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Flashcards in Portugal Deck (182):
1

How long must espumanto DO Douro wines be on their lees? What is the min abv?

-9 m on lees
-11% ABV

2

Fortified Port from the Douro DOP is released as what DOP?

Porto DOP

3

What percentage of the Douro's wines are released as Porto?

~50%

4

How long must the wines of Setubal be aged? How long are some aged?

-Min 18 m
-in large wooden casks
-up to 5 years, some as long as 20

5

Describe the red and white styles of Carcavelos DOP.

(Lisboa IGP)
The wines are fermented dry, then fortified and sweetened with vinho abafado. After fortification the wines are aged for 2 years in wood and 6 months in bottle

6

What is Aragonez?

Tempranillo

7

What two wines benefited from the 'torna viagem' (round trip) maturation process in the heyday of Portugal's fortified wine trade?

Madeira and Setubal

8

When was Setubal demarcated?

1907- one of Portugal's first

9

What two companies alongside Port became the face of Portuguese wines worldwide post WWII?

-Mateau
-Lancers
-For sweet, semi-sparkling roses

10

What are the 6 sub-regions of Do Tejo DOP?

-Coruche
-Cartaxo
-Santarem
-Tomar
-Chamusca
-Almerim

11

What styles and from what grapes are produced in Do Tejo DOP?

White wines outnumber reds and rosados

White- Fernao Pires
Red-Castelao

12

What IGP coves 30% of Portugal's landmass?

Alentejano IGP

13

What DOP of Lisboa produces aguardente?

Lourinã

14

What are the sub-regions of Encostas de Aire DOP?

-Ourém
-Alcobaça

15

Where is the Transmontana IGP located?

-East of Minho
-Along the Spanish boarder
-North of Duriense

16

What are the 3 non-contiguous sub-regions of the Trás-os-Montes DOP?

-Chaved
-Valpaços
-Planalto Mirandés

17

What does 'garrafeira' mean on a Portuguese table wine label?

-'Private Wines Cellar'- indicating a minimum period of aging prior to release
-Tinto- min 30 m (w/ 12 m in btl)
-Branco/Rosado- min 12 m (w/ 6 m in btl)

18

What is the min % of grapes grown in a stated region region for a Portuguese wine?

85%

19

What does 'garrafeira' mean on a port wine label? Who pioneered it?

-Following a few years in barrel, it is aged for a min of 8 years in glass demijohns
-Niepoort

20

What DOP provides the best terrior for Castelão? What % is required?

-Palmela DOP (sandy plains)
-Min 66.7% required

21

What are the two major grapes of Palmela DOP white wines?

White wines are typically blended with high proportions if Fernão Pires and Arinto

22

What red grape is a signature component of Dão red blends?

Touriga Nacional

23

What is the most planted grape in the Dão?

Jaen (Mencia)

24

What 3 DOPs near Lisbon are slowly disappearing due to the expanding urban population?

-Bucelas
-Colares
-Carcavelos

25

How many of the 9 Azores Islands have DOP zones? What are they?

-3 of the 9
-Pico (fortified)
-Biscoitos (fortified)
-Graciosa (dry whites)

26

What are the DOPs of Terra's do Dão IGP?

-Dão
-Lafões

27

Where is Bairrada DOP? What is it's sole subzone?

-Beira Alântico
-Terras do Sicó

28

What styles if wine are permitted under the Palmela DOP?

White
Red
Rosado
Frisante
Espumante
Licoroso

29

The liberal encépagement of Palmela allows for what international white and red varieties?

Cab Sauv
Chard
Sémillon
Syrah
Sauv Blanc
Merlot
Tannat

30

What is the purpose of enforcado? How much of the vines of Vinho Verde are grown this way?

-Reducing risk of fungal disease and allowing crops to be cultivated below the vines, creating a dense farming region
-Less than 10% of the vines are still trained in this method

31

Where are the finest examples of Arinto produced?

Bucelas (Lisboa)

32

What is the min and max ABV of Carcavelos DOP?

Min 15%
Max 22%

33

What is Vinho Abafado?

Partially fermented must preserved with alcohol used for fortification in Carcavelos DOP

34

What styles of wines are produced in the Bairrada DOP? What style is dominant?

