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Flashcards in Neck Deck (81):
1

Atlas (2)

First cervical body
Lacks vertebral body

2

Dens (3)

Upward extension of axis/remnant of atlas vertebral body
Rotational pivot for head

3

Axis (2)

Second cervical vertebrae
Has dens coming off

4

Transverse Foremena (2)

Lateral extensions w/ holes on cervical vertebrae
Vertebral artery passes through

5

# of Cervical Vertebrae

7

6

Atlanto-occipital Joint (location and motion)

Between atlas and occipital bone
Allows head nodding

7

Atlanta-axial joint (location and motion)

Between atlas and axis
Allows shaking head in "no" motion

8

Tectorial Membrane

Extension of anterior vertebral ligament and inserts onto occipital base

9

Cruciform Ligaments (3)

Below tectorial membrane, extends from base of occipit to 2nd vertebrae, with supporting branch off each side

10

Alar and Apical Ligaments (3)

Supporting ligaments of cruciform ligaments that help support dens and check head rotation

11

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle (2)

Large muscle from mastoid down to sternum/clavicle, defines posterior and anterior of neck

12

Posterior triangle of the neck (2)

Between sternocleidomastoid m., trapezius m., and clavicle
Divided into occipital and subclavian triangles

13

Occipital Triangle Borders

Ant: sternocleidomastoid
Post: Trapezius
Inf: Omohyoid m., inferior belly

14

Subclavian Triangle Borders

Ant: Sternocleidomastoid
Sup: omohyoid m., inferior belly
Inf: Clavicle

15

Submandibular Triangle Borders

Sup: Mandible
Post: Digastric m., post. belly
Ant: Digastric m., ant. belly

16

Carotid Triangle Borders

Sup: Digastric m., post. belly
Inf: Omohyoid m., sup. belly
Post: Sternocleidomastoid

17

Muscular Triangle Borders

Anterior: midline
Post: Sternocleidomastoid
Sup: Omohyoid m., sup belly

18

Submental Triangle Borders

Lat: Digastric m., ant belly
Medial: Midline
Inferior: Hyoid bone

19

Superficial Veins of Ant. Neck (4)

Retromandibular and facial v.s join to make ext. jugular vein
Can be variable ant. jugular that runs down front

20

Ant. Jugular V. Clinical Consideration

If large and try to do tracheotomy, can have excess bleeding

21

Platysma

Superficial muscle extends from mandible all way down neck

22

4 Cutaneous Nerves of Neck (general type/source)

All ventral primary rami
From cervical plexus
Lesser occipital n.
Great auricular
Transverse Cervical
Supraclavicular

23

5 Muscular Contents of Occipital Triangle (Sup/Post-Inf/Ant)

Splenius capitus m.
Levator scapulae m.
Scalenus posterior m.
Scalenus medius m.
Scalenus ant. m.

24

Scalenus Muscles

Run from first/second vertebrae down to ribs

25

4 Nerve/Vasculature Contents of Occipital Triangle

Spinal accessory nerve (XI)
Nerves of cervical plexus
Transverse cervical artery
Upper roots of brachial plexus

26

5/6 Contents of Subclavian Triangle

Ant. Scalene m.
Phrenic n.
Lower roots of brachial plexus
Suprascapular a.
Subclavian a. and v.

27

Phrenic nerve relation in subclavian triangle

Runs right over belly of ant. scalene m.

28

Mylohyoid m.

Prevents tongue falling out, acts as floor of submandibular triangle

29

3.1 Muscular Contents of Submandibular Triangle

Mylohyoid m.
Digastric m. (both bellies)
Stylohyoid m.

30

Stylohoid m. (2)

Runs from styloid process of skull to hyoid bone
Splits around Digastric m.

31

4 Other Structures of Submandibular Triangle

Submandibular gland
Facial a.
Hypoglossal n. (XII)
Lingual a.

32

3 Contents of Submental Triangle

Mylohyoid m.s
Ant belly of digastric m.s
Ant. jugular v.s

33

Contents of Muscular Triangle (2.3)

Infrahyoid m.s: Sternohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternothyroid m.
Thyroid gland

34

Function of infrahyoid m.s

Move hyoid down

35

4 Nerve/Vasculature Contents of Carotid Triangle

Hypoglossal n. (XII)
Vagus n. (X)
Common carotid a.
Internal jugular v.

36

Neurovascular bundle of Carotid Triangle (ant-post)

Common carotid a.
Vagus n. (X)
Internal jugular v.

37

6 Non-Terminal Branches of External Carotid Artery & Paths (in order)

Superior thyroid - goes down to do thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal - posterior and heads up, small
Lingual - runs across to tongue, passing through submandibular triangle
Facial - large, runs towards/across mandible then up towards eye
Occipital - posterior under sternocleidomastoid towards greater occipital n.s
Post. auricular - supplies skin behind ear

38

2 Terminal Branches of External Carotid Artery & Paths

Superficial temporal - continues superiorly over temporal bone, supplying side of head
Maxillary - runs deep, behind ramus of mandible and supplies deep facial structures/pharynx

39

Ansa cervicalis (definition and 2 components/roots)

Motor nerves off cervical plexus
Superior root (C1) - descendens hypoglossi
Inferior root (C2,3) - descendens cervicalis

40

Descendens hypoglossi (path and 2 branches)

Travels w/ hypoglossal n. (XII)
Nerve to thyrohyoid m.
Nerve to geniohyoid m.

