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1

Glycolysis is what type of reaction?

Catabolic

2

Glycolysis creates: (3)

Pyruvate
ATP
NADH

3

Glycolysis has ___ phases

2

4

1st step of glycolysis

First priming reaction


1- catalyzed by hexikinase, takes in ATP and converts glucose into glucose 6 phosphate

This is regulatory (one direction)

5

2nd step of glycolysis

Use phosphohexose isomerase to transfer glucose-6 phosphate to Fructose 6-phosphate

This can go in both directions

6

3rd step of glycolysis:

AKA second priming reaction

Fructose 6-phosphate takes in ATP and phospho-fructosekinase-1 to form ADP and Fructose 1,6-biphosphate

This is regulatory (one direction)

7

4th step of glycolysis

Cleavage of 6-carbon sugar phosphate to two 3-carbon sugar phosphates

Fructose 1,6-biphosphate takes in aldolase to generate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + dihydroxyacetone phosphate.
This can go in both directions

8

6th step of glycolysis

Payoff phase- oxidative conversion of glyceradehyde 3 phosphate to pyruvate and the coupled formation of ATD and NADH

Glyceradehyde 3-phosphate takes in glyceradehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase takes in 2P and 2NAD+ to produce 2NAHH+ @H+ and 1,2-biphosphoglycerate.

This is a redox reaction- undergoes oxydation and phosphorlylation, and can go in both directions

9

7th step of glycolysis

First ATP forming reaction

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate takes in phosphogluycerate mutase and 2 ADP to create 2 ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate

This is reversible

10

8th step of glycolysis

3-phosphoglycerate takes in phosphoglycerate to make 2-phosphoglycerate

11

9th step of glycolysis

2-phosphoglycerate takes in enolase. Releases 2H2O. Forms phosphoenolpyruvate. This is reversible.

12

10th (final) step o glycolysis

Second ATP-forming reaction (substrate-level phosphorylation)

Phosphoenolpyruvate takes in 2ADP and pyruvate kinase. Releases 2 ATP and forms Pyruvate

13

5th step of glycolysis

Glyceradehyde 3-phosphate + dihydroxyacetone phosphate creates more glyceradehyde 3-phosphate by taking in triode phosphate isomerase

14

In phosphohexose isomerization, C1 of fructose:

Is easier to phosphorylation by PFK

15

A(n) ________ can isomerize into a(n) ________ via an enediol intermediate

Aldose (glucose)

Ketoses (fructose)

16

First committed step of glycolysis

Fructose 1,6-biphosphate is committed to become pyruvate and yield energy

17

PFK-1 is a:

Regulatory enzyme
Regulated by ATP, Fructose-2,6-biphosphate, and other metabolites.
Will not burn glucose if there is plenty of ATP

18

First ATP-forming reaction, AKA:

Substrate- level phosphorylation

(2) 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate takes in 2ADP and phosphoglycerate kinase. 2 ATP is formed here

19

In glycolysis, Glucose works to create:

2Pyruvate

20

Requirement for all ATP required reactions

Magnesium

21

Purpose of phosphorylation of glucose

Traps glucose inside the cell
Lowers intracellular glucose concentration to allow further uptake

22

Purpose of phosphohexose isomerization

C1 of fructose is easier to phosphorylate by PFK
Allows for symmetrical cleave by aldolase

23

2nd ATP requiring step of glycolysis

Step 3: 2nd priming phosphorylation

24

In energy status of ATP is high after step 3 of glycolysis:

The pathway is inhibited

25

1 molecule of NADH can undergo reactions to create:

2.5 ATP molecules

26

What happens in step 8 of glycolysis?

Phosphoglycerate will undergo transformation, rearranges the phosphate group from C3 to C2.

27

What is used in glycolysis? What is made?

Used: 1 glucose, 2 ATP, 2NAD+

Made: 2 Pyruvate
4 ATP
2 NADH

28

Purpose of glycolysis

Ensure proper use of nutrients
Ensure production of ATP only when needed

29

What happens to glycolysis in tumor cells?

It occurs at elevated rates. This is due to its sensitivity of low levels of oxygen