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Flashcards in Functional Testing Deck (39):
1

what 4 things do you need to record with a tropia

direction, size, timing, and which eye

2

what 2 things do you need to record with a phoria

direction and size

3

how do you measure a misalignment

alternating cover test- fusion is broken at all times during the test

4

when do you stop measuring a misalignment

when the eye stops moving; prism = size of deviation

5

what does prism do

bends rays of light toward the base and shift the image to the apex

6

what are 3 additional tests used to strabismus

hirschberg, krimsky, and bruckner

7

what is a normal result for hirschberg

the light reflexes are centered in each pupil

8

what if the reflex is 1mm away from the center; how much misalignment is that

22 prism diopters

9

how is krimsky different from hirschberg

krimsky measures misalignment for light reflex with prism

10

what setting is the ophthalmoscope set at for Bruckners

+1.0m (green number in window)

11

how far away do you sit from patient during Bruckner's

1m (focal length of +1 lens)

12

what 3 things are you looking for during Bruckner's

difference in brightness, clarity, and pupil size

13

what would be abnormal in a Bruckner's

a lighter pupil, dark figures or different size

14

why is the abnormal pupil lighter colored

the fixating eye aims its fovea at the light

15

what are 2 tests used only for phorias

maddox rod and modified thorington

16

which eye is the maddox rod placed over

the OD

17

why do the eyes go to their phoria positions during the maddox rod test

the images (streak and light) are so radically different that fusion is broken or disrupted

18

why is the OD the "deviating eye"

the light is a more natural source than the streak so the OS stays straight ahead

19

do you perform the modified thorington technique at distance or near

only at near

20

what is the most reliable test for phorias

the thorington test

21

what size optotypes are on the thorington card

around 20/30 at 40cm

22

where do you shine the light during thorington

through the center hole on the card

23

which eye is the fixating eye during thorington

the OS (OD has maddox rod over it)

24

which direction do the cylinders go if measuring a lateral phoria

horizontal

25

which direction do the cylinders go if you are measuring a vertical phoria

vertical

26

how much does the gap between optotypes equal in prism diopters

1 PD when placed at 40cm

27

why is the thorington test so reliable

the small optotype yields a high degree of stability in the accommodative response and it stabilizes accommodative- convergence

28

why is the Duane White classification scheme used

to identify and classify common anomalies of ocular misalignments

29

what are some typical complaints of a Duane White anomaly

asthenopia after less than 30 min of near work, words blur/jump/double when reading, eyes turn out, dislikes reading, poor school performance with 20/20 VA, covers one eye, tilts head, intermittent blur

30

what 2 conditions have similar complaints to a duane white anomaly that you should rule out first

hyperopia and dry eyes

31

what anomaly has ortho in the distance and a large Exo at near

convergence insufficiency (CI)

32

what anomaly has ortho in the distance and a large Eso at near

convergence excess (CE)

33

what anomaly has a large Exo at distance and ortho at near

divergence excess (DE)

34

what anomaly has Eso at distance and ortho at near

divergence insufficiency (DI)

35

what anomaly do you measure the amplitude at distance and then calculate deviation at near (15-age/4)

accommodative insufficiency (AI)

36

what 2 anomalies are the most common

convergence insufficiency and accommodative insufficiency

37

what anomaly is associated with intermittent XT (exotropia) at distance

divergence excess

38

what anomaly is ortho at distance and a small (1-6D) exophoria at near

no anomaly- "expected in normal patients"

39

what deviation is never expected

esophoria