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Flashcards in Genitourinary_UW_Pre-test Deck (41)
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1

RTA is caused by?

Unable to excrete H+ or reabsorb bicarbonate ions

2

How does RTA present in infancy?

Failure to thrive and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

3

What is the treatment for infant RTA?

Oral bicarbonate replacement

4

Pyuria?

>= 5 WBC/hpf

5

What are indications for renal and bladder u/s in UTIs?

kids under 24 months that have first febrile UTI, recurrent febrile UTIs in children of any age, UTI in a child of any age with fam hx of renal disease, HTN or poor growth, children who don't respond well to antibx

6

Most common cause of nephrotic sydnrome in pre-adolescent children

Minimal change disease. Shows no change on histopathology. No findings in IF staining. EM: diffuse effacement of foot processes

7

Neprhotic syndrome clinical PPT

Proteinuria (50mg/kg/day or 40mg/m^2/hr), hypoalbuminemaia, edema (1st sign, especially periorbital, and pretibial), hyperlipidemia, fatigue, abdominal pain

8

Most common cause of secondary hypertension

Fibromuscular dysplasia

9

Fibromuscular dysplasia physical findings?

Bruit or venous hum may be heard at CVA

10

What does angiogram reveal for fibromuscular dysplasia

"String of beads"

11

Bedwetting is normal before age?

5

12

What is the most common vaginal foreign body?

Toilet paper

13

Best way to remove vaginal foreign body like toilet paper?

calcium alginate swab, irrigation with warmed fluids after topical anesthetic.

14

Why is there polyuria in DM type 1

When renal threshold for glucose is reached, resultant glucosuria leads to osmotic diuresis, polyuria and dehydration

15

Orchiopexy

Surgery to remove undescended testicle into scrotum and fix it there.

16

Most common congenital anomaly of the gu tract?

Cryptorchidism

17

Orchiopexy is done for cryptochidism to do what?

prevent testicular torsion, improve fertility, decrease testicular cancer.

18

What are the complications of cryptochidism

Subfertility (low sperm count and quality), inguinal hernia, testicular torsion, testicular cancer

19

Most common cause of urinary tract obstruction in newborn boys?

posterior uretrhal valves

20

Definitive diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux is done by?

Contrast voiding cystourethrogram

21

What infection is a/w membaous nephropathy

Hep B. Vaccination reduces this risk

22

Membranous nephropathy is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in

Adolescents and adults

23

What is the most common cause of isolated proteinuria in children?

Orthostatic protineuria. It can be caused by fever, exercise, seizures, stress or volume depletion.

24

What should be repeated to rule out persistent proteinruia

repeat urine dipstick on two separate occasions

25

Vesicoureteral reflux is a risk factor for?

Recurrent UTIs that lead to scarring

26

Patients 2-24 months with UTI should undergo?

Renal and bladder ultrasound to look for anatomic abnormalities. Patients with recurrent UTIs should undergo VCUG

27

What is prune belly syndrome?

Appears to be no genetic predisposition. Malformation that occurs mostly in males, lax abdominal wall, dilated urinary tract, intra-abdominal testiuclar tissue and can have significant urinary tract anomalies like renal dysfunction or dysplasia. Oligohydramnios and commonly a/ pulmonary complications.

28

Goodpasture's syndrome pathophys

Antibody against collagen in glomureular and alveolar BM - hematuria and hemoptysis, classically in young, adult males.

29

Goodpasture's syndomre dx suggested by what in sputum or pulmonary secretions?

Hemosidern laden macrophages on sputum or pulmonary secretions.

30

What is the tx for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Maintenace of adequate fluid intake and diet, use of saluretic meds