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French/Spanish Rivalry

-Personal rivalry between Charles and Francis I (King of France), Intensified in 1519 when Charles won contest to become HRE.
-France concerned because they are encircled in Hapsburg territories.
-Francis had claim to Naples, which was under Charles' control. French controlled Milan, which was important to both.
-Naples strategic point for Charles and enabled good communication between HRE and Naples.
-Charles wanted to regain Duchy of Burgundy.


Conflict In Italy

1521-1529: Major area of conflict was in Italy, French and Spanish interests focused on Milan and Naples.

1521: Chièvres De Croÿ died, supported peace with France.
New advisor Mercurio Gattinara, wanted to remove French from Italy. Charles pursued this new policy.
-Joint Habsburg and Papal Army drove French out.
-However, new pope Clement VII concerned about Charles' power so formed alliance with French, Venetians and Florentines. France able to retake Milan.

1525: Charles' army defeated French at Battle of Pavia, Charles now in control of Milan.
TREATY OF MADRID: Francis renounced claims to Italy, Netherlands agreed to give up Burgundian lands. Charles kept Francis' 2 sons hostage in Spain to ensure Francis kept his word.
-Francis renounced the terms of the agreement.

1526: Fear of Charles' power lead to League of Cognac with Pope, France, England and some Italian States.

1527: German mercenaries, under command of Duke of Bourbon, went to Rome to aid one of Charles' allies. Army unpaid and out of control, 'Sack of Rome', Europe horrified at attack.

Francis' treatment of Genoese led to the commander Andrea Doria supporting Charles.

1529: French beaten at Battle of Landriano, both sides exhausted resources and wanted to make peace.
PEACE OF CAMBRAI: Charles gave up claims to Burgundy, French gave up claims to Naples, Artois, Flanders and Milan.
Treaty cemented by marriage of Francis I and Charles' sister Eleanor.

Charles married niece to ruler of Milan, Francesco Sforza to ensure support from Milan.


War Against Islam

Traditionally waged war against Islam.
1532: Marched with brother Ferdinand to relieve Vienna, which was besieged by Turks. Turks withdrew and peace was made.

Spanish thought it was more acceptable to deal with Turks on North African border.

1529: NA ruler Barbarossa took Spanish island on Peñón.
Charles had support of Naval force under Doria.

1532-33: Naval Expedition took Coron and Patras in Greece.

Charles organised expedition against Tunis: had 82 Galleys, 300 transport ships and 30,000 soldiers. Captured Tunis and most of Turkish Fleet. Barbarossa managed to escape.
Couldn't continue fighting because Charles had other commitments.

Turks then captured:
-Tripoli 1551
-Peñón 1554
-Bougie 1555


Events In Holy Roman Empire

In 1530's, Charles in Spain less due to issues in German States. Issues there with spread of Lutheranism- type of Protestantism.
-Victory over Lutheran forces in Battle of Mühlberg 1547.
-Failed campaign to retake Metz in 1552, Charles fled to Netherlands.
TREATY OF AUGSBURG 1555: left German princes independent and confirmed role of HRE as figurehead only.