General Organization of a Vertebra Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Organization of a Vertebra Deck (108):
1

What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebra?

The vertebral body, vertebral arch, and the apophyseal regions

2

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

Cervical- Rectangular
Thoracic- Triangular
Lumbar- Reniform

3

What is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?

Superior epiphyseal rim, inferior epiphyseal rim

4

What is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of a developing vertebral body?

Superior epiphyseal plate, inferior epiphyseal plate

5

What are the names given to the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?

Nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

6

What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

Basivertebral Venous Foramen

7

What is the name of the feature located at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle?

The superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure
The inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

8

What is the name given to the anterior part of the vertebral arch?

The pedicle

9

All lamina are oriented in what direction?

Posterior and median

10

What is the given to the overlap of laminae seen on an X-ray?

Shingling

11

What ligament will attach to the lamina?

The ligamentum Flavum

12

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum?

Para articular process

13

The classification of bone will para-articular processes represent?

Accessory bone

14

What is the name given to the lamina - pedicle junction at each region of the spine?

Cervical - articular pillar; thoracic and lumbar - pars interartiularis

15

What is the name given to the junction of the vertebral arch - spinous process on a lateral x-ray?

The spinolaminar junction

16

What is the name given to the tubular bone growth regions of the vertebral arch?

The apophyseal regions

17

What names may be given to each apophysis of the spine?

The transverse apophysis or transverse processes, articular apophysis or articular process; spinous apophysis or spinous process

18

What is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine?

Cervical- anterolateral
Thoracic- posterolateral
Lumbar- lateral

19

All non-rib-bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent feature?

The costal element

20

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the cervical region?

Cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward and downward to form the cervical and brachial nerve plexus thus remodeling the transverse process to accommodate their new position

21

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the thoracic region?

The growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes backward

22

What is the name given to the joint formed between articular facets of a vertebral couple?

The zygapophysis

23

What is the name given to the bone surface at the front of a zygapophysis?

The superior articular facet

24

What is the name given to the bone surface at the back of a zygapophysis?

The inferior articular facet

25

In the vertebral column, the part of the vertebra which lies anterior to to the zygapophysis is called the ___?

pre-zygapophysis

26

In the vertebral column, the part of the vertebra which lies posterior to the zygapophysis is called the ____?

Post-zygapophysis

27

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the pre-zygapophysis?

The superior articular process or superior articular apophysis

28

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the post-zygapophysis?

The inferior articular process or inferior articular apophysis

29

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

The inferior articular process/post-zygapophysis, the superior articular process/pre-zygapophysis, the capsular ligament and the ligamentum flavum

30

What will form the anterior boundary of the typical intervertebral foramen?

The vertebral body of the segment above, the vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral disc, and the posterior longitudinal ligament

31

What is the method of calculating the angle of the spinous process/spinous apophysis?

Calculate the angle formed between the undersurface of the spinous process/spinous apophysis and horizontal plane

32

What is the name given to the normal overlap of spinous process or spinous apophyses as seen on x-ray?

Imbrication

33

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the tip of the spinous process/spinous apophysis?

The spinous tubercle

34

What is the orientation of the spinous process/ spinous apophysis at each region of the spine?

Cervical- Slightly inferiorly
Thoracic- Noticeable angle inferiorly
Lumbar- no inferior angle

35

What is the typical shape/outline of the vertebral foramen at each region of the spinal column/vertebral column?

Cervical- Triangular
Thoracic- Oval
Lumbar- Triangular
Sacral- Triangular

36

At what vertebral level will the spinal cord typically terminate?

L1

37

At what vertebral level will the dural sac typically terminate?

S2

38

Which segmental arteries will arise from the internal iliac artery?

the iliolumbar and lateral sacral arteries

39

Identify all segmental arteries

Vertebral, ascending cervical, deep cervical, superior (highest) intercostal, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, iliolumbar, lateral sacral and median (middle) sacral

40

What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine?

The vertebral artery, ascending cervical artery and deep cervical artery

41

What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine?

The deep cervical artery, superior (highest) intercostal artery, posterior intercostal artery and subcostal artery

42

What are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine?

The lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median (middle) sacral artery

43

What are the segmental arteries of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

The iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median (middle) sacral artery

44

What are the segmental arteries of the sacrum?

iliolumbar artery, Lateral sacral artery and median (middle) sacral artery

45

What segmental levels are supplied by the vertebral artery?

C1-C6

46

What segmental levels are supplied by the ascending cervical artery?

C1-C6

47

What segmental levels are supplied by the deep cervical artery?

C7-T1

48

What segmental levels are supplied by the superior (highest) intercostal artery?

T1, T2

49

What segmental levels are supplied by the posterior intercostal artery?

T3-T11

50

What segmental level(s) is/are supplied by the subcostal artery?

T12

51

What segmental levels are supplied by the lumbar arteries?

L1-L4

52

What segmental levels are supplied by the median (middle) sacral artery?

L5, S1-S5, Coccyx

53

What segmental levels are supplied by the iliolumbar artery?

