Flashcards in Fortified Wines Deck (198):
What are the VDL's for the following French regions: Champagne? Cognac? Armagnac? Jura? Calvados?
-Champagne - Ratafia
-Cognac - Pineau des Charentes
-Armagnac - Floc de Gascogne
-Jura - Macvin du Jura
-Calvados - Pommeau
When was the Douro first demarcated?
What is a mistelle?
It used to be for VDL's that grape spirit was added to unfermented grape must. The EU has extended its definition to include all fortified wines.
Who oversees Port production?
IVDP (Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto)
Who oversaw Port production from 1995 - 2003?
Commissão Interprofessional da Região Demarcada do Douro
Name 3 pagos in Jerez de la Frontera.
Who over saw the production of Port prior to 1995? When was it established?
The Casa do Douro - est. 1932 (Was a syndicate of growers' guilds)
Why did the Casa do Douro lose most of its regulatory functions?
It purchased controlling shares in the Royal Oporto shipper, which was the surviving remnant of Companhia Geral dos Vinhos do Alto Douro
What oversight company was established in 1756?
Companhia Geral dos Vinhos do Alto Douro
What is Vinhos ao Alta?
A new planting system without terraces that plants vines in a vertical row leading directly up the slopes
What are patamares?
Wide terraces in the Douro
What are lagares?
Traditional, open granite troughs used to foot-crush and ferment port in
What are autovinifiers?
Algerian vinification technology in which the fermenting wine would be pumped over the cap by virtue of its own buildup of gas
What is lei do tergo?
"Law of third" - a decree restricting sales of Port to one-third of a house's total inventory annually
What is "beneficio"?
Both the action and the amount that can be fortified, assigned by the IVDP
What is the total max points available for grading in the Douro? What scores an "A"?
The beneficio is a matrix of 12 factors, what is the breakdown of those factors?
-Seven soil and climate factors: location, altitude, exposure, bedrock, rough matter, slope and shelter
-Five vine factors: type of vine, planting density, yield, training system, vine age
What are the max yields for the Douro?
-Red - 55hl/ha
-White - 65hl/ha
What percentage must preferred grapes constitute in the Douro? What are the preferred red grapes?
-Min 60% of the blend
-Preferred red grapes:
What percentage must preferred grapes constitute in the Douro? What are the preferred white grapes?
-Min 60% of the blend
-Preffered white grapes:
What is mutage known as in Portugal?
When does mutage generally occur in the Douro? What abv is it fortified to?
When ≈1/3 of the sugar has been converted to alcohol
What is aguardente?
-77% abv neutral grape spirit
What is the general ratio for aguardente to base wine in the fortification process?
Most Port it is added in a 1:4 ratio
Who pioneered rosé port? How is it made?
-Croft in the late 2000s
-Made with a lesser degree of maceration
What size is a pipe used in the Douro Valley? Used in Vila Nova de Gaia? Used for shipping?
-Douro - 550L
-Vila Nova de Gaia - 620L
-Used for shipping - 534.24L
Where was Port traditionally aged? When did that cease to be mandatory?
-Vila Nova de Gaia
What are the 4 categories of Ruby Port?
-Ruby Reserve Port
-Single Quinta Port
What is "Vintage Character" Port?
It has been replaced by Ruby Reserve Port
How long must Vintage Port be aged in cask?
It is aged in cask before being bottle by July 30th of the 3rd year harvest
Vintage Port accounts for approximately what percentage of production?
What are split vintages?
When back-to-back vintages are declare for Port
What are the 4 categories of Tawny Port?
-Tawny with Indication of Age
How long is Reserve Tawny aged prior to bottling?
What port may show rancio characters?
Tawny 40 year
How long will Colheita Tawny spend in cask?
min 7 years
What does the Port house Calem specialize in?
Colheita Tawny that they do not bottle until an order is received
What is "torna viagem"?
What are "poios"?
Terraces on Madeira
What are "latadas"?
The trellises of Madeira
What size is the average growers estate on Madeira?
Who oversees the production of Madeira?
IVBAM (The Wine, Embroidery, and Handcraft Institute of Madeira)
What is the capital of Madeira?
What is the largest exporter of Madeira? How many exporters are there?
6 actively export
Who is the 2nd largest producer of Madeira? When was it formed?
-The Madeira Wine Co
-Formed as an association of exporters and producers in 1913
Who produces Blandy's and Cossart Gordon
The Madeira Wine Co
Who is the largest independent producer of Madeira? What is significant about them?
-Henriques & Henriques
-It is the only company that owns a significant amount of vineyards
What are "partidistas"?
