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Flashcards in researchers for gender Deck (11):


Mccongahy: If doll was dressed in transparent clothing, children aged 3-5 still judged its gender on its clothes rather than physical features of the body supporting the idea they use superficial physical indicators to determine gender

Thompson: By 2 years, children given pictures of boys and girls could pick same sex pictures showing they could self-label, by 3 years 90% showed gender identity compared to only 76% of 2 year olds

Slaby: divided group of 2-5 year olds into high and low gender constancy groups, shown film of adults performing simple tasks, screen split with men one side and women on the other, those with high constancy showed a increased same-sex bias as they more visual attention to the side of the screen with the same sex as them


Schema theory

Martin and Little: found preschool children have gender stereotypes about what is appropriate for each gender before they have much understanding about gender

Martin and Halverson: found that children were better at recalling pictures of people who were in gender consistent roles according to stereotypes such as male footballer rather than inconsistent ones such as a male nurse

Aubrey: longitudinal study into preferences for gender related itemed found once child knew item was for the opposite sex they then showed less preference for it


Biological explanations for gender

Hines: girls with CAH chose boys and girls equally as favourite play mates, whereas girls chose other girls 80-90% of the time supporting idea they have increased male preferences

Deady: assessed women's maternal drive and found a negative correlation between that and testosterone levels.

Money: case study of the penectomised twin, given female hormones after penis burnt off but his body fought against them and wanted to be male again, despite initial signs of showing stereotypically female behaviour


Evolutuionary theory for gender

Wood: compared gender behaviours in difference societies, non-industrial studies men hunts, women cook food suggesting behaviour have origins in evolution

Holloway: investigated idea of males being larger in order to compete females, males tend to be 1.1 times bigger on average, in chimps where male competition is more intense males tend to be 1.3 times bigger


Biosocial theory for gender

Bradley: after accidental damage to child's penis had reassignment surgery and raised as female, preferred female company and at adulthood perceived himself as female

Smith: babies dressed in non-specific gender clothes, labelled them with a boy and girls clothes and people played with them in different ways according to their gender label

Wetherill: gender behaviour is flexible, several different styles of adult masculinity indicating it can't be exclusive fixed by biology


Gender Dysphoria

Hare: correlation between Dysphoria and variants of the androgen receptor gene

Rekers: 70 dysphoric boys, no evidence of biological causes but common factor was lack of role models

Zucker: longitudinal study of dysphorics between 2 and 3, only 12% dysphorics by 18


Parents influence on gender

Block: boys more positively reinforced for behaviours reflecting independence and emotional control, girls reinforced for nurturance and empathy.

Eccles: reported children were encouraged by their parents to play with gender stereotypical toys


Media influence on gender

Huston: In US TV shows, males outnumber females by 2 or 3 to 1.

Durkin: males are shown in more dominant roles with higher occupational status in TV

Bee: commercials try to sell things to each sex in stereotypical ways


Peers influence on gender

Archer: reported 3 year old children who played opposite sex games where ridiculed by peers
show that they are more likely to be an influence than parents but study from 30 years ago so games will be different to now

Lamb: evidence peers reward sex appropriate behaviour


Schools influence on gender

Colley: In secondary schools, pupils tend to view individual subjects as either masculine or feminine
Results from 20 years ago, teaching very different to then

Renzetti: teachers praised boys for being clever and girls for neatness
Doesn't show the direct effect of that and just an observers view


Cultural influences on gender roles

Hargreaves: In some cultures gender roles are reversed, suggests biology causes division of labour but content varies hugely between cultures

Williams: attitudes to gender roles are very similar in different cultures