Red (dominant)
White
Rosado

35

What 3 regions is Touriga Nacional 'valued' in Portugal?

-Dão
-Duoro
-Alentejano

36

In Bairrada, what soils are the red and white grapes planted on, respectively?

-Red- barros (clay)
-White- sandy soils

37

What are Colgeita Tardia?

Late harvest wines of Portugal

38

What is the historical nexus of commercial trade for Port?

Oporto

39

What is Portugal's largest DOP?

Vinho Verde (15% of the total vineyard acreage)

40

What ships were traditionally used to transport port casks in from Pinhão (Cima Corgo) downriver to Villa Nova de Gaia?

Barco Rabelo

41

When were the monopolistic demands of the Port trade ended?

1968- with membership to the EU
-All Port wines are required by law to be aged and shipped from Villa Nova de Gaia

42

What are 2 synonyms for Touriga Nacional?

-Bical Tinto
-Mortágua Preto

43

What is enforcado?

A traditional vine training method in Vinho Verde. Vines grow off the ground, up trees, stakes and telephone poles, creating overhead canopies.

44

What style of wine is produced in the Biscoitos DOP of the Azores Island of Terceira? What are the authorized grapes?

Fortified whites from Verdelho, Arinto and Terrantez

45

What style of wine is produced from the Graciosa DOP of the Azores Islands?

Dry white table wine

46

What is the most planted variety of Vinho Verde?

Loureiro

47

What town of Vinho Verde is directly across the Minho River from Rias Baixas' Condado do Tea?

Monção

48

What important sub-region of Vinho Verde is producing quality Alvarinho?

Monção e Melgaço

49

What are the 2 DOPs of Península do Setúbal IGP?

-Setúbal
-Palmela

50

What are the 5 best red grapes for the Douro and Porto?

-Touriga Nacional
-Touriga Franca
-Tinta Roriz
-Tinta Cão
-Tinta Barroca

51

What 4 white grapes are the best for production in the Duoro and Porto?

-Malvasia Fina
-Vosinho
-Rabigato
-Gouveio

52

What was the Duoro Wine Company initially?

-Charged with eliminating fraud and installing regulatory measures
-Established the boundaries and practices of the Douro appellation in 1756
-Developed a methodology for grading Port vineyards
-Authorized individual farmer's production allotment based on the vineyard's grade
-Regulated grape prices
-Fixed pricing on finished wines
-Managed exports
-Monopolized the sale of aguardente

53

What wines are produced under the Douro DOP?

-Table wines
-Moscatel do Douro (Licoroso and rare)

54

What is the Portuguese term for fortified?

Licoroso

55

What has the Douro Wine Company survived as today?

The Royal Oporto Wine Company

56

What style of wines are produced in Bucelas? From what grapes?

Dry white- min 75% Arinto

57

What is the sole DOP of Alentejano?

Alentejo DOP

58

Who is the largest producer of Setúbal?

J.M. da Fonseca

59

What is the sole DOP of the Tejo IGP?

Do Tejo DOP

60

What is required of Douro wines to be labeled 'Reserva'?

-White/Rosado- min 11.5% ABV, 6 m aging
-Red- min 12% ABV, 1 yr aging

61

What is the major red grape of the Bairrada DOP? What are the blending requirements?

-Min 50% Baga
-May be supported with:
--Touriga Nacional
--Camarate
--Castelão
--Jaen
--Alfrocheiro

62

What white grapes are used in the Bairrada DOP?

-Maria Gomes (AKA Fernão Pires)
-Arinto

63

What is the difference between Cercial and Sercial?

-Cercial is used for white wines in Dão, Douro, and Bairrada
-Sercial is a highly acidic grape prized for dry Madeira, aka Esgana Cão
-The two grapes are genetically distinct

64

What grapes are used for Colares reds and whites?

Reds:
-'Chão de Areia'- min 80% Ramisco
-'Chão Rija'- min 80% Castelão
White:
-Min 80% Malvasia

65

Who originally bottled the 'perequita' wine?

