Functional Neuroanatomy- (Lecture 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Functional Neuroanatomy- (Lecture 2) Deck (58):
1

CNS

Central Nervous System
encased by bone, contains brain and spinal cord

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PNS

Peripheral Nervous System
isn't encased by skull or spine, carries info to and from the CNS

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afferent nerves

travel INTO the CNS from the periphery

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efferent nerves

leave the CNS for the periphery (Exit)

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somatic nervous system

-contains sensory nerves (afferents) and motor nerves (efferents)
-voluntary nervous system

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autonomic nervous system

-regulates respiration, heart rate, digestion (all involuntary),
-contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system (both efferent)

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similarities in sympathetic vs. parasympathetic

all are efferent, all contain second stage neurons

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sympathetic nervous system properties

thoracic and lumbar
-"fight or flight"
-second stage neurons are far from the target organ

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parasympathetic nervous system properties

cranial and sacral
-"rest and restore"
-second stage neurons are near the target organ

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cranial nerves

12 types
-part of PNS
-numbered in sequence from front of brain to back of the brain
-location of the nerves for senses well known

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spinal chord

-base of brain
-extension of the medulla, all the way down to the small of the back, stops before the vertebrae of the back end, then have nerve roots on the spinal cord

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spinal nerves

contain axons for sensory and motor

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dorsal spinal nerves

-sensory (input)
-sensory info from stimulus is sent to dorsal nerve then to dorsal horn which sends the info to the brain for processing

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ventral spinal nerves

motor (output)
-carry motor commands from the brain to the muscle

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protections for the brain (3)

-armor (skull and vertebrae)
-meninges
-CSF

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meninges

-contain dura mater
-arachnoid membrane
-sub-arachnoid space (cushion)
-pia mater

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CSF

cushion against trauma

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ventricular system

spinal fluid travels throughout the ventricular system to help wash out metabolic waste through the blood brain barrier

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dorsal ventricule axis

- top to bottom

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medial lateral axis

- in reference to midline, medial is near the midline (toward the spine), lateral is out or toward periphery

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anterior posterior axis

- anterior is in front

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3 coordinate system (planes):

-dorsal/ventral
-medial/lateral
-anterior/posterior

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3 types of planes for sectioning

-horizontal
-sagittal
-coronal

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horizontal plane

top of head to bottom of head

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sagittal plane

down the center, both halves

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coronal plane

front of head to back

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development process of neural tube

ectoderm forms a plate, plate curves in and folds until it backs the neural tube neural canal forms, neural canal forms into neural tube with 3 interconnected swellings (ventricles) that develop into the 3 major sections of the brain

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3 original parts of the brain

-forebrain
-midbrain
-hindbrain

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forebrain -->

-telencephalon
-diencephalon

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midbrain -->

-mesencephalon

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hindbrain -->

-metencephalon
-mylencephalon

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causal hindbrain

"oldest part"
-mylencephalon (medulla)
-control of central life processes, heart and respiratory system, breathing,
-damage to this part of the brain could result in death

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rostral hindbrain

-metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)
-sleep and arousal, control consciousness
-pons (pathway)
-cerebellum (motor coordination and balance)

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midbrain

mesencephalon
-tectum (roof) helps guide orientations to sights and sounds,
-tegmentum basal ganglia and limbic system help initiation and control of movement

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basal forebrain

-diencephalon
-contains thalamus (relay station) which contains synapses from many sensory input
-hypothalamus (base of brain) which controls autonomic (for Fs)

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dorsal forebrain

telencephalon
contains limbic system involved in motivation, interconnected structures for learning, memory, and emotional senses (limbic cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, mammillary bodies)

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amygdala

emotional responses such as fear, aggression, stress

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hippocampus

-memory consolidation
-spatial/directional

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fornix

hippocampus --> thalamus

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basal ganglia

series of 4 things: (causae, putamen, globus pallidus),
-commands --> motor actions, planned motor movements and motor control

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cerebral cortex

-most expansive and most growing during development
-it is a layer of tissue only a few mm wide that contains loves of protrusions and bumps

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cerebral cortex function

important for higher level processes, thought, memory, attention, perceptual awareness, language, consciousness

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grey matter

layers of cell bodies

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white matter

axons of those cell bodies, cell axons that travel between brain structures (corpus callosum)

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neo-cortex area

contains 6 layers of cells, each layer consists of a different cell type, some layers receive more information, some layers send more information

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cortex organization

2 hemispheres, 4 lobes, 52 cortical areas

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primary cortex area

1st part of cortex that receives info from the sensory stimuli

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association areas

secondary areas that receive the info 2nd and organize sensory data to make it into a more meaningful signal

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mammalian brain facts

size of brain is proportional to body size, cortical development varies dramatically between species, can be 2 square meters if spread flat

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structural approaches to studying the brain

-histology
-computed tomography (CT or CAT)
-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

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functional approaches to studying the brain

-neuropsychology (disease, damage)
-electroencephalogram (EEG)
-position emission tomography (PET)
-functional MRI (fMRI)
-behavioral neuroscience (animal models),

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histology

-direct manipulation and staining of tissue
-cellular and molecular analyses
-can only be down post-mortem

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computed tomography (CT or CAT)

-series of X-ray images
-scan living brain
-low resolution
-radiation exposure is a downside
-obvious brain pathology can be seen
-not too specific

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magnetic resonance imagine (MRI)

-measuring waves
-use electromagnetic fields to image atom (hydrogen density)
-scan living brain
-high resolution
-no radiation
-expensive

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clinical neuropsychology

analyzes cognitive changes after brain damage, determines critical region
-downside: no control to brain damage, most rely on case studies, small sample size, hard to make a "control" so you don't know exactly what is damaged

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EEG (electroencephalogram)

-measures electrical potentials from scalp
-activity in living brain, high temporal resolution, surface (cortical) tissue only
-correlate behavior/cognitive process and activity, only good for neo-cortex type studies

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PET (positron emission tomography)

detect decay of injected radioactive substance (glucose)
-measure activity in living brain
-detect metabolic/chemical changes in living brain low resolution
-exposure to radioactive substance,

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functional fMRI (fMRI)

-use electromagnetic fields to image blood flow (hemoglobin)
-detect metabolic needs of living brain
-indirect measure of activity
-high resolution
-very expensive
-correlation between activity and behavioral/cognitive processes