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1

Universal currency of free energy in biological systems

ATP

2

ATP hydrolysis is (EXERGONIC/ENDERGONIC)

EXERGONIC

3

How does ATP drive metabolism?

By shifting the equilibrium of coupled reactions

4

The high phosphoryl potential of ATP results from what?

Structural differences between ATP and its hydrolysis products

5

Phosphoryl-transfer potential is an important form of:

Cellular energy transformation

6

Delta G when Keq is:

>1.0:

1.0:

<1.0:

State the direction of the reaction

Negative - reaction proceeds forward (to the right)

Zero- reaction is at equilibrium

Positive- Reaction proceeds in reverse (to the left)

7

Ranking of standard free energies... I think this chart on slide 3 shows what compounds are more reactive?

Phosphoenolpyruvate

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

Creatine phosphate

ATP (to ADP)

Glucose 1-phosphate

Pyrophosphate

Glucose 6-phosphate

Glycerol 3-phosphate

8

What does chemical coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions allow?

Allows otherwise unfavorable reactions to be favorable

9

ATP reacts directly with what in coupled reactions?

The metabolite that needs “activation”

10

Separation of 4 negative charges on ATP in hydrolysis

Electrostatic repulsion

11

What has greater resonance stabilization that ATP?

ADP and Pi

12

Steps of ATP — ADP

1- Hydrolysis with relief of charge repulsion

2- Resonance stabilization

3- Ionization

13

More water can bind to ____ and ____ than to ATP.
What does the water cause?

ADP and Pi

Stabilizing the ADP and Pi by hydration

14

Substrate level phosphorylation fuel _____ and ________

Ex-
1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate + ADP ——> ?

Oxidation and ATP synthesis


3-phosphoglyceric acid

15

Oxidative phosphorylation proton gradients and ATP syntheses steps

1- Gradient created oxidation of fuels pumps protons out (Carbon fuels + O2 —> CO2 + H2O)

2- Gradient used influx of protons forms ATP (ADP + Pi —-> ATP + H2O)

16

NAD+ and FAD are examples of:

Activated electron carriers

17

NAD+

What is the oxidized form?

What is the reduced form?

NAD+

NADH

18

FAD

What is the oxidized form?

What is the reduced form?

FAD

FADH2

19

Coenzyme A is an example of an:

Acyl group carrier

20

Reactive group of Coenzyme A

SH on beta Mercaopto-ethylamine unit

21

Units on Coenzyme A

Beta-Mercapto-ethylamine unit

And patothenate unit

22

Acyl CoA and Acetyl CoA are examples of:

Thioesters

23

Group carried in ATP

Phosphoryl

24

NADH and NADPH-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

Electrons

Nicotinate (niacin)

25

FADH2-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

Electrons

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

26

FMNH2-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

Electrons

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

27

Coenzyme A-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

Acyl

Pantothenate

28

Thiamine pyrophosphate-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

Aldehyde

Thiamine (vitamin B1)

29

Biotin-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

CO2

Biotin

30

Tetrahydrofolate-

Group carried:

Vitamin precursor:

One-carbon units

Folate