They store wines and sell it at maturity to other traders for a profit. They are similar to almacenistas of Sherry
What are the 8 production companies of Madeira?
-H.M. Borges (1877)
-Henriques & Henriques (1850)
-Madiera Wine Co (1913; originally formed as Madeira Wine Assocation; changed in 1981)
-Pereira D'Oliveira (1850; founded as a partidista)
-Vinhos Barbeito (1946)
-Vinhos Justino Henriques (1870)
-Faria & Filhos (1949)
-Artus de Barros e Sousa (1922; does not export)
What is the synonym for Gouveio on Madeira?
What is the synonym for Malvasia Fina on Madeira?
What is Malvasia Candida?
Malmsey - it was originally Malvasia Candida, now more commonly known as Malvasia Branca de São Jorge
What is Malvasia Branca de São Jorge?
A synonym for Malmsey
What % of production does Tinta Negra account for?
What is the min % for variety to be listed: for Multi-vintage? For vintage?
-Multi-vintage - 85%
-Vintage - 100%
*Tinta Negra is not allowed to be listed on the label
When did phylloxera hit Madeira?
Name 3 hybrids that were imported to Madeira after phylloxera?
Cunningham, Jacquet, Isabella
What two noble varieties were not replanted on Madeira after phylloxera?
Bastardo (Red) & Terrantez (White)
How much Bastardo was produced on Madeira in 2010?
How many hectares were under vine prior to the 1870s? Today?
-Prior to 1870s - 3,000ha
-Today - under 500
Bananas fetch growers a higher wage
What 2 varieties are generally picked first on Madeira? Last?
-First - Boal & Malmsey
-Last - Sercial & Verdelho
What is the abv of the grape spirit used on Madeira?
95% (imported from France)
In the Estufa process, what temp are the wines heated to? For how long?
What is "estágio"?
The state of rest, for a min 90 days, after heating in the estufa process, before the wine is transferred to oak
Describe the armazens de calor.
-A more delicated estufagem process.
-The wine is placed in rooms, and warmed by tanks or steam pipes nearby
-Chiefly used by the Madeira Wine Co
-Lower temps over a longer period of time - up to 1 year
Describe the Canteiro process. How long is the minimum? What is the min time before it can be bottled?
-Used for the best wines
-Aged in cask for min 2 years in lodge attics
-Naturally warmed by the sun
-May be bottled at min 3 years
What is "Rainwater" Madeira? What is the min age? Style?
-Usually 100% Tinta Negra
-min 3 years
-med-dry, and light in style
What is "Seleccionado" Madeira? What is the min age?
-Often labeled "finest", "choice", or "select"
-Included blended wine that is at least 3-5 y/o
-Dominated by Tinta Negra
-Heated in Estufagem in stainless rather than cask
How old is "Reserva" Madeira?
Multi-vintage - 5-10 years old
Why styles of Multi-Vintage Madeira are usually noble variety and canteiro processed?
-20, 30, & 40 years old
How old is Special Reserva Madeira?
10-15 years old
How old is Extra Reserve Madeira?
15-20 years old
Does the EU permit Solera Madeira?
No, but it is still available on the island
What is the max that may be drawn off a Madeira Solera? How many additions may be made to each solera?
What is the min % of the vintage for a Colheita Madeira?
min 85% required
What word is interestingly banned from appearing on a Colheita Madeira label?
What are the 3 types of Madeira that underwent an ocean journey across the equator? What producer made these into the early 1900s?
-Vinhos da Roda
-Vinho da Torna
-Vinho da Volta
-Shortridge Lawton (now a Madeira Wine co brand)
What autonomía of Spain in Sherry produced in?
When did Sherry get protected as an appellation?
1933 - with the establishment of the Consejo Regulador
What is the hottest region in Spain?
What province is Jerez located in? What river is it flanked by?
-Guadalquivier River to the northwest
Where is the city Chiclana de Frontera?
It marks the southern border of the roughly triangular region for Sherry production
What three towns are the center of Sherry production?
-Jerez de la Frontera
-El Puerto de Santa María
-Sanlúcar de Barrameda
DO regulations require Sherry to be matured in and shipped from one of these 3 towns
What are the two DO zones that produce Sherry?
-Manzanilla-Sanlúcar de Barrameda
Where must wines labeled Manzanilla-Sanlúcar de Barrameda required to be aged?
The seaside town of Sanlúcar de Barrameda
How do the average summer temps compare between Jerez vs Sanlúcar?