41

Descendens cervicalis (3)

Branches to sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and omohyoid m.s

42

Nerve in Both Cervical and Brachial Plexuses

Phrenic n.

43

Lesser Occipital n. path/roots

C2 - up posterior lateral side of head

44

Great Auricular n. path/roots

C2/3 - heads to posterior side of ear, also has a branch to posterior mandible

45

Transverse cervical n. path/roots

C2/3 - transversely towards anterior neck

46

Supraclavicular n.s path/roots

C3/4 - down over clavicle, has medial, intermediate, and lateral branches

47

Innervations of Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX) (8 Sensory, 1 motor, 1.1 autonomic)

Sensory - Middle ear, internal tympanic membrane, carotid sinus, pharynx, soft palate, palatine tonsil, and posterior 1/3 of tongue
Motor - Stylopharyngeus muscle
Autonomic - parasymp to parotid gland via otic ganglion

48

Referred Pain of Vagus Nerve

Ear infection puts pressure on tympanic membrane, feels like upset stomach

49

Superior Cervical Ganglion (description and 4 branches/paths)

Fusion of C1-C4 cervical ganglia
Internal carotid n. - follows a.
Pharyngeal branches - supply pharynx
Carotid branches - follows external carotid a.
Superior cardiac nerve - go back down to heart

50

Middle Cervical Ganglion (description and 2 branches)

Fusion of C5/C6 cervical ganglia
Middle cardiac nerve
Ansa subclavia

51

Inferior Cervical Ganglion (description and 2 branches)

Fusion of C7/C8 cervical ganglia
Inferior cardiac nerves
Ansa subclavia

52

Stellate Ganglion

Anamolous ganglion made by fusion of C7-T1 ganglia

53

Ansa Subclavia

Loop of sympathetic nerve fibers attaching middle and inferior cervical ganglia

54

Horner's Syndrome (cause + 5 symptoms)

Loss of cervical sympathetics
Pupil constriction
Drooping of upper lid (ptosis)
Enophthalmos (sunken eyes)
Vasodilation of skin vessels
Absence of sweating (anhydrosis)

55

Carotid Sheath Contents (3)

Internal jugular v.
Common carotid a.
Vagus n. (X)

56

Vertebral A.

Early branch off subclavian, passes through C6-1 foramena giving off spinal a.s, then bends medially to finally join to form basilar a.

57

3 Portions of Subclavian A.

1st - medial to anterior scalene m.
2nd - posterior to anterior scalene m.
3rd - lateral

58

3 Branches of 1st Portion of Subclavian A.

Vertebral a.
Thyrocervical a.
Internal thoracic a.

59

4 Branches of Thyrocervical Trunk (distal-prox)

Ascending cervical a.
Inferior thyroid a.
Transverse cervical a.
Suprascapular a.

60

Anastomosis in Neck

Inferior thyroid a. from thyrocervical/subclavian and superior thyroid a. from external carotid

61

Branch of 2nd Portion of Subclavian A.

Costocervical trunk

62

2 Branches of Costocervical Trunk

Deep cervical a. - neck muscles
Superior intercostal a. - side of 1st 3 ribs

63

2 Anamolous Branches off 3rd Part of Subclavian

Suprascapular a.
Descending scapular a.

64

6 Sources of Internal Jugular v.

Retromandibular v.
Facial v.
Lingual v.
Occipital v.
Superior thyroid v.
Middle thyroid v.

65

Left Lymphatic Drainage (5)

Left subclavian and jugular trunks drain into thoracic duct, which drains into junction of L internal jugular and subclavian v.s

66

Right Lymphatic Drainage (4)

R subclavian and jugular trunks drain directly into junction of R internal jugular and subclavian v.s

67

Trachea Beginning-Ending

C6-T4

68

Pyramidal Lobe

Anamolous lobe of thyroid sticking up in middle, remnant of how it came down from tongue

69

3 Veins of Thyroid

Superior, middle, and inferior thyroid v.s

70

Clinical Consideration of Inferior Thyroid V.

Tracheotomy risk

71

Superficial Fascia (2)

Most superficial fascial layer, envelops platysma m.

72

Enveloping Fascia (2.2)

2nd fascial layer, envelops muscles innervated by spinal accessory n. (XI) - trapezius m. and sternocleidomastoid m.

73

Infrahyoid fascia (2)

3rd fascial layer, envelops muscles of infrahyoid region

74

Visceral Fascia (4)

4th fascial layer, broken down into pretracheal fascia and buccopharyngeal fascia and contains visceral structures of neck

75

Pretracheal fascia

Envelopes thyroid

76

Buccopharyngeal fascia

Runs posterior to esophagus

77

Relation of Sympathetic Chain to Carotid Sheath (2)

Runs posterior to carotid sheath in prevertebral fascia

78

Prevertebral fascia

Wraps around vertebral column

79

Retropharyngeal space (2)

"Danger space" between buccopharyngeal and prevertebral fascias, perforations in posterior oral cavity wall can spread infections directly into thorax through this space

80

Subclavian Stick

Try to insert line into subclavian v., do it just above clavicle but not too deeply to avoid pneumothorax

81

Thyroidectomy (2)

Have to avoid damage to posterior structures: superior and recurrent pharyngeal n.s, and parathyroid glands