J.M. da Fonseca
-It was Castelão intended to be the 'Perequita' brand
-Other producers began bottling Castelão under Perequita as a synonym for the grape
-J.M. da Fonseca successfully contested in court

66

What % of acreage dies Touriga Nacional account for in Portugal? Where did it originate?

-10%
-Dão

67

What volcanic islands are located 1,000 miles off the coast of Portugal?

Açores Islands

68

Who manages the appellation and regulations for Port today?

Douro Port Wine Institute (IVDP)

69

The Terras Madeirenses IGP covers what two inhabited isles of the Madeira archipelago?

Madeira and Porto Santo

70

What DOP of Madeira is for unfortified wines? What colors are permitted?

Madeirense DOP
Red, white, rosado

71

What is Vinhos ao Roda?

Madeira that had undergone the 'torna viagem' (round trip)

72

What does 'reserva' mean on still or sparkling wine labels in Portugal?

Still- indicates at least .5% ABV higher than the legal min established by the DOP or IGP (stricter DOP reqs may apply)
Sparkling- 12 m on lees prior to disgorgement

73

What does 'Colheita Seleccionada' mean on a Portuguese wine label?

It indicates a 1% higher ABV than established by the regional appellation.

74

What is the Portuguese term for varietal?

Casta

75

What is the most widely cultivated red grape in Portugal? Where did it originate?

-Castelão
-Tejo

76

What are the important red varieties of Trás-os-Montes?

-Touriga Nacional
-Tinta Roriz
-Bastardo
-Touriga Fracesa
-Trincadeira

77

What are the min ABVs for Douro DOP wines?

-White/Rosado- 10.5%
-Red- 11%
-Moscatel do Douro- 16.5%

78

What is the most important white grape of Alentejano?

Antão Vaz

79

What is Alfrocheiro?

A promising red grape, planted primarily in the Dão and Alentejano

80

What grapes are used for Carcavelos DOP reds?

Min 75% combined Castelão & Preto Martinho

81

What grape is used for Moscatel do Douro?

Moscatel Galego (Muscat à Petits Grains)

82

What region of Portugal has in grafted Ramisco? What is the name of the soil here?

-Colares
-Sandy soils protected against phylloxera
-'Chão de Areia'

83

What is Fernão Pires? What is it also known as? Where are the plantings concentrated?

-White casta
-Aka Maria Gomes in Bairrada
-Found throughout Portugal, concentrated in Bairrada and the southern plains of the Tejo

84

What styles and from what grapes are the wines of Setúbal DOP?

-Licoroso Branco- min 67% Moscatel de Setúbal (Muscat d'Alexandria)
-Licoroso Tinto- min 67% Moscatel Galego Roxo

85

What are the important white varieties of Trás-os-Montes?

-Fernão Pires
-Síria
-Viosinho
-Gouveio
-Malvasia Fina
-Rabigato

86

What is the Terras do Sado now know as?

Península de Setúbal

87

As of 2011, how many IGPs are in Portugal? What are they?

14
-Minho
-Transmontano
-Terras do Dão
-Terras do Cister
-Terras do Beira
-Beria Atlântico
-Tejo
-Alentejano
-Península de Setúbal
-Algarve
-Terras Madeirenses
-Açores Islands

88

What are 'Bon bons'?

Glass demijohns used to age port

89

What color wines are mostly produced in Alentejo DOP? From what grapes?

-Reds exceed whites
-Trincadeira

90

What is Trousseau known as in Portugal?

Bastardo

91

What are the 8 sub-zones of Alentejo DOP?

-Moura
-Granja-Amareleja
-Évora
-Vidigueira
-Reguengos
-Redondo
-Borba
-Portalegre

92

What region of Portugal has widespread Quercus Suber trees?

Alentejo

93

What DOP and IGP share the exact same boundaries in the northwest of Portugal?

-Minho IGP
-Vinho Verde DOP

94

What style of wine is produced in the Pico DOP of Azores? What are the requirements?

-Fortified whites
-Min 16% ABV after fortification
-Min 3 yr in barrel
-Grapes: Verdelho, Arinto, Terrantez

95

What is Trincadeira also know as?

Tinta Amarela

96

What are the 4 DOPs of Algarve?

-Lagos
-Portimão
-Lagoa
-Tavira

97

What industry dominates Algarve?

