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Flashcards in Relationships Deck (24):

Socio-biological explanation of formation

- Evolutionary, form of survival efficiency
- males best strategy to further genes is have multiple partners
- they look for signs of fertility and don't want to waste resources bringing up someone else's child
- Females seek to ensure child is genetically strong by being selective, looking for resources
- Males compete to be chosen and females select males based on genetic fitness
- relationships form as a way of getting males to invest and reduce chance of desertion and where competition and selection occur


Socio-biological explanation

• presumes heterosexuality or want for children
• supports gender stereotypes
• explanation may not suit today's environment as women don't need to rely on men's resources
• deterministic


Rewards and needs explantion of formation

- behaviourist
- operant conditioning, meets needs for love, attention. Spend more time with them increasing chance of formation
- Classical conditioning, associated with pleasant circumstances, find them attractive and increase formation chance


Rewards and needs evaluation

• ignores biology
• can't explain intricacies of long term romantic relationship
• allot of research is lab based, lacking EV
• selfish view of people, relationships all for own gain
• supported by similarity theory
• may only be applicable to western cultures
• reductionist, broken down to stimulus and relationship
• deterministic, associations may be out of control



-Emphasises the effect of costs and rewards upon a relationship.
- The goal of the relationship is to maximize rewards and minimize costs
- rewards compared to costs and compared against the same for alternative relationships


SET evaluation

• culture bias, collectivist cultures focus less on rewards for themselves
• reductionist, purely rewards and costs no emotion
• most studies lack EV
• most research only focus on short term maintenance


Equity theory

- perceives individuals motivated to achieve fairness in relationship and feel dissatisfied with inequity
- maintenance occurs through balance and stability
- recognition of inequity presents chance for relationship to be saved


Equity theory evaluation

• sees people as selfish
• too complex for precise assessment of costs and rewards, emption is unquantifiable
• doesn't apply to all cultures


Ducks theory

- stage theory
- intrapsychicic, dyadic, social, grave dressing


Ducks theory evaluation

• face validity, account we can relate to
• doesn't account for source of dissatisfaction
• stages don't apply to all breakdowns
• reductionist, too simplistic to be broken down to just stages
• questionnaires used to create theory, also only within one culture


Evolutionary explanation of breakdown

- breakdown is avoided as it reduces chance of offspring, males may increase emotional investment to avoid it
- if a male perceives dissolution he may be more promiscuous to make finding another mate easier
- may act sympathetically to keep reputation, make finding future mates easier


Evolutionary theory of breakdown evalutation

• reductionist, breakdown just adaptive function
• cultural validity questionable
• based on self report
• deterministic


Relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour

- Traits that help aid survival by carrying on genes are passed on
- sexually selective traits are those that increase reproductive success
- males and females have different traits as they are subject to different selective pressures
- natural selection favours males maximising potential pregnancies, resulting in intrasexual competition
- they seek signs of fertility such a youth to enhance chances of successful reproduction
- for example waist to hip ratio is a sign of fertility and so is a universally attractive physical characteristic for males
- natural selection favours females to maximises successful reproduction through monogamy, careful mate selection and high parental investment. Seek males displaying genetic fitness like strength and resources
- have intersexual competition, to choose males from those available


Relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour evaluation

• females alter appearance and lie about age, men exaggerate resources to make them appear more attractive
• females don't rely on males like in EEA
• can't explain homosexuality and couples without children
• research on what males prefer not reality of their actual relationships
• reductionist, reduced to natural responses from evolution
• deterministic


Sex differences in parental investment

- investment by parents in individual offspring which increases offspring's chance of surviving at the expense of the ability to invest in other children
- includes provision of resources, like food and protection
- females make most investment; pregnancy, breastfeeding
- males have little forced investment but not certain of paternity
- Evolutionary theory predicts a number of ways in which male and female investment will differ; parental investment, order of gamete release, monogamy, grandparental certainty.


Sex differences in parental investment evaluation

• very generalised, not the case of all scenarios
• neonaticide is the killing of newborns by mothers which is not expected according to evolutionary theory
• helps explain the differences between genders


Parent offspring conflict

- children desire grater investment than parents are selected to provide
- parents allocate resources to all offspring to ensure maximum survive, therefore children don't get as much attention as they want causing conflict
- as infants grow, parental investment increases, investing in new offspring enhance parents reproductive success
- children try to manipulate parent to give them resources, like crying
- children wish to delay weaning as long as possible
- sibling conflict is punished


Parent offspring evauluation conlfict

• may not suit modern world where couple have fewer children
• reductionist, parental behaviour just for adaptive fitness
• deterministic, only driven by biological factors


Attachment styles and relationship choice

- suggestion of continuity from child's attachment to adulthood, has an effect on relationships
- those with secure attachments more likely to have stable and satisfying relationships
- insecure avoidant are likely to have more short term partners/breakups and had commitment and trust problems


Attachment styles and relationship choice evaluation

• some studies have only produced small correlation for continuity of attachment types
• insecure attachments can still form secure, stable relationships
• not the only factor affecting relationships, not causal


Interactions with peers

- play significant role in individuals becoming independent adults
- help develop social skills needed for forming relationships
- 2 stages; friendship cliques of same sex groups around 12 years, from 14 several cliques of both sexes merge together to form groups
- from these groups individuals form into romantic couples


Influence of peers evaluation

• difficult to quantify impact of peer relations
• deterministic, relationships affected by early peer interactions
• gender differences in how peers influence each other


Influence of culture on romantic relationships

- western cultures choose own partners based on romantic attraction
- other cultures have tradition of arranged marriage, these are looked upon negatively in the west
- divorce rates higher in the west where marriage is voluntary
- western cultures individualistic and shapes attitudes based on viewpoint of individual
- urban, populated environment allows for meeting more people more choice and fewer restrictions
- collectivist cultures tend to be based on the needs of the group as a whole


Influence of culture on romantic relationships

• more than just western and non western
• cultural bias, all studies carried out with western ideals
• samples are rarely identical so hard to compare