Media Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Media > Flashcards

Flashcards in Media Deck (21):


- Learning occurs through reinforcement as behaviours are rewarded and so imitated
- Bandura outlined 4 steps: attention, retention, reproduction and motivation
- If observers identify with those who commit aggressive acts and there more realistic the more likely they'll be imitated


Cognitive priming:

"Cues" presented in the media affects behaviour, people remember violent and pro-social acts in the media as scripts for later behaviour, being in a comparable situation will trigger these behaviours, however it's not an exact imitation of what's observed



- the reduction of cognitive and emotional response to stimulus
- repeated exposure of violence reduces its impact on individuals
- increases chances of them being violent as are separated from the consequences


Pro/anti social evaluation

• pro-social acts are less obvious and hard to count
• a lot of research on explicitly pro-social media not mainstream media
• methodologies are over simplistic, just counting behaviours. Only correlational
• research doesn't actually show desensitisation makes people more aggressive


Effects of video games on behaviour:

- players have active roles and takes up large periods of individuals time
- can cause addiction problems and aggression is often rewarded
- excessive play could lead to desensitisation
- put can have positive impacts such as releasing stress


Video Games evaluation

• a lot of research done by gaming industry meaning it has a bias
• only correlational and desensitisation is difficult to measure objectively


Effect of computers on behaviour

- growing source of influences, 45% of waking hours on electronic media in the UK
- positive tool for communication and learning
- risk of dependency on technology and lack of face to face communication skills


Computers evaluation

• risk of exposure to harmful material
• most research based on questionnaires
• too simplistic to label as just good or bad influences


Hovland-Yale model

- attitude change is a response to communication, 4 factors were identified
- Communicator; experts are seen as more persuasive
- Message; 2 sided arguments and associating emotions are more effective
- Channel; must be appropriate to circumstance
- Audience; some more persuadable than others


Hovland-Yale evaluation

• wealth of research, but doesn't show which factors are most important
• doesn't identify how persuasion occurs
• most research was laboratory based and collected by self report


Elaboration likelihood model

Model concentrates on cognition rather than content, persuasion occurs through 2 routes
- Central route, receivers have motivation and ability to think about messages and can comprehend them, these are more resistant to counter arguments
- Peripheral route, when messages don't impact through CR they can still be processed by PR, if cues are present, in a more passive way, persuasion can occur, these messages must be consistent, likable, come for expertise or authority and have an element of scarcity


Persuasiveness of TV advertising

- Hypodermic effect, Ad's are targeted at a specific audience and are then passive recipients and easily manipulated
- 2 step flow theory; adverts are filtered through opinion leaders who then pass on the message to the rest of society, audience are active in the process
- Uses and gratification theory; people are active processer and use ads to fulfil needs, Audience and Ad's interact to produce an effect, areas of gratification are escape, social interaction, identification, education and entertainment


Persuasiveness of Advertising evaluation

• Growth of internet advertising may affect future TV advertising
• Fails 90-99% of the time
• Research is hard to obtain accurately as advertising budgets are often private


Social Psychological explanations

- attractive due to enviable lifestyle, wealth and glamour
- act as role models to imitate and in belief they'll get similar attractiveness
- parasocial relationships created and perceived as real
- exposure effect suggest just repeated exposure is enough to enhance perception of them
- Personality factors could influence attraction


Socio-psychological explanation evaluation

• studies into personality types and attraction lack credibility as involve retrospective analysis
• majority of research done in western world
• ignore important role of biological factors


Evolutionary explanations

- During EEA behaviours linked to attractiveness of celebrity were adaptive to the environment
- people become celebrities because of their attractive qualities which gives an adaptive advantage
- Good gossipers were more able to survive as they picked up info on availability of food, explains today the appeal of celebrity journalism. Gossiping now helps elevate status which is adaptive
- Individuals desire to be celebrities as enhanced status bestows survival value, there's a benefit of imitating celebrities as it may bring more resources and reproductive opportunities


Evolutionary explanations evaluation

• not everyone wants to be a celebrity and some become one unintentionally
• reductionist and deterministic


Celebrity worship

- occurs at all ages but more peaks between 11 and 17 years
- less education, more amount of celebrity worship


Celebrity worship evaluation

• most research comes from questionnaires, could have SD answers
• mild forms are potentially beneficial



- The wilful and repeated following or harassing of a person that threatens their safety
-Typical profile is male with high incidences of mental illness, drug use and criminality
- link between stalking and attachment patterns


Stalking evaluation

• research may lead to effective treatments
• research is difficult as its hard to measure objectively
• legal interventions are still the best preventative method