Resort tourism

98

What is 'Vinhos Canteiro'?

Madeira that was matured on the island

99

What are the 7 sub regions of the Dão?

-Sierra de Estrela
-Alva
-Besteiros
-Castendo
-Silgueiros
-Terras de Azurara
-Terras de Senhorim

100

What styles of wine are produced in the Dão?

-Red, white, rosado, 'novo' tino (nouveau), espumante
-Red accounts for 3/4

101

What is the max % of experimental grapes that can be used in a blend in the Dão?

40% of the blend

102

What is the synonym for Sercial?

Esgana Cão (the dog strangler)

103

What grapes may be used for 'Bairrada Classico'? What is the min ABV?

-Baga, Alfrocheiro, Camarate, Castelão, Jaen, & Touriga Nacional
-Min 12.5% ABV

104

What are the 9 DOPs of Lisboa?

-Bucelas
-Colares
-Carcavelos
-Arruda
-Torres Vedras
-Alenquer
-Óbidos
-Lourinhã
-Encostas de Aire

105

How do the whites and reds from Vinho Verde become pétillant?

-Whites- generally a carbon dioxide injection prior to bottling
-Reds- from a malo-fermentation in the bottle

106

What was the only Portuguese region spared from phylloxera?

Colares

107

What are the recommended red grapes for the Dão?

-Touriga Nacional
-Jaen
-Touriga Franca
-Alfrocheiro
-Aragonez
-Bastardo
-Rufete
-Trincadeira
-Tinta Cão

108

What are the subregions of Vinho Verde?

(North to south)
-Monçao e Melgaço
-Lima
-Cávado
-Basto
-Ave
-Sousa
-Amarante
-Baião
-Paiva

109

What region contains the Douro Valley?

Duriense

110

What was Portugal's first demarcated region?

Douro DOP
Was also one of the first recognized in Europe and is also a UNESCO Heritage Site

111

What is the southernmost IGP of Portugal?

Algarve

112

What variety is highly regarded by the producers of Vinho Verde?

Alvarinho

113

Who pioneered the style of dry Dourp table wines?

Ferreira- in 1952, with the launch of Barca Velha

114

What port houses are making good table wines?

-Niepoort
-Quinta do Crasto
-Ramos Pinto

115

What is required for Licoroso wines of Setúbal to be labeled by variety?

Min 85% of stated grape

116

What is the most promising subzone of Alentejo DOP?

Portalegre

117

What region were Douro and Porto part of prior to the creation if the Duriense IGP?

Transmontano

118

Can Moscatel do Douro carry an age designation in the manner of Tawny Port?

Yes

119

What is the Madeira regulatory body?

IVBAM

120

What was Do Tejo DOP formerly known as?

Ribatejo

121

What grapes are used for Carcaveloa DOP whites?

Blends of Arinto, Galego Dourado, and Ratinho

122

What red grapes are grown in Vinho Verde?

-Vinhão (a teinturier grape)
-Espadeiro
-Borraçal
-Alvarelhão

123

How does Portugal rank globally in production and consumption?

Production - 11th
Consumption - 7th per capita

124

Who founded the Kopke Port house? When?

-Christian Kopke (a German)
-1638 (4 decades before the first shipment to England)

125

What 3 English Port houses were established by 1700?

-Warre & Co
-Croft
-Taylor's

126

What is the Península de Setúbal IGP formerly known as?

Terras do Sado

127

What white grape produces noble white wines in the Dão?

Encruzado

128

What is Companhia Geral dos Vinhos do Alto Douro?

Duoro Wine Company

129

What is important about Quinta do Vale Meãd?

-A 270ha Douro Superior estate- formerly the primary source of Barca Velha (the first table wine of the Douro)
-Has established itself as one the the regions young cult stars

130

What are the recommended white grapes for the Dão?

-Encruzado
-Bical
-Cercial
-A number of other grapes are authorized, but not 'recommended'

131

How long must Moscatel do Douro be aged?

18 m

132

What grapes dominate Algarve's production?

-Red- Castelão, Tinta Negra Mole
-White- Arinto, Síria

133

What is required for Douro wines to be labeled as 'Grande Reserva'?

