Osteology Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Osteology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteology Deck (35):
1

What are the four basic tissues in the human body?

Epithelial, Muscle, Neural, Connective tissues

2

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

Osteoblast- form bone
Osteocyte- maintain or nurture bone
Osteoclast- remodel bone

3

What are the bone cells embedded in?

An amorphous mixture consisting of a ground substance, protein fibers, and various mineral

4

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

Glycosaminoglycans

5

What is the principle type of protein fiber in bone?

Collagen Type I

6

What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

Hydroxyapatite

7

What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?

Living tissue will respond to stressors, bone is formed or absorbed in response to various stressors

8

What three responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors, and to age

9

Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?

Mesenchyme and/or Cartilage

10

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

Intramembranous Ossification

11

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

From the second to third month in utero

12

What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?

The skull

13

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is partially formed by intramembranous ossification?

The clavicle

14

What is the name given for the patter of ossification in cartilage?

Endochondral Ossification

15

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

from the second to fifth month in utero

16

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?

Chondrocranium

17

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

Primary centers of ossification appear before birth
Secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

18

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

Sexual Dimorphism (gender variation)
Ontogenetic Variation (growth/age variation)
Geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation)
Idiosyncratic Variation (Individual Variation)

19

What is osteology?

The study of bone

20

What are the three primary cell types of bone?

Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes

21

what types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bones?

Chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, hyaluronic acid

22

What the primary constituents of the bone mineral?

calcium, phosphate, citrate, and carbonate ions

23

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

Sodium, magnesium, flouride, lead, strontium, and radium

24

Which of the skull bones are derived from intramembranous ossifications?

the nasal, palatine, vomer, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, frontal, parietal, most of the mandible, the squama of the temporal and occipital bones & greater wing of the sphenoid

25

What bones are formed from the chondrocranium?

The inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, and remainder of mandible, sphenoid, temporal and occipital bones

26

Which skull one are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

The mandible, sphenoid, temporal and occipital bones

27

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

The clavicle

28

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?

Cortical and compact and spongy, cancellous or trabecular

29

What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?

Subchondral bone

30

What is the name of the outer fibrocellular covering of bone?

Periosteum

31

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone?

The endosteum

32

Difference in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

Sexual dimorphism or gender variation

33

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?

Ontogenetic Variation

34

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity or locational variation is identified as which type of variation?

Geographic variation or population based variation

35

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on uniqueness between individuals is identified as which type of variation?

Idiosyncratic Variation