Misc Flashcards Preview

MD 3 - Paeds > Misc > Flashcards

Flashcards in Misc Deck (68):
1

empirical AB therapy for suspected sepsis in an infant with and without a LP result yet

unknown LP = flucloxacillin + ceftriaxone
-ve LP = gentamycin

2

definition of celluitis

infection of deeper dermis and subcutaneous fat

3

chronic complications of rheumatic fever

rheumatic valvular heart disease

4

criteria for admission for burns

- >10% TBSA
- specific locations (perineum, face, hands, circumferential)
- co-morbidities
- circumferential burns
- all full thickness burns
- all chemical, electrical and inhalation burns
- those

5

clinical features of post strep glomerulonephritis

ranges from asymptomatic to nephritic syndrome

6

describe the difference between mid-dermal and deep dermal burns

mid dermal - sensation intact, capillary refill varies, heals without grafting
deep dermal - sensation dulled, capillary refill absent, may require grafting

7

treatment of impetigo

topical - mupirocin
systemic - flucloxacillin

8

most common age for poisoning

1-3 years

9

clinical features of necrotising fasciitis

- fever
- pain
- constitutional unwellness out of proportion to cutaneous signs

10

what are the endocrine effects of pain

increased cortisol, glucagon, adrenaline and BSL

11

definition of ALTE

an episode that is frightening to the observer and is characterised by some combination of:
- apnoea
- colour change
- change in muscle tone
- choking or gagging

12

3 specific complications of group A streptococcal infection

scarlett fever
rheumatic fever
acute post-strep glomerulonephritis

13

at what total body surface area burn do you put in a naso-gastric tube

>10% TBSA

14

pathogenesis of post-strep glomerulonephritis

antigen-antibody mediated complement activation causing diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis

15

when should a baby have the capacity to sleep through the night without a feed

6 months

16

HEADSSS

H - home
E - education/eating/exercise/employment
A - activities/peer relationships
D - drugs/alcohol/smoking
S - sexuality
S - suicide
S - safety

17

treatment of post strep glomerulonephritis

fluid and sodium restriction
frusemide

18

timing of Rheumatic fever

2-4 weeks after GAS pharyngitis

19

3 ways to investigate for food allergy

skin prick test
serum specific IgE
food challenge

20

treatment of rheumatic fever

- penicillin - eradicate GAS -carriage
- prednisone if severe carditis

21

what are the 8 major food groups causing allergy

peanuts
tree nut allergy
shellfish
milk
soy
fish
wheat
eggs

22

which AB has an increased risk of causing Pseudomembranous colitis

Clindamycin

23

role of dextrose in maintenance fluids

- helps distribute water throughout all compartments of the body (free water)
- prevents hypotonic solutions causing haemolysis
- prevents hypoglycaemia and ketosis
- minimal nutritional value

24

name the 4 pain rating scales for children

- Wong-Baker faces
- numeric (0-10)
- behavioural (face, legs, activity, cry, consolability - 10)
- behavioural/physiological changes

25

describe the appearance of a full thickness burn

waxy colour
leathery and charred

26

difference between SUDI and SIDS

SUDI - describes an unexpected and sudden death in an infant
SIDS - describes a sudden unexpected death in an infant where you are unable to determine the cause of death after vigorous investigation

27

what are the primitive reflexes you should test for in an infant

rooting
suck
moro
parachute
grasp
+/- stepping

28

clinical features of scarlett fever

- high fever
- sandpaper rash, desquamates
- acute pharyngitis - either a few days before the rash or concurrently

29

empirical AB therapy for suspected sepsis in a child (not infant)

ceftriaxone + flucloxacillin

30

describe the distribution of scarlett fever rash

starts on the head and neck with perioral sparing and then moves to trunk and then extremities
- marked in skin folds and pressure points
- palms and soles spared

31

average sleep requirements at 1 year

13.5h/day

32

management of scalded skin syndrome

IV flucloxacillin + clindamycin
fluids
supportive skin care

33

management of cellulitis

flucloxacillin or cephalexin

34

pharmacological treatment for iron overdose

desferrioxamine

35

initial hospital care of burns (10)

- incident details, and time of burn
- assess TBSA% and depth
- ABCDE, secondary survey
- analgesia
- tubes - IDC, NG
- tetanus
- documentation and transfer
- wound care
- dressings

36

difference between night terrors and nightmares

night terrors = child is still asleep, begins with a scream
nightmares = wake the child up from sleep

37

what are some non-pharmacological pain relief techniques

diversion
controlled breathing
comforting touch
imagination
giving information
relaxation

38

most common age group to get post strep glomerulonephritis

4-8

39

how do you work out the volume of maintenance fluid for children

2/3 of 4,2,1 rule (max 100ml/hour)

40

what causes torticollis

shortened SCM muscle

41

4 types of child abuse/neglect

physical
emotional
neglect
sexual

42

what is the recommended dose of nebulised adrenaline for anaphylaxis in children

5mg (5mls of 1:1000)

43

At what time of the night do sleep walking/night terrors occur

First ⅓ (usually during transition from NREM3/4 to another sleep stage)

44

when do you put in an IDC in a patient with burns- if perineal burns

- if resus fluids required (>10% TBSA)
- if perineal burns

45

average sleep requirements at 2-3 months

15 hours

46

At what total body surface area burn do you commence fluid resuscitation

>10-15%

47

pathogenesis of scarlett fever

delayed type skin reactivity to exotoxin from the plasmid of GAS bacteraemia causing widespread T cell activation

48

definition of excessive crying in an infant/colic

>3 hours/day for >3 days

49

complications of torticollis

hemihypoplasia

50

presumed pathogenesis of ALTEs

exaggerated physiological airway protection reflexes

51

how do you work out the volume of fluid to give a child to replace fluid deficit

estimate the volume from weight loss and hydration status

52

common age for sleep walking

8-12

53

describe the sensation, capillary refill and healing of a full thickness burn

sensation absent
absent capillary refill
requires grafting for healing

54

diagnosis of post strep glomerulonephritis

- elevated serum antibody titres against streptococcal antigens
- low serum complement

55

what is the peak age for SIDS

3 months

56

what causes scalded skin syndrome

exfoliative toxin of staphylococcus aureus

57

at what age does crying usually peak

6-8 weeks

58

what is the triple hypothesis of SIDS

SIDS may be the coming together of:
- intrinsic vulnerability
- potentially vulnerable development stage
- final insult that would not on its own be fatal

59

how do you work out the volume of resuscitation fluid for children

10-20ml/kg

60

first aid for burns (7)

- remove heat source
- apply cool running water for >20 minutes
- cover person to guard against hypothermia
- cover the burn in cling film
- chemical/eye burns should be irrigated with copious volumes of cold water
- leave blisters intact
- call ambulance

61

diagnosis of rheumatic fever

evidence of previous GAS infection and either 2 major criteria or 1 major and 2 minor criteria

62

what is the special extra things you do for a circumferential burn

elevate!
frequent vascular obs
?escharotomy
referral!

63

common age for night terrors

4-8

64

what is the recommended dose of IM adrenaline given for acute anaphylaxis

0.01mg/kg (max dose 0.5mg)

65

clinical features of orbital cellulitis

opthalmoplegia
proptosis
decreased acuity
headache

66

what are the body %s in a child for burns

front - 18%
back - 18%
arms front and back - 9% each arm
legs front and back - 14% each leg
head - 18%

67

average sleep requirements at birth

16 hours

68

definition of necrotising fasciitis

rapidly spreading infection of deep layer of superficial fascia