General Pathology: An Introduction (P) Flashcards Preview

Histopathology and Cytologic Techniques (Lecture) > General Pathology: An Introduction (P) > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Pathology: An Introduction (P) Deck (34)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What are the words where the meaning of pathology were derived from?

A

1) Logos: study
2) Pathos: disease

Study of disease

2
Q

What is pathology?

A

It is the study of the structural, biochemical, and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that underlie disease

3
Q

What is the characteristic of pathology?

A

It attempts to explain the signs and symptoms manifested by pts by using molecular, microbiologic, immunologic, and morphologic techniques, providing a rational basis for clinical care and therapy

4
Q

What are the 2 main branches of pathology?

A

1) General pathology

2) Systemic pathology

5
Q

What is anatomic pathology?

A

It studies gross and microscopic morphological changes in cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease

6
Q

What is clinical pathology?

A

It studies changes in cells and tissues using biochemical, immunological, microbiological, and molecular techniques to diagnose disease

7
Q

What is molecular pathology and what are its purposes?

A

It is defined as the analysis of NAs and proteins for the ff purposes:

1) To diagnose disease
2) To predict the occurrence of disease
3) To predict the prognosis of diagnosed disease, and
4) To guide therapy such as selecting treatments and monitoring the effectiveness of therapies

8
Q

What are the 4 elements of disease process?

A

1) Etiology
2) Pathogenesis
3) Molecular / morphologic changes
4) Clinical manifestations

9
Q

What is etiology?

A

It is the cause of the disease

10
Q

What is pathogenesis?

A

It is the mechanism of development of the disease

11
Q

What are molecular / morphologic changes?

A

These are biochemical and structural alterations induced in the cells and organs of the body

12
Q

What are clinical manifestations?

A

These are functional consequences of the molecular / morphologic changes

13
Q

What are the 2 major classes of etiologic factors?

A

1) Genetic

2) Acquired

14
Q

What are the exs under the genetic class of etiologic factors?

A

1) Inherited mutations

2) Polymorphisms

15
Q

What are the exs of sources for acquired class of etiologic factors?

A

1) Infection
2) Nutritional
3) Chemical
4) Physical

16
Q

What is the principle of Koch’s postulate or Germ Theory of Disease?

A

1 etiologic factor - 1 disease

17
Q

Is the principle of Koch’s postulate applicable to all diseases?

A

No, it is not applicable to majority of diseases

18
Q

Why is the Koch’s postulate not applicable to majority of diseases?

A

Because most diseases are multifactorial

19
Q

What is pathogenesis?

A

It refers to the sequence of events in the response of cells or tissues to the etiologic agent, from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of the disease

20
Q

What are the characteristics of pathogenesis?

A

1) It is 1 of the main domains of pathology

2) Molecular pathology is under this

21
Q

Who is / are the person/s behind the Koch’s postulate?

A

Rudolf Virchow

22
Q

What is the timeline of the course of life of Rudolf Virchow?

A

Oct 13, 1821 - Sept 5, 1902

23
Q

What is the meaning of FISH?

A

Fluorescence in-situ hybridization

24
Q

The pathologist is on the case starting where up to where?

A

Starting w/ the H&E all the way to the FISH electronic sign-out

25
Q

What is diagnosed from Angelina Jolie as a marker for breast cancer?

A

Extra copy of HER2 genes

26
Q

At what chromosome is HER2 genes present?

A

Chromosome 17

27
Q

What are functional derangements and clinical manifestations?

A

These are the end results of genetic, biochemical, and structural changes in cells and tissues w/c are functional abnormalities

28
Q

How are the clinical manifestations of a certain disease achieved?

A

The functional abnormalities from the end results of genetic, biochemical, and structural changes in cells and tissues then lead to the clinical manifestations of disease, as well as its progress

29
Q

The clinical manifestations of a disease occurs in what forms?

A

1) Symptoms

2) Signs

30
Q

The progress of a disease is defined as what?

A

The clinical course and outcome of the disease

31
Q

Who is Rudolf Virchow?

A

1) He is a German pathologist and statesman, 1 of the most prominent physicians of the 19th century
2) He is considered as the “Father of Modern Pathology”

32
Q

What is the contribution of Rudolf Virchow?

A

He pioneered the modern concept of pathological processes by his application of the cell theory to explain the effects of disease in the organs and tissues of the body

33
Q

What is the concept that Rudolf Virchow emphasized in connection to cell theory?

A

He emphasized that diseases arose, not in organs or tissues in general, but primarily in their individual cells

34
Q

What did Rudolf Virchow said in connection to cell theory?

A

“Virtually all forms of tissue injury starts w/ molecular or structural alterations in CELLS”

“The body is a cell state in w/c every cell is a citizen. Disease is merely the conflict of the citizens of the state brought about by the action of external forces”