L5, S1-S5, Coccyx

54

What segmental level(s) is/are supplied by the lateral sacral artery?

L5, S1-S5, Coccyx

55

What vertebra has the highest number of segmental arteries associated with it?

L5

56

What segmental arteries for L5?

Iliolumbar artery, Median (Middle) sacral artery, and lateral sacral artery

57

What branch of the segmental artery supplies the vertebra and the paravertebral region?

Dorsospinal artery

58

Which artery is primarily observed in the distal part of the intervertebral foramen?

Spinal artery

59

What are the branches of the spinal artery?

Osseous artery, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery, anterior medullary feeder artery, posterior medullary feeder artery, anterior radicular artery, posterior radicular artery

60

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the epidural space?

Osseous arteries, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery

61

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior spinal canal artery & plexus

62

What arteries are observe in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

Posterior spinal canal artery & plexus

63

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the subarachnoid space?

Anterior radicular artery, posterior radicular artery, anterior medullary feeder artery, posterior medullary feeder artery

64

Which vessel will supply the ventral/anterior nerve rootlets and nerve root?

Anterior radicular artery

65

Which vessel will supply the dorsal/posterior nerve rootlets, nerve root, and nerve root ganglion?

Posterior radicular artery

66

Which artery is now said to enlarge and form the medullary feeder artery?

The radicular artery

67

What is the location and number of medullary feeder arteries present in the adult?

9 anterior and 12 posterior medullary feeder arteries

68

The anterior spinal artery is a branch from which artery?

The vertebral artery

69

Is the anterior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the spinal cord?

NO

70

As the anterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

Anterior medullary feeder arteries

71

The posterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery?

The posterior inferior cerebellar artery

72

What is the position of the posterior spinal artery relative to the spinal cord?

It lies in the posterolateral sulcus along the spinal cord

73

As the posterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

Posterior medullary feeder arteries

74

What forms the arterial vasa corona above C3?

Right and left spinal arteries, right and left posterior spinal arteries, and 4 communicating arteries

75

What forms the arterial vasa corona below C6?

A median anterior spinal artery, right and left posterior spinal arteries, and 3 communicating arteries

76

What is the generic name given to the arteries that penetrate the spinal cord?

Intramedullary arteries

77

What are the intramedullary branches of the arterial vasa corona?

Pial perforating arteries and central/ventral/sulcal perforating arteries

78

what artery gives off the ventral/sulcal/central perforating arteries?

The anterior spinal artery

79

What arteries are responsible for supplementing the arterial vasa corona along the cord

Anterior medullary feeders and posterior medullary feeders

80

What vessels drain the spinal cord?

Pial veins

81

What will pial veins drain into?

Venous Vasa Corona

82

Which vessels form the venous vasa corona?

Right and left anterior longitudinal veins, right and left posterior longitudinal veins, and 4 communicating veins

83

Which vessels will drain the venous vasa corona?

Anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins

84

Which vessels will drain the ventral/anterior nerve roots?

Anterior radicular veins

85

What vessels will drain the dorsal/posterior nerve root ganglion?

Posterior radicular veins

86

What veins will lie in the subarachnoid space?

Pial veins, venous vasa corona, anterior longitudinal veins, posterior longitudinal veins, communicating veins, anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins, anterior radicular veins, posterior radicular veins

87

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein

88

What venous vessels are identified in the intervertebral foramen?

intervertebral veins

89

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum

Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

90

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord (spinal medulla or medulla spinalis) and the commonly accepted meaning of each.

Dura mater- tough mother
Arachnoid mater- spider mother
Pia mater- tender or delicate mother

91

What is the name given to the fluid within the epidural space?

Interstitial fluid

92

What are the vascular contents of the epidural space?

Anterior and posterior spinal canal artery & plexus anterior and posterior internal vertebral venous plexus basivertebral vein

93

What are the neural contents of the epidural space?

Recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve

94

What ligaments are associated with the epidural space?

Hofmann/anterior dural/ meningovertebral ligaments
Ligamentum flavum
Posterior longitudinal ligament

95

Which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

Anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein

96

Which of the nerves of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral, sinus vertebral nerve

97

Which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

Posterior longitudinal ligament and Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

98

Which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Posterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

99

Which of the nerves of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral, sinus vertebral nerve

100

Which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Ligamentum flavum and Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

101

Which meningeal space is now thought to be a potential space, not an actual space?

Subdural space - between the dura mater and arachnoid mater

102

Which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Anterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Basivertebral vein
Recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve
Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

103

Which of the contents of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

Posterior spinal canal artery & plexus
Posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
Ligamentum flavum
recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve
Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

104

What is the name given to the fluid present within the subdural space?

Serous fluid

105

What is the name given to the fluid with the subarachnoid space?

Cerebrospinal fuid

106

What ligaments may be present in the subarachnoid space?

Dentate/denticulate ligaments

107

What is the name given to the lateral extension of pia mater on the spinal cord?

Dentate (denticulate) ligament

108

What is the unique feature of veins along the spinal canal?

They lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins