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Flashcards in Fungal Infections Deck (38)
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1

What is fungal cell membrane made of?

Ergosterol

2

What are the two morphological forms of fungi?

Unicellular - yeasts; Multicellular filamentous - mold

3

What are the two forms in which fungi are found?

Normal human flora - yeasts; Environment - Molds

4

What is the primary mechanisms for containing fungal infections?

Neutrophil phagocytosis

5

What is mycoses/.

Fungal infection

6

What are the two types of mycoses?

1. Endemic infection - caused by geographically confined true pathogens;
2. Opportunistic infection - caused by fungi that are not true pathogens

7

What is acute disseminated histoplasmosis?

Usually occurs in immunocompromised patients

8

What is chronic disseminated histoplasmosis?

Observed in older adults with no obvious immune deficiency

9

What are the symptoms of Blastomyces?

causes pneumonia. Skin lesions develop as a result of hematogenous dissemination

10

What important structures do Coccidiodes form?

Spherules that contain hundreds of endospores. (Dimorphism is NOT temperature dependent)

11

What is the most frequent opportunistic fungal pathogen?

Candida albicans

12

What is Thrush?

Thick, white lesions of the oropharyngeal and vaginal mucosa

13

What is intertriginous candidiasis?

Proliferation in warm, moist areas of skin (diaper rash)

14

What does cryptococcus neoformans form?

A CAPSULE in tissues, but not in the environment. Results in meningitis.

15

What does candida end up affecting?

The liver

16

What does melanin do?

Increases strength of cell wall increasing resistance to enzyme degradation and free radicals

17

What are the two types of Major pathogenic species of Aspergillus and what is special about them?

A. fumigatus and A. flavus. They DO NOT GROUW IN NORMAL TISSUE (must invade profoundly immunocompromised patients)

18

What is "angioinvasive"

Hyphae invade through blood vessel walls causing tissue infarction, hemorrhage, and necrosis.

19

Mucormycoses are similar to Aspergillus in what respect?

Both are angioinvasive

20

What are the two forms of Mucormycoses?

Rhinocerebral form - unique to diabetics; Disseminated zygomycosis - lesions of pulmonary system

21

What is special about pneumocystis?

1. Has never been grown in vitro.
2. Was the sentinel infection in AIDS, malnourished children, and immunocompromised individuals

22

What is the most common fungal infection in humans?

Dermatophyte

23

What is the most common pathogenic fungal infection in humans?

Candidia

24

What are the three etiological genera associated with dermatophyte skin infections?

Microsporum, trichophyton, epidermophyton

25

How do dermatophytes enter the skin?

Must have some sort of skin trauma (continuous moist conditions)

26

What type of Mycoses result in infections caused by fungal pathogens that are geographically restricted?

Endemic Mycoses

27

What type of Mycoses causes systemic infections only in immunocompromised patients?

Opportunistic mycoses

28

What type of mycoses result in infections caused by fungi that are not true pathogens?

Opportunistic mycoses

29

What type of mycoses are considered "true pathogens" that typically result in systemic infections in healthy individuals?

Endemic infections

30

Describe how Polyenes (amphotericin B) are effective in treating coccidodiomycosis

Polyenes bind to the cell wall ergosterol of the coccidodio- and form channels