of median

118

Abductor pollicis brevis origin

Tubercle of trapezium and scaphoid

119

Abductor pollicis brevis insertion

Base of proximal phalanx of thumb

120

Abductor pollicis brevis action

Abducts and assists opposition of thumb

121

Flexor pollicis brevis nerve

Recurrent branch of the median

122

Flexor pollicis brevis origin

Flexor retinaculum and trapezium

123

Flexor pollicis brevis insertion

Radial side of base of proximal phalanx

124

Flexor pollicis brevis action

Flexes proximal phalanx of thumb

125

Opponens pollicis nerve

Recurrent branch of the median nerve

126

Opponens pollicis origin

Flexor retinaculum and trapezium

127

Opponens pollicis insertion

Anterior radial 1st metacarpal

128

Opponens pollicis action

Opposes thumb

129

Abductor digiti minimi nerve

Ulnar