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Flashcards in Gender Deck (22):
1

Kohlbergs theory

Knowledge arises from children actively constructing an understanding of the world through interacting with it, discovery there male or female causes them to identify with members of their own gender

Stage 1:labelling, Stage 2:stability, Stage 3: constancy
When constancy is achieved children start to develop gender concepts to suit their own gender

2

Kohlberg evaluation

stages occur this way in many cultures
predicts little behaviour before constancy
may underestimate age cognition occurs
overlooks other factors such as peers

3

Schema theory

Identity alone provides children motivation to assume sex typed behaviours
Formed by grouping related concepts, accumulating knowledge to form in and out schemas
Provides basis for interpreting environment
behaviour based on stereotypes and so a big distinction between genders
schemas become increasingly complex

4

Schema evaluation

Explains why attitudes are rigid as only focus on things that confirms their schema
strong research support, however some research suggests gender specific behaviour is shown before schemas are formed
Some evidence suggests that thinking affects behaviour and the theory suggest the opposite
reductionist, ignores biological role

5

Biological influences on gender

Physical differences are biological
XY chromosomes result in increase in testosterone which affects brain development
During puberty, testes and ovaries play an important part in determining the secondary sexual characteristics that distinguish men and women
CAH is an inherited disorder, girls have normal internal and male external genitalia
Girls with CAH show more male behaviour, more frequent gender dysphoria and more likely to show homosexual interests

6

Bilogical influences evaluation

inter sex individuals are an atypical sample group
reductionist,doesn't reference social factors
deterministic
impossible to experiment on
if they were the sole reason then sex difference would be apparent from an early age which they're not

7

Evolutionary theory

traits become widespread that aid survival
gender roles have occurred due to different selective pressures these roles are advantageous to each sex
differences may be due to evolution, most cultures divide activities between sexes and women conduct behaviours consistent with nurturing children and men conduct behaviours that require power and mobility like hunting

8

Evolutionary Evaluation

Deterministic
Explains differences between genders
enforces stereotypes
sample are very different in cross cultural studies
mating strategies suggest children are always wanted

9

Biosocial Approach

Perception of biological sex that leads to gender identity and behaviour
new born baby is labelled which has consequences for how there treated
possible for person to change and develop in ways not confined by traditional gender views
much research comes from those with inter sex conditions

10

Biosocial evaluation

more holistic
studies of children raised opposite gender have mixed results, prone to researcher bias
inter sex individuals are not a typical sample group
some evidence to suggest gender differs cross culturally

11

Gender Dysporia

when individuals feel uncomfortable with their biological sex and wish to change it, most occurs at young age and wont carry on into adulthood
Could be down to gene variants, or could be down to conditioning as parents often give attention to children cross dressings as this could contribute to conflict between gender identity and anatomical sex

12

Gender Dysporia evalutiona

research cause is primarily biological
only a few develop it into adulthood
likely to be social factors from stopping people admitting they have it

13

Parent influence

Treat genders differently, given different toys/clothes
children may take on parents schemas

14

Parent influence evaluation

cross cultural studies show almost universal
some studies show that children more likely to imitate parent they have most contact with, which for boys is often there mother

15

Influence of media

Shape gender roles, constant message due to huge media influence
invasive and persistent
often portray characters in stereotypical ways

16

Influecne of media evalutation

Most researdch just correltaitional
to simplictic to say its hte only influcne as alot of development ccours befreo there inflluneced by media

17

INflunece of peers

Act as role models
seek like mnided peers so constant source of gender behaviour
they ploice haviour and intolerant of ccross gender behaviohr

18

Influence of peers evaluation

Become more important as gender role models in later childhood
cant be the only factor

19

Inlfuence of schools

separate dress code
teachers praise gender appropriate behaviour
"male" and "female" subjects
many teachers are females so children may think learning is for girls

20

Influecne of schools evaluation

Girls tend to perform better academically in single sex schools suggesting boys dominate more and are treated as more important in mixed sex environements

21

Cultural influences

Majority of data on western studies
hard to replicate studies in rest of world
some recogntion of third and fourth sexes in other cultures

22

Cultural infuences evaluation

Globalisation may have lessened cultural difference
methodological problems in studies
nature/nurture debate
collectivist cultures seem to hold much clearer views about which gender roles are male and female