Vaccination and associated disease Flashcards Preview

MD 3 - Paeds > Vaccination and associated disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccination and associated disease Deck (53):
1

transmission of measles

airborne, direct contact

2

what are the 3 conjugate vaccines given to children

HiB
pneumococcus
meningicoccal

3

transmission of HiB

droplet

4

treatment of tetanus

- stop toxin production (wound debridement and metronidazole)
- neutralize unbound toxin with tetanus Ig
- supportive therapy

5

clinical features of varicella

- central rash occurring in crops
- rash changes from macules to papules to vesicles to crusts
- significant pruritis

6

transmission of varicella

airborne
direct contact with vesicular fluid

7

management of polio

supportive

8

treatment of meningicoccal meningitis

- ceftriaxone + flucloxacillin/penicillin
- dexamethasone

9

common complications of mumps

aseptic meningitis
orchitis
oophoritis

10

transmission of polio

foecal-oral

11

what is the only oral vaccine on the childrens vaccination schedule

rotavirus

12

which vaccines do you give a 4 year old child

booster DTP, polio and MMR

13

clinical features of meningicoccus C

- meningitis - fever, stiff neck, photophoia, headache, purpuric rash, malaise, myalgia, vomiting, headache, arthralgia

14

complications of getting rubella in utero:

- growth retardation
- ID
- blindness
- deafness
- CHD
- cataracts

15

treatment of diptheria

- diptheria antitoxin
- penicillin G or erythromycin

16

clinical features of tetanus

- initially presents with painful spasms of masseter muscles - trismus
- evolves to generalized tetanus
- can cause respiratory failure

17

how does polio cause disease

invades the spinal cord motor cells and motor neurones of the brainstem --> degeneration
(DOES NOT cause sensory changes)

18

transmission of pneumococcus

droplet

19

clinical features of diptheria

- pharyngitis
- low grade fever, malaise
nasopharyngeal pseudomembranes covering the tonsils and soft palate --> can lead to UAO
- cervical lymphadenopathy ("bull neck")

20

absolute contraindications for vaccination:

- unexplained encephalopathy (post pertussis containing vaccine)
- anaphylaxis to component of the vaccine
- for live viruses - immunosuppression, pregnancy

21

transmission of pertussis

droplets

22

transmission of rubella

direct contact, droplets

23

major presentations caused by HiB

epiglottis
periorbital cellulitis and fever

24

clinical features of polio

paralysis

25

treatment of rotavirus

supportive, with particular attention to hydration

26

complications of pertussis

hypoxic encephalopathy

27

clinical features of mumps

adenitis and swelling of the parotid glands

28

diagnosis of pertussis

PCR of nasopharyngeal aspirate
Serology

29

how does tetanus cause disease

spores into tissues --> transform into bacilli --> produce toxin --> irreversibly binds to presynaptic neurons to prevent release of GABA --> disinhibition of spinal motor reflexes --> tetany and autonomic hyperactivity

30

which vaccines do you give a 12 month old baby

MMR
H. influenza
meningococcal C

31

transmission of Meningococcus C

droplet

32

specific reaction to watch out for in children given the rotavirus vaccination

- can get some diarrhoea post vaccination
- small risk of intusussception

33

clinical features of rotavirus

severe diarrhoea
vomiting (may proceed diarrhoea)
fever

34

Which other diseases should you rule out before diagnosing measles rash

Kawasaki
Steven Johnson syndrome
Other viral exanthems

35

transmission of diptheria

droplets or direct contact (disease caused by toxin)

36

prodrome of measles

- 3 C's = cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis
- fever
- Koplik spots

37

specific reaction to watch out for in children given the MMR vaccine

fever and rash in 1:10 kids that occurs 7-10 days post vaccination

38

clinical features of rubella

maculopapular rash erupting on face and spreading down to neck/trunk

39

treatment of HiB

ceftriaxone and flucloxacillin

40

transmission of rotavirus

faecal-oral

41

transmission of mumps

droplets, direct contact, fomits

42

what is the only live attenuated vaccine given to children

rotavius

43

treatment of measles

symptomatic
exclude from school for at least 5 days from appearance of the rash

44

clinical features of pertussis

- starts with coryzal illness
- then paroxysmal coughing and inspiratory "whoop", with child appearing well between coughing fits ("100 day cough")
- vomiting common after coughing

45

8 vaccinations given at 2,4 and 6 months

strep pneumonia
diptheria
tetanus
pertussis
hep B
Hib
poliomyelitis
rotavirus

46

clinical presentation of measles

rash - erythematous and blotchy
- starts at hairline and moves down the body
- becomes confluent

47

prodrome of rubella

fever, headache, respiratory symptoms

48

specific reaction to watch out for in children given the varicella vaccine

can get a few vesicular lesions at the local site

49

diagnosis of measles

serology or nasopharyngeal aspirate

50

most common diseases caused by pneumococcus

- pneumonia and otitis media = most common
- septicaemia and meningitis - next most common

51

relative contraindications for vaccination:

- acute febrile illness of >38.5 (should still be given if under 38.5)
- evolving undiagnosed neurological illness

52

treatment of pertussis

- mostly supportive
- give oxygen if desaturation
- if very early, give antibiotics to reduce transmission

53

which vaccines do you give a 18 month old baby

MMR
varicella