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Flashcards in Overview Deck (77):
1

Explanations of formation

Socio-biological and rewards/needs

2

Socio-Biological explanation

Evolutionary, best way to survive

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Rewards/needs

Behaviourist, operant and classical conditioning

4

Explanations of maintenance

SET, Equity

5

SET

effect of costs and rewards, want to maximise profit

6

Equity

motivated to achieve fairness, maintnernace occurs from balance and stability

7

Explanations of Breakdown

Duck, Lee

8

Ducks model

stage theory
Intrapsycic, dyadic, social and grave dressing

9

Lees model

dissatisfaction, exposure, negotiation, resolution and termination

10

Relationship between sexual selection and reproductive behaviour

Sexually selected traits increase reproducrtive success, gender differences, inter and intra sexual selection

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Sex differences in parental investment

investment increases chance of survival, females invest most but guaranteed maternity

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Parent offspring conflict

children desire more investment than parents are selected to provide as have to allocate it to all offspring

13

Effects of early experience on adult relationships

Attachment styles, peers, culture

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Attachment styles

secure attachment more likely to have stable satisfying relationships and insecure avoidant more likely to have trust problems

15

Interactions with peers

help develop social skills, from friendship groups individulas form relationships

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Cultural influence

western choose on romantic attraction, other cultures have arranged marriage, collectivist and individualistic cultures, urban populations have more chances of meeting people

17

Factors influencing attitudes to food

mood, cultural influences and health concerns

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Mood

stress can affect what we eat, mood often affects what type of food we eat

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Cultural influences

different practices, traditions, special days and restrict certain foods. Transmitted to group by reinforcement and social learning

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Health concerns

desire to avoid unhealthy foods, education is key and healthy foods have to be acessible

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Restraint theory

cognitive boundary on foos often leads to episodes of overeating

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Other explanation

unsustainable targets, concentration and ghrelin

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Success of dieting

usually a combination, incentives and motivation, weight watchers and SLT

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Biological explanations of eating behaviour

Neural mechanisms, hormones and set point theory

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Neural Mechanisms

LH is hunger centre, VMH is satiety centre
glucose low- liver- LH- hunger- eating- glucose- VMH- satiety

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Hormones

fat hormone leptin signals hypothalamus that calorific storage is high, so when levels low it gives rise to hunger

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Set point theory

Everyone has own metabolic rate based on calorie consumption

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Evolutionary explanations for food preference

sweet, salty, bitter and meat

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Sweet preferences

preference is widespread, high energy and non toxic

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Salty food preferences

necessary for body to function, keeps body hydrated

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Explanations of obesity

Psychodynamic, Behaviourist, Genetic, Neurological and Evolutionary

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Psychodynamic

unresolved conflicts during development through psychosexual stages, overindulgence during oral stage

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Behaviourist

food associated to natural pleasure(CC), used to reinforce desirable behaviour(OC), role models(SLT)

34

Genetic

inherited basis to obesity

35

Neurological

faulty functioning hypothalamus could lead to obesity as if VMH doesn't work there's no satiety response

36

Evolutionary

selective favour for those who could find food, no its readily available but our genes still favour this, foods not part of the past, possibility of the thrifty gene

37

Kohlbergs theory

knowledge arises from children actively constructing an understanding of the world through interacting with it. Labelling, stability, constancy
When constancy is achieved they develop gender concepts to suit there own gender

38

Schema theory

gender identity alone provides children with motivation to assume sex-typed behaviours, schemas are basis for interpreting environment and selecting approporiate behaviours

39

Biological influences on gender

physical differeneces are biological, testosterone levels affect brain development, CAH

40

Evolutionary theory

gender roles due to different selective pressures, big gender differences

41

Biosocial

perception of biological sex leads to gender identity, new borns are lablelled and then treated in a certain way. Should be possible to change in way not confined by traditional gender views

42

Gender Dysphoria

feel uncomfortable with biological gender and wish to change it, normally occurs at young age and doesn't last till adulthood. Could occur through gene variants or conditioning

43

Social influences on gender

Parents, media, peers, schools, cultural

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Parents

treat each gender differently(toys, clothes)

