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Flashcards in Unit 6 Deck (44)
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1

What amino acids must be obtained as a dietary protein?

Essential amino acids

2

What amino acids are required to some degree in young, growing animals and/or sometimes during illness?

Conditionally essential

3

Nonessential amino acids

Alanine

Asparagine

Aspartate

Glutamate

Serine

4

Conditionally essential amino acids

Arginine

Cysteine

Glutamine

Glycine

Proline

Tyrosine

5

Essential amino acids:

Histidine

Isoleucine

Leucine

Lysine

Methionine

Phenylalanine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Valine

6

Foods with lysine as the limiting amino acid

Nuts and grains

7

Foods with methionine as the limiting amino acid

Vegetables and legumes

8

Intermediates of glycolysis

Pyruvate

3 phosphoglycerate

Phosphoenolpyruvate

Erythrose 4-phosphate

9

Intemediates of citric acid cycle

Alpha-ketogluterate

Oxaloacetate

10

Intermediate of penthouse phosphate pathway

Ribose 5-phosphate

11

Amino acid biosynthetic families for alpha-ketogluterate

Glutamate

Glutamine

Proline

Arginine

12

Amino acids families for 3-phosphoglycerate

Serine

Glycine

Cysteine

13

Amino acid biosynthetic families for oxaloacetate

Aspartate

Asparagine

Methionine

Threonine

Lysine

14

Amino acid biosynthetic families for pyruvate

Alanine

Valine

Leucine

Isoleucine

15

Amino acid biosynthetic families for phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose 4-phosphate

Tryptophan

Phenylalanine

Tyrosine

16

Amino acid biosynthetic families for ribose 5-phosphate

Histidine

17

90% of energy needs of carnivores can be met by:

Amino acids after a meal

18

Metabolic circumstances of amino acid oxidation

Leftover amino acids from normal protein turnover

Dietary amino acids that exceed body’s protein synthesis needs

19

Proteins in the body can be broken down to supply amino acids for ______ when carbohydrates are scarce. Give examples

Energy

Starvation, diabetes mellitus

20

_____ digests protein into peptides in the stomach

Pepsin

21

_____ and _______ degrade proteins and larger peptides into smaller peptides in the small intestine

Trypsin and chymotrypsin

22

_______ and _______ degrade peptides into amino acids in the small intestine

Aminopeptidase
Carboxypeptidases A and B

23

The hormone ____ cause parietal cells and chief cells to secrete their products

Gastrin

24

The cytoplasm of exocrine cells is completely filled with ___ ___, which is the site of synthesis of the ______ of many digestive enzymes

Rough ER

Zymogens

25

Zymogens are concentrated in what?

Membrane-enclosed transport particles called zymogens granules

26

How are zymogens released into the lumen of the collecting duct?

The plasma membrane fuses with the zymogen granule membrane.

They are released by exocytosis

27

In the small intestine, amino acids are absorbed through the _______ layer of the vile and enter the _____

Epithelial cell layer (intestinal mucosa)

Capillaries

28

Products of lipid hydrolysis in the small intestine enter they _____ system after their absorption by the _____ _____

Lymphatic

Intestinal mucosa

29

Trypsin is activated by ________

Enteropeptidase

30

What activates the other enzymes in the small intestine?

Trypsin