Learning and Memory (Lecture 9) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Learning and Memory (Lecture 9) Deck (34):
1

learning=

acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, or skills

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explicit memories

declarative, things you can describe

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implicit memories

non-declaractive, things learned through experience

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explicit: episodic memories

events

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explicit: semantic

facts

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short-term memory

minutes to hours
(what did you have for dinner last night?)

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long-term memory

relatively permanent (not forgotten)
(what did you do after high school graduation?)

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working memory

temporary storgage with limited capacity which requires rehearsal
(what's your number?)

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engram (or memory trace)

physical representation or location of a memory

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Karl Lashley

examined the effects of brain lesions on performing a maze task
important contribution: memories are distributed

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severity of deficits caused by lesions correlated with _____ of lesion… not _____.

size… not location

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Donald Hebb

memories are stored in widely-distributed cell assemblies. these cell assemblies may involve many neurons (100-1000s) that are linked by synapses strengthened whenever activated together (i.e. learning)

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Hebb's theory

if an engram is based on input from only one sensory modality, it should be possible to localize it within cortex devoted to that sense

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Wilder Penfield

canadian neurosurgeon "Montreal procedure", electrical stimulation of the temporal lobe occasionally produced auditory hallucinations or recollections of past experiences (similar phenomenon during seizures of the temporal lobe)

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H.M. (Henry Gustav Molaison)

underwent medial temporal lobectomy (including most underlying hippocampus) to control seizure disorder, seizures stopped but partial retrograde amnesia and extreme anterograde amnesia

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what we can learn from the H.M. case:

1. medial temporal lobes are involved in memory
2. short-term and long-term memory are mediated by different brain structures
3. declarative and procedural memory are mediated by different brain structures
4. memory may exist but not consciously recalled

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delayed non-matching to sample study:

tests recognition memory. monkeys must displace NEW object to uncover food. as delays increased, lesioned animals showed worse performance

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what we can learn from delayed non-matching to sample:

medial temporal lobe structures important for forming (consolidating) declarative memories!

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______ cortex is integral in object recognition

rhinal

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bilateral removal of the RHINAL CORTEX results in:

object-recognition deficits

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bilateral removal of the HIPPOCAMPUS results in:

no or moderate effects on object recognition

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bilateral removal of the AMYGDALA has:

no effect on object recognition

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Morris Water Maze goal:

to test the hippocampus importance in spatial memory, (rats swim the maze searching for a hidden platform and after learning where the platform is, they swim straight there)

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in the Morris Water Maze: rats with bilateral hippocampal damage:

do not learn or remember location of platform

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long-term potentiation (LTP)=

long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them synchronously

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neurons that repeatedly fire together become associated by:

LTP (Long-term potentiation)

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cellular mechanisms of learning and memory:

NMDA Glutamate receptors
-Ca2+ only enters cell when depolarization removes Mg2+ plug
-so, Ca2+ can only enter postsynaptic cell when it is already depolarized and receiving input from presynaptic cell

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rise in postsynaptic Ca2+ linked to:

LTP (Long-term potentiation)

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block Ca2+ influx=

block LTP

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rise in Ca2+ activates:

kinases (enzymes that can activate proteins within the cell)

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kinases increase LTP by:

1. increasing activity (ion conductance) of glutamate AMPA receptors
2. insertion of new AMPA receptors into membrane
3. development of new connections with presynaptic neuron

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LTP requires ____ receptors

NMDA

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when NMDA receptor blockers injected into hippocampus:

animals fail at water maze

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when there was a genetically increase in the number of hippocampal NMDA receptors:

animals show enhanced learning