45

Media

Constant message due to huge influences, characters often portrayed in stereotypical ways

46

Peers

act as role models, seek like minded peers and they police gender behaviour

47

Schools

separate dress code, praise of appropriate behaviour, gender specific subjects

48

Cultural influences on gender

roles different, 3rd and 4th sexes. But hard to replicate studies and a lot of researcher bias

49

Clinical charactersistics of schizophrenia

1% of population, affects thought processes and ability to determine reality, many different subtypes

50

Reliability of diagnosis

DSM is more reliable than ICD and reliability has improved over time, far from 100% reliable but provides a common language

51

Validity of diagnosis

often doesn't lead to successful treatment, must be accurate as there is a stigma. All symptoms are self reported so hard to discern real from pseudo patients

52

Explanations for schizophrenia

Genetics, Biochemical, Cognitive, Socio-cultural

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Genetic explanation for schizophrenia

Twin and adoption have indicated genetic component but hard to separate from environmental factors, gene mapping has identifies high risk genes

54

Biochemical explanation for schizophrenia

Excess dopamine causes the disorder, L-Dopa

55

Cognitive explanation for schizophrenia

maladaptive thinking linked to many symptoms, cant filter out info so become overwhelmed with it. Breakdown between info in stored memory and new incoming data

56

Socio-cultural explanations for schizophrenia

Labelling creates a social role where individuals behave in a stereotypically way and affects how other interpret and react to behaviour, degree of expressed emotion is an indicator of relapse, double bind theory; conflicting messages in childhood and social causation

57

Schizophrenia therapies

Drugs, ECT, CBT and Psychodynamic

58

Drugs

primary treatment, dampen symptoms, effective and cheap. 3% schizophrenics live in hospital. High relapse rate and serious side effects

59

ECT

cant have schizophrenia and epilepsy so epileptic fit would remove disorder, serious risk and side effects

60

CBT

modifies delusions and hallucinations, problems and experiences are evaluated and what causes them and then work on strategies to cope

61

Psychodynamic

Causes are developed in early relationships, treatment aims to provide links between symptoms and early experiences, taught forms of communication to achieve insight into problems

62

Media influences on pro and anti social behaviour

SLT, Cognitive priming, Desensitisation

63

SLT

occurs through reinforcement as behaviours are rewarded and so imitated. Attention, retention, reproduction and motivation

64

Cognitive priming

cues in the media affects behaviour, remember violent and pro-social acts as scripts for later behaviour and will be triggered in similar situations

65

Desensitisation

reduction of emotional response to stimulus, repeated exposure of violence reduces its impact on individuals. Increased chance of them being violent as they are separated from the consequences

66

Effects of video games on behaviour

active role and take up large periods of time, can cause addiction problems. Excessive play can lead to desensitisation but dose have some positive impacts such as stress releaser

67

Effect of computers on behaviour

Positive tool for communication and learning, risk of dependency on it and lack of face to face communication

68

Hovland-Yale model

attitude change is a response to communication, 4 factors: communicator, message, channel and audience

69

Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)

concentrated on cognition rather than content. Central route; motivation and ability to think about messages. Peripheral route; no impact from CR if cues still present persuasion can occur

70

Persusiveness of TV adverts

Hypodermic effects, 2 step flow and uses and gratification theory

71

Hypodermic effect

Ad's targeted at specific population and are easily manipulated, passive recipients

72

2 step flow

ads filtered through opinion leaders who then pass on message to rest of society, audience are active in the process

73

Uses and gratification theory

People are active processors and use Ad's to fulfil needs. Provide escape, social interaction, education and entertainment

74

Social Psychological explanations of celebrity

Attractive due to enviable lifestyle, act as role models. Para-social relationships created. Exposure effect.

75

Evolutionary explanations of celebrity

Behaviours linked to attractiveness of celebrity were adaptive in EEA. Gossip, enhanced statues leads to more resources

76

Celbrity worship

occurs at all ages peaks between 11 and 17. Less education, more amount of worship

77

Stalking

wilful and repeated following or harassing of a person that threatens their safety. Typical profile is male with high incidences of mental illness, drug use and criminality. Link between stalking and attachment patterns