Summer temps may average nearly 20ºF higher in Jerez
What is "levante"?
A hot, dry wind that intensifies Jerez's heat
-It blows from the east and essentially cooks the grapes on the vine during ripening (said to drive men mad)
What is "poniente"?
The humid Atlantic wind - it alternates with the levante, and promotes the growth of flor
What town of Sherry is not located in the province of Cádiz? What province is it in?
What are the 9 towns of Sherry production?
Located in Cádiz:
-Jerez de la Frontera
-El Puerto de Santa María
-Sanlúcar de Barrameda
-Chiclana de Frontera
What is the soil that produces the best Sherry?
What is the major sub-region of Jerez?
-80% of the appellation's vines are here
What river is near Jerez Superior?
What is the largest pago (vineyard) in Jerez de la Frontera?
Macharnudo - over 2000ha
What are the 3 soil types of Jerez?
-Albariza - chalky, porous, limestone-rich
-Barros - higher proportion of clay - low-lying valleys
-Arenas - sandy - coastal areas
What 3 grapes are authorized for Sherry production?
What is Listán?
A synonym for Palomino
What are the 2 sub-varieties of Palomino in Jerez?
-Palomino Fino - more prevalent
-Palomino de Jerez
What clone of Muscat is used in Sherry?
Muscat of Alexandria
Where is Moscatel cultivated for Sherry?
Arenas soil, near Chipiona
What is "soleo"?
The process in Sherry production in which the grape bunches are dried in the sun on esparto (grass mats) prior to pressing
-PX & Moscatel
-Palomino may be "sunned" but rarely for longer than 24 hours and often not at all
What is "esparto"?
Grass mats used in Sherry production to dry grapes
What is the common vine training method for Sherry production?
Vara y pulgar
What are "pisadores" and "zapatos de pisar"?
pisadores - term for laborers in Sherry production
zapatos de pisar - cowhide boots with angled nails on the soles
What 3 stages is the mosto de yema (must) divided into during pressing?
-primero yemo - free-run (60-70%)
-segunda yema - press wine
-mosto prensa - poor quality press wine for distillation
What is "yeso"?
Plaster, traditionally adhered to grapes in Sherry production, prior to pressing, which aided in clarification and produced tartaric acid
What is "desfangado"?
Classically what vessel was used for Sherry fermentation? What is used today?
-Traditional - New American oak butts of 600L
-Today - temp-controlled s/s tanks of 50,000L capacity
What is "lenta"?
In Sherry production, a slow fermentation that lasts about a week
What is the abv of Sherry wines, post fermentation when the base wine is separated from its lees?
In Sherry, what are the two classifications post-fermentation?
-Palo - marked with a vertical slash
-Gordura - marked with a circle
What are the two "paths" of sherry fortified to?
-palo - 15-15.5% abv
-Gordura - 17-18% abv
What is mitad y mitad?
A gentle mixture of grape spirit and mature sherry, used to fortifiy both palo and gordura
What are the prerequisites for flor development?
-Moderate temperature between 60-70ºF
-Absence of fermentable sugars
What is sobretablas?
Wines that develop flor will enter this intermediary stage
-During this stage the wines evolution may be redirected
-The wines will be monitored and classified a 2nd time
What classifications occur during sobretablas?
What is "palma"?
A fine, delicate Sherry which the flor flourished, generally destined to be Fino
What is "Palma Cortada"?
A more robust Fino, may emerge as an Amontillado
What is "Palo Cortado"?
A rarity, although the flor is still present, the wine's robustness leads the cellar master to redirect the wine toward an oxidative aging path
-They will fortify after sobretabla to min 17% abv, destroying the flor
What is "Raya"?
Despite initial promise, flor growth is anemic, or the protective yeast has died completely
-The wine's robust character is reinforced by further fortification (17-18%) and the wine emerges sobratable as Oloroso
What is "Dos Rayas"?
The flor has disappeared, but its character is rough & coarse
-High levels of VA, these wines are either blended and sweetened or removed from the process and made into Sherry-vinegar
In 2010, Sherry authorities decreased the min solera aging required before bottling from what to what?
from 3 years to 2 years
What is "añada"?
What is a criadera?
A tier in the solera
What is "trasiegos"?
In a solera, wines are refreshed from the first criadera in movements called trasiegos
For every liter that is drawn off a Sherry solera, how many liters must remain?
2 liters (formerly 3L)
What is a Fino-Amontillado aged in Sanlúcar de Barrameda labeled?
What moves through a solera quicker: Manzanilla Fina or Fino?
What are the Generoso (totally dry in character) Sherry styles?
