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Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (33):
1

Scientific method

observation of phenomena, hypothesis formulation and experimentation, must use empirical methods and be objective

2

Replicability,

must be possible in order to establish validity and reliability

3

Peer review

research checked by experts before publication

4

Random sampling

selected without bias, using random number tables or out of a hat, but doesn't guarantee a representative sample

5

Opportunity sampling

makes use of available people but is often biased

6

Volunteer sampling

obtained by adverts/posters, unlikely to be representative

7

Systematic sampling

choosing every nth person, unbiased but not certainly representative

8

Stratified sampling

P's selected in proportion to their frequency in the target population

9

Reliability

extent to which results are consistent, internal (consistent within itself) external(measure consistent with other measures), to test use test-retest or inter rater

10

Validity

how a research measures what it claims to measure, internal(does the test measure what it says it does) and external( for far the results can be generalised)

11

Ethical issues

consent, no harm, debrief, deceit, confidential, ethical committees, suitable observation

12

Graphs

bar charts(discrete), histograms( continuous), frequency polygons, scatter grams

13

Measures of central tendency and dispersion

mean, median, mode, range and standard deviation

14

Type 1 errors

accepts found difference when in fact it's down to chance

15

Type 2 errors

rejects difference as insignificant but are wrong as the LOS is too low

16

Nominal data

frequency of qualitative variables

17

Ordinal

involves ranking data in order

18

Interval/ratio data

uses equal measurement intervals such as time or weight

19

Chi-squared

difference, nominal, independent groups

20

Mann-whitney

difference, ordinal, independent groups

21

Wilcoxon matched ranks

difference, ordinal, repeated measures

22

Spearman's rho

correlation, ordinal, data is pairs of scores from the same person or event

23

Content analysis

quantifying qualitative data, data placed in categories and counted

24

Report writing

prose, past tense, clear and formal, important for replicability

25

Abstract

summary of the entire report in about 150 words

26

Introduction

why study conducted, background into previous theories and research

27

Hypothesis

stated precisely with justification of directional and significance level

28

Method

outline of what was done, choice of method , designs and techniques, outline of target population and the actual P's in the study and how they were obtained

29

Apparatus

description of technical equipment involved and how it was used

30

Standardised procedure

A step by step procedure, allowing for replicability. Where the study took place and any standardised instructions and debriefing procedures

31

Controls

Should include details of controls such as counterbalancing, random allocation of P's, control of extraneous variables and how bias was avoided

32

Results

presentation of data, summary of raw data in prose with support from tables and graphs

33

Discussion

What result mean, limitations of study and implications for future research, concluding paragraph tying all key conclusions and references and appendices added at the back