Lateralization and Language (Lecture 8) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lateralization and Language (Lecture 8) Deck (57):
1

cerebral cortex (neo-cortex)

6 layers of cells, gray matter and white matter, convoluted surface increases surface area, specialized for memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness

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sulcus (sulci)

grooves in cerebral cortex

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big sulci

fissures in cerebral cortex

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gyrus (gyri)

bumps in cerebral cortex

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cerebral cortex connected by:

the cerebral commisures (anterior commisure and corpus callosum)

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anterior commisure

1/10 the size of the corpus callosum

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corpus callosum

200 million axons

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right hemisphere is slightly _____ and ______ than the left hemisphere

right hemisphere is slightly larger and heavier than the left

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left hemisphere contains more:___

gray matter

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right hemisphere extends ______ posteriorly

farther

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temporal lobes display a _______

marked structural asymmetry

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are neurotransmitters distributed symmetrically or asymmetrically?

asymmetric

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Marc Dax

had over 40 patients with speech problems all with left hemisphere damage

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Pierre-Paul Broca

2 aphasic patients with left hemisphere damage "Tan", lesions to prefrontal cortex=Broca's area

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aphasia

deficient in the ability to produce or comprehend language

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Hugo-Karl Liepmann

apraxia almost always associated with left hemisphere damage

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apraxia

difficulty in performing movements when asked to

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laterality

the idea that the two cerebral hemispheres have separate functions

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unilateral lesions

traumatic brain injury, surgical removal, stroke
*unless done surgically, lesion does NOT occur within distinct boundaries of single structures

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stroke=

an interruption in blood supply to any part of the brain, it may lead to sufficient loss of oxygen to cause tissue death

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sodium amytal test

given before neurosurgery in an effort to avoid damaging areas of cortex importance for speech and language

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sodium amytal test steps

sodium amytal injected into carotid artery, brief (10min) inactivation of ipsilateral hemisphere, loss of function f contralateral arm and visual input from contralateral visual field

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dichotic listening test

based on the idea that although each ear has projections to each hemisphere auditory cortex, crossed pathways are more numerous and faster conducting

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dichotic listening test steps

subjects are played two different series of 3 words simultaneously (one series to each ear), then asked to recall as many of the six words as they could

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in the dichotic listening test, patients could recall more words presented to their _____ hemisphere (______ ear)

left hemisphere, right ear

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when the same dichotic listening test was done with melodies instead of words, patients could better recall melodies presented to their _____ hemisphere (___ ear)

right hemisphere, left ear

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functional brain imaging

subjects are asked to perform some task (e.g. read, listen to a story) while brain function is measured by fMRI or PET

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typically, _____ hemisphere more active during verbal tasks (i.e. speaking, reading, or hearing words)

left

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electrical stimulation

stimulation to either hemisphere produces twitches, dysesthesias, light flashes, buzzing sensations

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stimulation to right temporal lobe=

more deja vu, fear, dream state, episodic memory recall

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simulation to left frontal lobe, parietal, and temporal cortex:

disrupts speech

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stimulation to right temporoparietal cortex disrupts:

judgement of line orientation, facial expressions, short term memory for faces

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the split brain

ground-breaking work on the function of the corpus callosum, found through the study that the cat brain had the capacity to act as two separate brains (when corpus callosum and optic chiasm are severed)

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conclusions of the split brain experiment:

corpus callosum transfers learned info from one hemisphere to the other, and hemispheres can operate independently

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language is the ___ ______ of all cognitive abilities

most lateralized

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right hemisphere is capable of understanding

simple spoken and written words and sentences

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tachistoscope

visual information presented to each visual field while patient stares at center "fixation cross"

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most subjects accurately identify objects explored with their ____ hand. (most braille readers read more rapidly with their ____ hand)

left hand

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left hemisphere damage=

apraxia

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more activation in ___ hemisphere versus ____ hemisphere during ipsilateral hand movement

more activation in left versus right

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right hemisphere is better at:

spatial tasks like putting together puzzles with blocks

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emotion = _________ hemisphere

right (emotional content of readings', expression of emotions, identifying facial expressions

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subjects that felt 3D objects with _____ hand were more accurate in identifying 2D test stimulus that best represented what they felt if it were made of cardboard and unfolded

left

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Broca's area=

left inferior frontal

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Wernicke's area=

left planum temporale

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large anterior lesions most likely to produce:

expressive symptoms

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large posterior lesions most likely to produce:

receptive symptoms

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3 evolutionary theories on why we have cerebral asymmetry of function:

analytic-synthetic theory
motor theory
linguistic theory

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analytic-synthetic theory

two modes of thinking (analytic (left) and synthetic (right), vague and essentially untestable

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motor theory

left controls fine movements-speech is just a category of fine movement, left damage may produce speech and motor deficits

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linguistic theory

left hemisphere is specialized for language, deaf people with left hemisphere damage show deficits when signing but not mimicking

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commissurotomy limits:

convulsive activity (may never have another major convulsion)

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when you present a picture (ring) to the right visual field (left hemisphere) of a split brain patient:

left hemisphere can talk and say ring
right hand can show you, left hand can't

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when you present a picture (key) to the left visual field (right hemisphere) of a split brain patient:

right hemisphere can't talk and subject will report that they do not know what it was
left hand can show you what it was, right hand can't

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helping- hand phenomenon

presented with two different visual stimuli, the hand that "knows" may correct the other

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chimeric figures task

only symmetrical version of right half of faces recognized (indicates competition between hemispheres)

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chimeric figures test and completion

the left hemisphere of a split-brain patient sees a single normal face that is a completed version of the half face on the right. at the same time, the right hemisphere sees a single normal face on the left