The must meet the 'reserva' criteria and they must score exceptionally well when being certified in the mandatory IVDP blind tasting

134

What Geisenhein crossing produces small amounts of wine on Madeira?

Arnsburger

135

What is the proffered soil type in the Douro?

Schist

136

What are the 3 sub-zones of the Douro?

-Baixo Corgo
-Cima Corgo
-Douro Superior

137

What 4 new IGPs were established in 2011 for Beiras?

-Terras do Dão
-Terras de Cister
-Terras da Beira
-Beria Atlântico

138

What DOP of Terras de Cister IGP is a center for sparkling wine production?

Távora-Varosa DOP

139

What is the harder soul type further inland in the Colares DOP? What is grown there?

-Chão Rija
-Castelão

140

How long are the wines if Setúbal usually macerated?

Up to 6 months, following fermentation and fortification.

141

Where is the Beria Interior DOP located? What are it's 3 sub-zones?

Terras da Beira IGP
-Beira Castelo Rodrigo
-Cova da Beria
-Pinhel

142

When and who discovered the Madeira archipelago?

At Prince Henry the Navigator's instigation, Portuguese sailors explored the African Coast and discovered the Madeira archipelago in 1419, nearly 625 miles from the mainland

143

What did the English nickname port?

Blackstrap

144

When did powdery and downy mildew strike Portugal? When did Phylloxera enter the Douro?

1850s; 1867 (Colares, near Lisboa, was spared from the root louse)

145

What was DOC renamed to retain eligibility for protection in the EU?

DOP (Demoninacao de Origem Protegia)

146

What is a casta?

A grape varietal

147

What are the dominate soils of Portugal?

Shallow granitic soils

148

Where is Transmontano IGP?

East of Minho IGP

149

Where is Tras-os-Montes DOP?

In Transmontano IGP in northeastern Portugal.

150

Where is Chaves?

It is a sub-region of Tras-os-Montes DOP in Transmontano IGP in northeastern Portugal

151

Where is Valpacos?

It is a sub-region of Tras-os-Montes DOP in Transmontano IGP in northeastern Portugal

152

Where is Planalto Mirandes?

It is a sub-region of Tras-os-Montes DOP in Transmontano IGP in northeastern Portugal

153

Where is Douro DOP?

In the Duriense IGP

154

Where is Porto DOP?

In the Duriense IGP

155

What two mountains run through the Douro DOP?

Marao and Montemuro - the act as barriers to the humid Atlantic wines and the Douro becomes progressively drier toward the Spanish boarder

156

Where is the Dao DOP?

In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

157

Where is Lafoes DOP?

In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

158

Where is Serra da Estrela?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

159

Where is Besteiros?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

160

Where is Castendo?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

161

Where is Silgueiros?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

162

Where is Terras de Azurara?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

163

Where s Terras de Sehorim?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

164

Where is Alva?

It is a subzone of the Dao DOP In Terras do Dao IGP, Beiras, Portugal

165

What is the climate of the Dao DOP?

The region is hot and dry in the growing season but receives adequate rainfall in the cold winter months

166

What is the principal soil of the Dao DOP?

Granitic

167

What is the climate of Bairrada DOP?

Milder, rainier climate

168

What are the main soils of Bairrada DOP?

Lime-rich clay, Barros (clay), sand

169

What IGP of Portugal releases the most wine by volume?

Lisboa IGP

170

What is the climate of the Peninsula de Setubal IGP?

Mediterranean

171

What river runs through the Tejo IGP?

Tagus or Tejo RIver

172

Where is DoTejo DOP?

Tejo IGP

173

Where is Alentejo DOP?

Alentejano IGP

174

Where is Lagos DOP?

In the Algarve IGP

175

Where is Lagoa DOP?

In the Algarve IGP

176

Where is Portimao DOP?

In the Algarve IGP

177

Where is Tavira DOP?

In the Algarve IGP

178

Where is Pico DOP?

On the island IGP of Acores

179

Where is Graciosa DOP?

On the island IGP of Acores

180

Where is Biscoitos DOP?

On the island IGP of Acores

181

Where is Madeira DOP?

Terra Madeirenses IGP

182

Where is Madeirense DOP?

Terra Madeirenses IGP