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MD 3 - Paeds > Gastro-intestinal and GU > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastro-intestinal and GU Deck (33):
1

symptoms of classical coeliac disease in children

- anorexia, weight loss
- abdominal distension and wasting
- chronic diarrhoea

2

AB treatment of UTI (NO associated pyelonephritis)

trimethoprim OR cephalexin

3

enuresis is usually caused by a combination of which 3 things

- high nocturnal urine production
- small nocturnal functional bladder capacity
- poor arousal from sleep to a full bladder

4

mainstay treatment of enuresis

bed wetting alarms

5

what are the 2 major complications of dysfunctional voiding and overactive bladder

- increased UTI risk
- detrusor hypertrophy and hyperplasia --> small capacity bladder --> elevated bladder pressures and VU reflux

6

when do children usually grow out of cows milk allergy

proctitis and enteropathy - 6-12 months
enterocolitis - 3-4 years

7

symptoms of GORD in infants

- pronounced irritability
- refusal to feed
- weight loss
- haematemasis
- chronic cough
- apnoea

8

potential complications of bacterial gastroenteritis

- bacteraemia
- secondary infection --> pneumonia, ostemyelitis, meningitis
- Reiter's syndrome
- HUS
- Gullain-Barre
- reactive arthropathy
- haemorrhagic colitis

9

difference between monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis

- mono - night wetting without daytime urinary Sx
- nonmono - night wetting + any daytime lower urinary tract symptoms

10

how do you diagnose dysfunctional voiding or overactive bladder

uroflow

11

reflux in infants peaks at what age

3-4 months

12

clinical presentation of cows milk induced proctitis

well baby
mild diarrhoea
small amounts of bloody stools

13

difference between reflux and GORD

GORD leads to long term compications

14

3 features on histology of coeliac disease

villour atrophy
crypt hyperplasia
raised intra-epithelial lymphocytosis

15

treatment of Clostridium difficile

vancomycin or metronidazole

16

definition of enuresis

wetting while asleep after age 5

17

pharmacological treatment of enuresis

- desmopressin
- anticholinergics - if overactive bladder

18

clinical presentation of cows milk induced enteropathy

unwell miserable baby
vomiting
chronic diarrhoea
abdominal distension
FTT
oedema

19

what is the most common age of Coeliac disease presentation in children

9-18 months

20

risk factors for UTI in childhood

- previous UTI
- structural abnormality of the renal tract
- vesico-ureteric reflux
- strong family history

21

most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in children

rotavirus

22

AB treatment of suspected pyelonephritis

benzyl penicillin + gentamycin

23

clinical presentation of cows milk induced enterocolitis

acutely unwell baby
profuse vomiting 2-4 hours after ingestion
abdominal distension
bloody diarrhoea
FTT
+/- CVS collapse

24

3 manifestations of cows milk protein allergy and what ages doe they normally occur

proctitis - early infancy
enteropathy - early infancy
enterocolitis - from weeks to months of age

25

what is the major cause of encopresis

functional faecal retention secondary to fear of defecation --> hyposensitivity to signals --> intermittent relaxation of external anal sphincter --> overflow and unexpected faecal leakage

26

risk factors for GORD in children

cerebral palsy
down syndrome
CF
upper GI malformations

27

difference between primary and secondary enuresis

- primary = never have been dry continuously for at least 6 months
- secondary = have relapsed after a period of dryness of at least 6 months

28

when should you perform an ultrasound on a child with a UTI

- not responding to AB
- all boys
-

29

antibodies associated with coeliac disease

anti-transglutaminase
anti-gliadin

30

which cancer is associated with untreated coeliac disease

intestinal enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma

31

definition of encopresis

faecal incontinence in a child >4 years at least once per month for 3 months

32

what are some tips to help parents with reflux in their infants

- place baby in prone position after feeding
- avoid over-feeding
- avoid aerophagia
- try small more frequent feeds

33

what is special about the timing of adenovirus gastroenteritis

the diarrhoea can last >14 days