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Flashcards in Neuroscience (Lecture 1) Deck (23):
1

Neuroscience

multidisciplinary apporach to the study of the brain and nervous system

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biopsychology

the biological approach to psychology

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psychology

the study of the mind

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mind

the brain

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Mind according to the Melanesian culture

memory was attributed to the stomach

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intellect according to the Melanesian culture

larynx

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Majority of early cultures believed what was the seat of the mind

the heart

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Hippocrates beliefs (460-379BCE)

the brain is the most powerful organ of the human body

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Aristotle's beliefs

-the brain exists to cool the blood overheated by the seething heart
-the heart was the real seat of the mind

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Galen (130-200 CE)

-supported the Hippocratic view of the brain
-belived that the body functioned through the work of 3 types of spirits
1. natural spirits
2. vital spirits
3. animal spirits

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mind v body

question of wether the mind is an inanimate invisible spiritual force or a function of the physical properties of the body/brain

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animistic theory of mind

the mind is essentially spiritual nature

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Support for mechanistic view

In the dark ages there was war, famine, and no legal authority. the church told you what to believe in order to get into heaven

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mechanistic view

brain is the physical basis of the mind (not house for spirits)

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mental illness

any illness with no physical cause (used to be thought to be the work of witchcraft or the devil)

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When was mental illness finally recognized as a disease?

late 16th/ early 17th century

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Franz Joseph Gall (18th - 19th century)

-physical traits may indicate mental faculties
-oganology
-Johann Spurzhein = Phrenology

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Contributions of Phrenology

-reinforced the notion of the brain as being the prime organ of the mind
-encouraged scientific research on the relationship of different brain regions and behaviors (often to disprove phrenological theory)

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organology

mental faculties (powers) could be attributed to larger brain regions dedicated to those faculties

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Phrenology

idea that the sizes of brain areas were meaningful and could be inferred by examining the skull of an individual
-brain areas have localized specific functions
-example: character, emotion, and thoughts had specific area in the brain

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Pierre-Paul Broca (1894-1880)

-localization of function
-had patient named Tan who could only say the word tan
-after tan died did autopsy and discovered lession in an area he deemed Brocas area

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Brocas Area

-in left temporal lobe
-regoin reals with speech

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General trends over the centuries

-seat of the mind starts to be considered to be the brain
-towards the mechanistic/physiological view of the mind
-away from the animistic/spiritual view