What is cabaceo?
The process of assembling the final blend of a solera on a small scale and then applied proportionally to the wine at large
What is the min abv for a wine to be assembled via cabaceo?
What are the sweetening agents for Sherry?
-Dulce pasa - mistela produced from "sunned" Palomino
-Dulce de almíbar - a blend of invert sugar and Fino (rare)
-Mistela - "sunned" grapes (Moscatel & PX)
What is Vino de color?
In Sherry it is used to adjust the color of the final wine
-Sancocho - must reduced to 1/3 its original volume
-Arrope - must reduced to 1/5 its original volume
What are the Sherry Generoso de liqueur styles?
What is a Pale Cream Sherry?
A lighter, fresher style blended from Fino and has been sweetened
What is a Cream Sherry?
A darker, denser product of blended Oloroso and has been sweetened
What is a "Dry" Sherry
A paler style that actually contains a fair amount of sweetness
What is a Medium Sherry?
A rich amber Sherry that may include Amontillado in the blend
What may legally appear on the label for Medium Sherries?
Who trademarked the term almacenistas?
What is "Vino Dulce Natural"? What is the sugar range?
Wines produced solely from "sunned" grapes (Moscatel or PX)
-Both - 180-500 g/L of RS
In 2000, two new categories for Sherry was created, what are they?
Sherry Wines of Certified Age: VOS and VORS
What is a VOS Sherry?
-VOS - Vinum Optimum Signatum ("Very Old Sherry")
-For soleras over 20 years old
For VOS and VORS Sherry what styles are authorized?
For VOS and VORS Sherry how many liters must remain for every liter drawn off?
-VOS - 20L
-VORS - 30L
What is a VORS Sherry?
-Vinum Optimum Rare Signatum ("Very Old Rare Sherry")
-For soleras over 30 years old
For VOS and VORS Sherry, does it apply to the entire solera?
No it only applies to the lot drawn
What indications of age can the Consejo Regulador certify for a Sherry Solera?
12 or 15 years
What is the proper serving glass for Sherry
What two sweetening and coloring agents are used for Marsala?
-Mosto cotto - cooked must
-Sifone - a mistelle produced by fortifying unfermented must of overripe grapes
What 3 colors does Marsala DOC produce?
What grapes are used to produce Ambra and Oro Marsala?
What is Ansonica?
A synonym for Inzolia on Sicily
What style of Marsala permits concia? What is concia?
-Concia - the use of mosto cotto (cooked must)
What is the uvaggio for Rubino Marsala?
-Perricone, Calabrese, and Nerello Mascalese
-White grapes may comprise a max 30%
What is the synonym for Nero d'Avola on Sicily?
What is the max sugar content for defined styles of Marsala?
-Secco - max 40g/l of RS
-Semisecco - 40-100g/l of RS
-Dulce - min 100g/l of RS
How long must the following Marsalas spend in oak: Fine? Superiore? Superiore Reserva? Vergine? Vergine Stravecchio? Solera?
-Fine - 1 year
-Superiore - 2 years
-Superiore Reserva - 4 years
-Vergine - 5 years
-Vergine Stravecchio - 10 years
-Solera - min 5 years in the solera
Which styles of Marsala are dry?
Vergine and Vergine Stravecchio
When are Vergine and Vergine Stravecchio fortified?
What styles of Marsala do not allowed mosto cotto or sifone?
Vergine and Vergine Stravecchio
What is Cremovo Zabione Vino Aromatizzato? What are the requirements?
A sweet egg-flavored concoction, permitted by Marsala DOC regulations
-Must be 80% Marsala & min 200g/l of RS
What must be on the label for Marsala-based production? What is the min %?
-"Preparato con l'impiego di vino Marsala"
-min 60% Marsala
Who is one of the most revered Marsala producers?
Marco de Bartoli
What is Marco de Bartoli Vergine-quality but lacks fortification?
-Released as VdT
What is unique about vintage Marsala?
It refers to the year of fortification
What are the single quintas of Churchill's?
Quinta do Agua Alta (Cima Corgo)
Quinta do Gricha (Cima Corgo)
What are the single quintas of Cockburn's?
Quinta does Canais (Duoro Superior)
Quinta do Tua (Cima Corgo) (1889-06)
What is the single quinta of Croft?
Quinta do Roeda (Cima Corgo)
What are the single quintas of Dow's?
Quinta do Bomfim (Cima Corgo)
Quinta Senhora da Ribeira (Duoro Superior)
What is the single quinta of Fonseca?
Quinta do Panascal (Cima Corgo)
What are the single quintas of Graham's?
Quinta does Malvedos (Cima Corgo)
Quinta do Tua (Cima Corgo) (as of 2006)
What is the single quinta of Niepoort?
Quinta do Passaduoro (Cima Corgo)
What are the single quintas of Quinta do Noval?
Quinta do Silval (Cima Corgo)
Quinta do Noval (Cima Corgo)
Quinta do Noval Nacional (Cima Corgo)
What is the single quinta of Sandeman?
Quinta do Vau (Cima Corgo)
What are the single quintas of Taylor-Fladgate?
Quinta de Vargellas (Duoro Superior)
Quinta do Terra Felta (Cima Corgo)
Quinta do Junco (Cima Corgo)
What is the single quinta of Warre's?
Quinta da Cavadinha (Cima Corgo)
List the varietal wines of Madeira from sweetest to driest.
Malvasia, Boal, Verdelho (Terrantez), Sercial
Which grapes of Madeira are harvested first? Last?
First- Boal and Malmsey
Last- Sercial and Verdelho
What is the difference in fermentation for Sercial/Verdelho and Boal/Malmsey?
Sercial and Verdelho are separated from their skins prior to fermentation whereas Boal and Malmsey may undergo a shorter fermentation on the skins.
What is Rainwater Madeira?
A popular style in the US, Rainwater Madeira is usually 100% Tinta Negra, and the youngest wine in the blend is a minimum three years old. The wine is medium dry, and light in style.
What is Seleccionado Madeira?
Such bottles are often labeled “Finest,” “Choice,” or “Select,” and include a blended wine that is at least 3 years old (but below five years of age). These wines are dominated by the Tinta Negra grape, heated in Estufagem and aged in tank rather than cask.
What is Reserve (Reserva) Madeira?
Madeira that is 5 years of age or older (but below 10 years of age) may use this designation.
What is Special Reserve (Reserva Especial) Madeira?
Madeira that is 10 years of age or older (but below 15 years of age) may use this designation. Wines of this category (and all older designations) are often made of a single noble variety, heated by the Canteiro method.
What is Extra Reserve Madeira?
Madeira that is 15 years of age or older (but below 20 years of age) may use this designation.
What are the three year designations for Madeira?
20 years old
30 years old
40 years old
What is Colheita Madeira?
Colheita Madeira is produced from a single vintage (85% minimum required) and is aged for a minimum 5 years prior to bottling. It may be a blend or a single varietal wine. Colheita offers the consumer a “vintage” Madeira without the extended cask aging, complexity, or cost of a true Vintage Madeira, or Frasqueira. The word "harvest" is sometimes used in place of Colheita but producers are not allowed to use the word "vintage" on labels.
What is Frasqueira Madeira?
Vintage Madeira aged for a minimum 20 years in cask. Frasqueira, like Colheita, may be produced from a single variety or a blend. Since only a minimum 85% of the vintage is required, these wines are topped up with younger wines throughout the aging process. Vintage wines are produced by the Canteiro method and may be aged for additional time—sometimes decades—in glass demijohns after the period of cask aging. Frasqueira is the epitome of Madeira, and one of the world’s legendary and long-lived wines.
What is Vinho da Roda/Vinho da Torno/Vinho da Volta?
An exceptional rarity, wines so labeled underwent an ocean journey across the equator. Shortridge Lawton, now a brand of the Madeira Wine Company, produced wines in this traditional style as late as the early 1900s
What zones of North East Victoria in Australia are famous for sweet fortified wines?
Rutherglen and Glenrowan
What is the grape of Rutherglen?
Brown Muscat (Muscat a Petits Grains Rouge)
Whe was the Muscat of Ruthernglen Network established?
What logo denotes that a producer is a member of the Muscat of Rutherglen Network?
A stylized 'R' on the label
What are the four voluntary classifications of Rutherglen Muscat?
Classic Rutherglen Muscat
Grand Rutherglen Muscat
Rare Rutherglen Muscat
What does Rutherglen Muscat denote?
Average age is 3-5 years with a residual sweetness of 180-240 gr/L RS.
Displays fresh raisin aromas and rich fruit.
What does Classic Rutherglen Muscat denote?
Average age 6-10 years with a residual sweetness of 200-280 gr/L. Displays a greater level of richness produced though the blending of selected parcels of wine, often matured in oak to impart the distinctive dry 'rancio' character
What does Grand Rutherglen Muscat denote?
Average age 11-19 years with residual sweetness 270-400 gr/L. Displays mature rancio characters.